Lester Young

Last updated

Lester Young
Lester-Young-LIFE-1944.jpg
Young in 1944, wearing pork pie hat
Background information
Birth nameLester Willis Young
Also known as"Pres" or "Prez"
Born(1909-08-27)August 27, 1909
Woodville, Mississippi, U.S.
DiedMarch 15, 1959(1959-03-15) (aged 49)
New York City, New York
Genres Jazz
Occupation(s)Musician
InstrumentsTenor saxophone, clarinet
Years active1933–1959
Labels Verve, Commodore, Savoy, Pablo, Victor

Lester Willis Young (August 27, 1909 – March 15, 1959), nicknamed "Pres" or "Prez", was an American jazz tenor saxophonist and occasional clarinetist.

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms".

Contents

Coming to prominence while a member of Count Basie's orchestra, Young was one of the most influential players on his instrument. In contrast to many of his hard-driving peers, Young played with a relaxed, cool tone and used sophisticated harmonies, using what one critic called "a free-floating style, wheeling and diving like a gull, banking with low, funky riffs that pleased dancers and listeners alike". [1]

Count Basie American jazz musician, bandleader, and composer

William James "Count" Basie was an American jazz pianist, organist, bandleader, and composer.

Known for his hip, introverted style, [2] he invented or popularized much of the hipster jargon which came to be associated with the music. [3]

Hipster (1940s subculture) 1940s subculture

Hipster or hepcat, as used in the 1940s, referred to aficionados of jazz, in particular bebop, which became popular in the early 1940s. The hipster adopted the lifestyle of the jazz musician, including some or all of the following: dress, slang, use of cannabis and other drugs, relaxed attitude, sarcastic humor, self-imposed poverty, and relaxed sexual codes.

Jargon is specialized terminology used to define specific words and phrases used in a particular profession, trade, and/or group.

Early life and career

Lester Young was born in Woodville, Mississippi, on August 27, 1909. [4] His mother was Lizetta Young (née Johnson), and his father was Willis Handy Young, originally from Louisiana. [4] Lester had two siblings – Leonidas Raymond, who became a drummer, and Irma Cornelia. [5] He grew up in a musical family. His father was a teacher and band leader, and several other relatives performed professionally.

Woodville, Mississippi Town in Mississippi, United States

Woodville is a town in and the county seat of Wilkinson County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 1,096 at the 2010 census.

Leonidas Raymond Young was an American jazz drummer and singer. His musical family included his father Willis Young and his older brother, saxophonist Lester Young. In 1944 he played with Norman Granz's first "Jazz at the Philharmonic" concert.

While growing up in New Orleans, he worked from the age of five to make money for the family. He sold newspapers and shined shoes. By the time he was ten, he had learned the basics of trumpet, violin, and drums, and joined the Young Family Band touring with carnivals and playing in regional cities in the Southwest [6] [2] In his teens he and his father clashed, and he often left home for long periods. [6]

Young left the family band in 1927 at the age of 18 because he refused to tour in the Southern United States, where Jim Crow laws were in effect and racial segregation was required in public facilities. [7] He became a member of the Bostonians, led by Art Bronson, and chose tenor saxophone over alto as his primary instrument. He made a habit of leaving, working, then going home. He left home permanently in 1932 when he became a member of the Blue Devils led by Walter Page. [6]

Southern United States Cultural region of the United States

The southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwestern United States and northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period. The laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, and were upheld in 1896, by the U.S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War (1861–65).

Walter Sylvester Page was an American jazz multi-instrumentalist and bandleader, best known for his groundbreaking work as a double bass player with Walter Page's Blue Devils and the Count Basie Orchestra.

With the Count Basie Orchestra

In 1933 Young settled in Kansas City, where after playing briefly in several bands, he rose to prominence with Count Basie. His playing in the Basie band was characterized by a relaxed style which contrasted sharply with the more forceful approach of Coleman Hawkins, the dominant tenor sax player of the day.[ citation needed ] One of Young's key influences was Frank Trumbauer, who came to prominence in the 1920s with Paul Whiteman and played the C-melody saxophone (between the alto and tenor in pitch). [8]

Young left the Basie band to replace Hawkins in Fletcher Henderson's orchestra. [9] He soon left Henderson to play in the Andy Kirk band (for six months) before returning to Basie. While with Basie, Young made small-group recordings for Milt Gabler's Commodore Records, The Kansas City Sessions. Although they were recorded in New York (in 1938, with a reunion in 1944), they are named after the group, the Kansas City Seven, and comprised Buck Clayton, Dicky Wells, Basie, Young, Freddie Green, Rodney Richardson, and Jo Jones. Young played clarinet as well as tenor in these sessions. Young is described as playing the clarinet in a "liquid, nervous style." [10] As well as the Kansas City Sessions, his clarinet work from 1938–39 is documented on recordings with Basie, Billie Holiday, Basie small groups, and the organist Glenn Hardman. Billie and Lester met at a Harlem jam session in the early 30s and worked together in the Count Basie band and in nightclubs on New York's 52nd St. At one point Lester moved into the apartment Billie shared with her mother, Sadie Fagan. Holiday always insisted their relationship was strictly platonic. She gave Lester the nickname "Prez" after President Franklin Roosevelt, the "greatest man around" in Billie's mind. [11] Playing on her name, he would call her "Lady Day." Their famously empathetic classic recordings with Teddy Wilson date from this era.

After Young's clarinet was stolen in 1939, he abandoned the instrument until about 1957. That year Norman Granz gave him one and urged him to play it (with far different results at that stage in Young's life—see below).

Leaving Basie

Young left the Basie band in late 1940. He is rumored to have refused to play with the band on Friday, December 13 of that year for superstitious reasons spurring his dismissal, [9] although Young and drummer Jo Jones would later state that his departure had been in the works for months. He subsequently led a number of small groups that often included his brother, drummer Lee Young, for the next couple of years; live and broadcast recordings from this period exist.

During this period Young accompanied the singer Billie Holiday in a couple of studio sessions (during 1937 - 1941 period) and also made a small set of recordings with Nat "King" Cole (their first of several collaborations) in June 1942. His studio recordings are relatively sparse during the 1942 to 1943 period, largely due to the recording ban by the American Federation of Musicians. Small record labels not bound by union contracts continued to record and he recorded some sessions for Harry Lim's Keynote label in 1943.

In December 1943 Young returned to the Basie fold for a 10-month stint, cut short by his being drafted into the army during World War II (see below). Recordings made during this and subsequent periods suggest Young was beginning to make much greater use of a plastic reed, which tended to give his playing a somewhat heavier, breathier tone (although still quite smooth compared to that of many other players). While he never abandoned the cane reed, he used the plastic reed a significant share of the time from 1943 until the end of his life. Another cause for the thickening of his tone around this time was a change in saxophone mouthpiece from a metal Otto Link to an ebonite Brilhart. In August 1944 Young appeared alongside drummer Jo Jones, trumpeter Harry "Sweets" Edison, and fellow tenor saxophonist Illinois Jacquet in Gjon Mili's short film Jammin' the Blues .

Army service

In September 1944 Young and Jo Jones were in Los Angeles with the Basie Band when they were inducted into the U.S. Army. Unlike many white musicians, who were placed in band outfits such as the ones led by Glenn Miller and Artie Shaw, Young was assigned to the regular army where he was not allowed to play his saxophone.[ citation needed ] Based in Ft. McClellan, Alabama, Young was found with marijuana and alcohol among his possessions. He was soon court-martialed. Young did not fight the charges and was convicted. He served one traumatic year in a detention barracks [12] and was dishonorably discharged in late 1945. His experience inspired his composition "D.B. Blues" (with D.B. standing for detention barracks).[ citation needed ]

Post-war recordings

Young at the Famous Door, New York, N.Y., c. September 1946. Photo by William P. Gottlieb. Lester Young (Gottlieb 09431).jpg
Young at the Famous Door, New York, N.Y., c. September 1946. Photo by William P. Gottlieb.

Young's career after World War II was far more prolific and lucrative than in the pre-war years in terms of recordings made, live performances, and annual income. Young joined Norman Granz's Jazz at the Philharmonic (JATP) troupe in 1946, touring regularly with them over the next 12 years. He made many studio recordings under Granz's supervision as well, including more trio recordings with Nat King Cole. Young also recorded extensively in the late 1940s for Aladdin Records (1946-7, where he had made the Cole recordings in 1942) and for Savoy (1944, '49 and '50), some sessions of which included Basie on piano...

While the quality and consistency of his playing ebbed gradually in the latter half of the 1940s and into the early 1950s, he also gave some brilliant performances during this stretch. Especially noteworthy are his performances with JATP in 1946, 1949, and 1950.[ citation needed ] With Young at the 1949 JATP concert at Carnegie Hall were Charlie Parker and Roy Eldridge, and Young's solo on "Lester Leaps In" at that concert is a particular standout among his performances in the latter half of his career.

Struggle and revival

From around 1951, Young's level of playing declined more precipitously as his drinking increased. His playing showed reliance on a small number of clichéd phrases and reduced creativity and originality, despite his claims that he did not want to be a "repeater pencil" (Young coined this phrase to describe the act of repeating one's own past ideas). Young's playing and health went into a crisis, culminating in a November 1955 hospital admission following a nervous breakdown.

He emerged from this treatment improved. In January 1956 he recorded two Granz-produced sessions including a reunion with pianist Teddy Wilson, trumpet player Roy Eldridge, trombonist Vic Dickenson, bassist Gene Ramey, and drummer Jo Jones – which were issued as The Jazz Giants '56 and Pres and Teddy albums. 1956 was a relatively good year for Lester Young, including a tour of Europe with Miles Davis and the Modern Jazz Quartet and a successful residency at Olivia Davis' Patio Lounge in Washington, DC, with the Bill Potts Trio. Live recording of Young and Potts in Washington were issued later.

Throughout the 1940s and 50s, Young had sat in on Count Basie Orchestra gigs from time to time. The best-known of these is their July 1957 appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival, the line-up including many of his colleagues: Jo Jones, Roy Eldridge, Illinois Jacquet and Jimmy Rushing.

Family life

Lester married three times. His first marriage was to Beatrice Tolliver, in Albuquerque, on 23 February 1930. [13] His second was to Mary Dale.

His third wife was Mary Berkeley. They had two children: Lester Young Junior (born 1947) and Yvette Young (born 1957). [14] [15] Both hold a PhD in Education, according to drummer Roy Haynes, who was interviewed as part of an attempt to create a film biography of Young. [16] On January 31, 2008, Sady Sullivan conducted an oral history interview with Dr Lester W Young Junior. [17] At approximately 1:10:00 he speaks about his father, listening to jazz, learning to play, and how having a famous father did not convey any favours.

The final years

On December 8, 1957, Young appeared with Billie Holiday, Coleman Hawkins, Ben Webster, Roy Eldridge, and Gerry Mulligan in the CBS television special The Sound of Jazz, performing Holiday's tune "Fine and Mellow." It was a reunion with Holiday, with whom he had lost contact over the years. She was also in physical decline, near the end of her career, yet they both gave moving performances. Young's solo was brilliant, acclaimed by some observers as an unparalleled marvel of economy, phrasing and extraordinarily moving emotion; Nat Hentoff, one of the show's producers, later commented, "Lester got up, and he played the purest blues I have ever heard...in the control room we were all crying." [18]

Young made his final studio recordings and live performances in Paris in March 1959 with drummer Kenny Clarke at the tail end of an abbreviated European tour during which he ate next to nothing and drank heavily. He died in the early morning hours of March 15, 1959, only hours after arriving back in New York, at the age of 49.

According to jazz critic Leonard Feather, who rode with Holiday in a taxi to Young's funeral, she said after the services, "I'll be the next one to go." [19] Holiday died four months later on July 17, 1959 at age 44.

Posthumous dedications

Charles Mingus dedicated an elegy to Young, "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat", only a few months after his death. [20] Wayne Shorter, then of Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, composed a tribute, called "Lester Left Town".

Young's playing style influenced many other tenor saxophonists, including Stan Getz, as well as Zoot Sims, Al Cohn, and Gerry Mulligan. Paul Quinichette modeled his style so closely on Young's that he was sometimes referred to as the "Vice Prez" (sic).[ citation needed ] Sonny Stitt began to incorporate elements from Lester Young's approach when he made the transition to tenor saxophone. Lester Young also had a direct influence on the young Charlie Parker, and thus the entire be-bop movement.

In 1981 OyamO (Charles F. Gordon) published the book The Resurrection of Lady Lester, subtitled "A Poetic Mood Song Based on the Legend of Lester Young", depicting Young's life. The work was subsequently adapted for the theater, and was staged in November of that year at the Manhattan Theater Club, New York City, with a four-piece jazz combo led by Dwight Andrews. [21]

In the 1986 film Round Midnight , the fictional main character Dale Turner, played by Dexter Gordon, was partly based on Young – incorporating flashback references to his army experiences, and loosely depicting his time in Paris and his return to New York just before his death. Young is a major character in English writer Geoff Dyer's 1991 fictional book about jazz, But Beautiful .

The 1994 documentary about the 1958 Esquire "A Great Day in Harlem" photograph of jazz musicians in New York, contains many remembrances of Young. For many of the other participants, the photo shoot was the last time they saw him alive; he was the first musician in the famous photo to pass away.

Don Byron recorded the album Ivey-Divey in gratitude for what he learned from studying Lester Young's work, modeled after a 1946 trio date with Buddy Rich and Nat King Cole. "Ivey-Divey" was one of Lester Young's common eccentric phrases.

Young was the subject of an opera, Prez: A Jazz Opera, that was written by Bernard Cash and Alan Plater and broadcast by BBC television in 1985. [22]

Peter Straub's short story collection Magic Terror (2000) contains a story called "Pork Pie Hat", a fictionalized account of the life of Lester Young. Straub was inspired by Young's appearance on the 1957 CBS-TV show The Sound of Jazz , which he watched repeatedly, wondering how such a genius could have ended up "this present shambles, this human wreckage, hardly able to play at all". [23]

On 17 March 2003, Young was added to the ASCAP Jazz Wall of Fame, along with Sidney Bechet, Al Cohn, Nat "King" Cole, Peggy Lee and Teddy Wilson. He was represented at the ceremony by his children Lester Young Jr and Yvette Young. [24]

Lester Young is said to have popularized use of the term "cool" to mean something fashionable. [25] Another slang term he coined was the term "bread" for money. He would ask, "How does the bread smell?" when asking how much a gig was going to pay. [26]

Discography

As leader

Norgran Records

Catalog No.AlbumNotesRecordedReleased
MGN 5 Lester Young with the Oscar Peterson Trio #110'19521954
MGN 6 Lester Young with the Oscar Peterson Trio #210'19521954
MGN 1005The President1950-19521954
MGN 1022It Don't Mean a Thing19541955
MGN 1054The President Plays with the Oscar Peterson Triowith Oscar Peterson 19521955
MGN 1043Pres and Sweetswith Harry Edison 19551956
MGN 1056The Jazz Giants '5619561956
MGN 1071Lester's Here1951-19531956
MGN 1072Pres1950-19511956?
MGN 1074The Lester Young Buddy Rich Triowith Buddy Rich 19461956
MGN 1093Lester Swings AgainReissue of MGN 10051950-19521956
MGN 1100It Don't Mean a ThingReissue of MGN 102219541956?

Verve Records [27]

Catalog No.AlbumNotesRecordedReleased
MGV 8134Pres and SweetsReissue of Norgran MGN 104319551957
MGV 8144The PresIdent Plays with the Oscar Peterson TrioReissue of Norgran MGN 105419521957
MGV 8161Lester's HereReissue of Norgran MGN 10711951-19531957
MGV 8162PresReissue of Norgran MGN 10721950-19511957?
MGV 8164The Lester Young Buddy Rich TrioReissue of Norgran MGN 107419461957?
MGV 8181Lester Swings AgainReissue of Norgran MGN 10051950-19521957?
MGV 8187It Don't Mean a ThingReissue of Norgran MGN 102219541957
MGV 8205 Pres and Teddy with Teddy Wilson 19561957
MGV 8298Going for Myselfwith Harry Edison 1957-19581958
MGV 8308The Lester Young StoryCompilation1950-19561959
MGV 8316Laughin' to Keep from Cryin'with Roy Eldridge and Harry Edison 19581959?
MGV 8378Lester Young in ParisLive19591959
MGV 8398The Essential Lester YoungCompilation1949-19571959

With Charlie Parker

Catalog No.AlbumNotesRecordedReleased
402PresLive. Early "in person" recordings. Recorded on a home recorder. First commercially issued collection of Young as band leader.Multiple years1961
405Pres is BlueLive (Savoy Ballroom)19501963
409Just You, Just Me1948-19491961
504Live at the Savoy (aka The Pres)Live?1981
828An Historical Meeting At The Summitwith Charlie Parker ?1961

Pablo Records

Catalog No.AlbumNotesRecordedReleased
2308219Pres, In Washington, DC 1956, volume 1Live19561980
2308225Prez, In Washington, DC 1956, volume 2Live19561980
2308228Pres, In Washington, DC 1956, volume 3Live19561981
2308230Pres, In Washington, DC 1956, volume 4Live19561981

Compilations (as leader)

As sideman

With the Count Basie Orchestra

With Jazz at the Philharmonic

With Billie Holiday

Related Research Articles

Norman Granz American jazz musician and producer

Norman Granz was an American jazz music impresario.

Illinois Jacquet musician from the United States

Jean-Baptiste "Illinois" Jacquet was an American jazz tenor saxophonist, best remembered for his solo on "Flying Home", critically recognized as the first R&B saxophone solo.

Harry Edison American trumpeter

Harry "Sweets" Edison was an American jazz trumpeter and a member of the Count Basie Orchestra.

Jazz at the Philharmonic concert tour

Jazz at the Philharmonic, or JATP (1944–1983), was the title of a series of jazz concerts, tours and recordings produced by Norman Granz.

Herb Ellis American jazz guitarist

Mitchell Herbert Ellis, known professionally as Herb Ellis, was an American jazz guitarist. During the 1950s, he was in a trio with pianist Oscar Peterson.

Paul Quinichette was an American jazz musician who played the tenor saxophone. He was known as the "Vice President" or "Vice Prez" for his uncanny emulation of the breathy style of Lester Young, known as "Prez". Young, who affectionately called everyone "Lady ****", called him "Lady Q". He was also capable of a gruffer style on his own.

Ben Webster American saxophonist

Benjamin Francis Webster was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. Born in Kansas City, Missouri, he is considered one of the three most important "swing tenors" along with Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young. Known affectionately as "The Brute" or "Frog", he had a tough, raspy, and brutal tone on stomps, yet on ballads he played with warmth and sentiment. He was indebted to alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges, who, he said, taught him to play his instrument.

J. C. Heard American musician

James Charles Heard, known as J. C. Heard, was an American swing, bop, and blues drummer.

Charlie Shavers jazz trumpeter

Charles James Shavers was an American swing era jazz trumpeter who played with Dizzy Gillespie, Nat King Cole, Roy Eldridge, Johnny Dodds, Jimmie Noone, Sidney Bechet, Midge Williams, and Billie Holiday. He was an arranger and composer, and one of his compositions, "Undecided", is a jazz standard.

<i>The Sound of Jazz</i> album

"The Sound of Jazz" is a 1957 edition of the CBS television series Seven Lively Arts and was one of the first major programs featuring jazz to air on American network television.

Count Basie Orchestra band

The Count Basie Orchestra is a 16 to 18 piece big band, one of the most prominent jazz performing groups of the swing era, founded by Count Basie in 1935 and recording regularly from 1936. Despite a brief disbandment at the beginning of the 1950s, the band survived long past the Big Band era itself and the death of Basie in 1984. It continues as a 'ghost band'.

Jo Jones American jazz drummer

Jonathan David Samuel Jones was an American jazz drummer. A band leader and pioneer in jazz percussion, Jones anchored the Count Basie Orchestra rhythm section from 1934 to 1948. He was sometimes known as Papa Jo Jones to distinguish him from younger drummer Philly Joe Jones.

Irving Conrad Ashby was an American jazz guitarist.

<i>Pres and Teddy</i> 1959 studio album by The Lester Young and Teddy Wilson Quartet

Pres and Teddy is a 1959 jazz studio album by The Lester Young and Teddy Wilson Quartet. Originally released by Verve, it has subsequently been reissued on CD by Verve, Universal Japan and Lonehill Jazz.

<i>Songs for Distingué Lovers</i> album by Billie Holiday

Songs for Distingué Lovers is an album by jazz singer Billie Holiday released in 1957 on Verve Records. It was originally available in both mono, catalogue number MGV 8257, and stereo, catalog number MGVS 6021. It was recorded at Capitol Studios in Los Angeles from January 3 to January 9, 1957, and produced by Norman Granz.

<i>Lester Young Trio</i> album by Lester Young

The Lester Young Trio and The Lester Young Trio No. 2 are jazz trio albums recorded in Hollywood, California in March–April 1946 by Lester Young with Nat King Cole and Buddy Rich.

<i>Stay with Me</i> (Billie Holiday album) 1958 studio album by Billie Holiday

Stay with Me is an album by jazz singer Billie Holiday accompanied by Tony Scott and his Orchestra. It contains all the material from a session recorded February 14, 1955, in New York City, and released in 1958 on producer Norman Granz' Verve label.

This is the complete discography of the main 12-inch (8000) series of LPs issued by Verve Records, a label founded in 1956 by producer Norman Granz in Los Angeles, California. Alongside new sessions Granz re-released many of the recordings of his earlier labels Clef and Norgran on Verve.

<i>Billie Holiday at JATP</i> 1954 live album by Billie Holiday

Billie Holiday at Jazz at the Philharmonic is a live album by jazz singer Billie Holiday, originally recorded on February 12, 1945 and October 3, 1946 at the Jazz at the Philharmonic concert at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, and at Carnegie Hall on June 3, 1946.

"This Year's Kisses" is a popular song written in 1936 by Irving Berlin for the musical film On the Avenue (1937) and introduced by Alice Faye. The first recording of the song was on December 30, 1936, by Benny Goodman & His Orchestra, with a vocal by Margaret McCrae.

References

  1. DeVeaux 2011, p. 172.
  2. 1 2 DeVeaux 2011, p. 171.
  3. "Charlie [Parker] was shy of hipster elaborations. He added nothing to the vocabulary, as did Lester Young, one of the great hip verbalists." Russell, Ross (1973). Bird Lives: The High Life and Hard Times of Charlie (Yardbird) Parker. DaCapo Press, p. 186
  4. 1 2 Gelly 2007, p. 1.
  5. Gelly 2007, p. 3.
  6. 1 2 3 Gioia, Ted (2011). The History of Jazz (2 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN   978-0-19-539970-7.
  7. 24 part "Interview with Lester Young", conducted in the 1950s
  8. "Frankie Trumbauer - Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  9. 1 2 Berendt, Joachim (1976). The Jazz Book. Paladin. pp. 79–80.
  10. Feather, Leonard (1965). The Book of Jazz: From Then till Now. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 90. ISBN   978-0818012020.
  11. "Lester Young - Biography, Albums, & Streaming Radio - AllMusic" . Retrieved August 5, 2016.
  12. "The Prez, Lester Young", The African American Registry
  13. Dave,, Gelly,. Being Prez : the life and music of Lester Young. Oxford. ISBN   9780195334777. OCLC   154707878.
  14. 1951-, Porter, Lewis, (2005). Lester Young (Rev. ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN   0472089226. OCLC   57344030.
  15. A Lester Young reader. Porter, Lewis, 1951-. Washington. ISBN   1560980648. OCLC   22861212.
  16. "Roy Haynes". President of Beauty: The Life and Times of Lester Young. 2014-05-20. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
  17. "Young, Lester, Jr. (2008/01/31) | Oral History". Brooklynhistory.org. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  18. Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. Jazz: A History of America's Music (Alfred A. Knopf, 2000) p.405
  19. Feather, Leonard (1987). From Satchmo to Miles. Da Capo Press. p. 82. ISBN   978-0-306-80302-4.
  20. Mingus Ah Um, Allmusic. Retrieved July 17, 2009
  21. Mel Gussow, THEATER: 'Lady Lester', The New York Times , November 14, 1981.]
  22. Gelly 2007, pp. ix–x.
  23. "Peter Straub interview". Infinity Plus . Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  24. "Seven Music Greats Added to ASCAP Jazz Wall of Fame". Ascap.com. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  25. "Online Etymology Dictionary" . Retrieved August 5, 2016.
  26. "Lester Young: 'The Prez' Still Rules At 100". Npr.org. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
  27. "Verve Records Discography Project". www.jazzdisco.org. Retrieved January 22, 2019.

Bibliography

Further reading