Lev Zeleny

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Lev Matveevich Zeleny
Born (1948-08-23) August 23, 1948 (age 69)
Nationality Russian
Scientific career
Institutions Russian Space Research Institute

Lev Matveevich Zeleny (Russian : Лев Матвеевич Зелёный, born August 23, 1948) is Soviet and Russian physicist. He is currently serving as director of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI) since 2002.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

The Russian Space Research Institute is the leading organization of the Russian Academy of Sciences on space exploration to benefit fundamental science. It was formerly known as the Space Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences.



In 1972 he graduated from the Department of Space Studies Aerophysics and MIPT. Since 1972 he has been working in the Space Research Institute.

On January 2012 following the reentry of the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft, Zeleny proposed a repeat mission called Fobos-Grunt 2, on behalf of mission scientist Alexander Zakharov. [1] [2] However, with Roscosmos reaching an agreement with ESA in March 2012 to participate in the ExoMars programme, the agency opted instead to concentrate its efforts on that programme. [3]

Fobos-Grunt Russian spacecraft

Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars. Fobos-Grunt also carried the Chinese Mars orbiter Yinghuo-1 and the tiny Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment funded by the Planetary Society.

Alexander Valentinovich Zakharov is a Soviet and Russian chief scientist and astronomer serving at the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI).

Roscosmos space agency of Russia

The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, commonly known as Roscosmos, is a state corporation responsible for the wide range and types of space flights and cosmonautics programs for the Russian Federation.

Roskosmos has not ruled out future missions to Phobos, however their resources are currently focussed on Exomars and the Luna-Glob mission to the Moon. [4] [5]

Luna-Glob is a Moon exploration programme by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) meant to progress toward the creation of a fully robotic lunar base. When completed, the program will continue with crewed lunar missions, starting with a crewed orbiter spacecraft called Federation.

 Lev Zelenyi worked in space exploration


Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

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Phobos (moon) natural satellite of Mars

Phobos is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos. Both moons were discovered in 1877 by American astronomer Asaph Hall.

Lander (spacecraft) spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body

A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. By contrast with an impact probe, which makes a hard landing and is damaged or destroyed so ceases to function after reaching the surface, a lander makes a soft landing after which the probe remains functional.

NPO Lavochkin is a Russian aerospace company. It is a major player in the Russian space program, being the developer and manufacturer of the Fregat upper stage, as well as interplanetary probes such as Fobos-Grunt. As of 2015, it was headed by Sergei Lemeshevskii. On August 10, 2017 the Lavochkin Association's Board of Directors appointed Vladimir Kolmykov Director General of the enterprise.

Phobos program 1988 Soviet missions to Mars

The Phobos program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. Phobos 1 was launched on 7 July 1988, and Phobos 2 on 12 July 1988, each aboard a Proton-K rocket.

<i>Phobos 2</i>

Phobos 2 was the last space probe designed by the Soviet Union. It was designed to explore the moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. It was launched on 12 July 1988, and entered orbit on 29 January 1989.

Exploration of Mars Mars scientific exploration programs

The planet Mars has been explored remotely by spacecraft. Probes sent from Earth, beginning in the late 20th century, have yielded a large increase in knowledge about the Martian system, focused primarily on understanding its geology and habitability potential. Engineering interplanetary journeys is complicated and the exploration of Mars has experienced a high failure rate, especially the early attempts. Roughly sixty percent of all spacecraft destined for Mars failed before completing their missions and some failed before their observations could begin. Some missions have met with unexpected success, such as the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, which operated for years beyond their specification.

Moons of Mars natural satellites orbiting Mars

The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos. Both were discovered by Asaph Hall in August 1877 and are named after the Greek mythological twin characters Phobos (panic/fear) and Deimos (terror/dread) who accompanied their father Ares into battle. Ares, god of war, was known to the Romans as Mars.

Sample-return mission space mission to retrieve tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location and return with them to Earth for analysis

A sample-return mission is a spacecraft mission with the goal of collecting and returning samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis. Sample-return missions may bring back merely atoms and molecules or a deposit of complex compounds such as loose material ("soil") and rocks. These samples may be obtained in a number of ways, such as soil and rock excavation or a collector array used for capturing particles of solar wind or cometary debris.

Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment The Planetary Societys contribution to the failed Fobos-Grunt mission (2011)

The Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment was an interplanetary mission developed by the Planetary Society. It consisted of sending selected microorganisms on a three-year interplanetary round-trip in a small capsule aboard the Russian Fobos-Grunt spacecraft in 2011, which was a failed sample-return mission to the Martian moon Phobos. The Fobos-Grunt mission failed to leave Earth orbit, and was destroyed.

Yinghuo-1 was a Chinese Mars-exploration space probe, intended to be the first Chinese spacecraft to orbit Mars. It was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, on 8 November 2011, along with the Russian Fobos-Grunt sample return spacecraft, which was intended to visit Mars' moon Phobos. The 115-kg (250-lb) Yinghuo-1 probe was intended by the CNSA to orbit Mars for about two years, studying the planet's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetic field. Shortly after launch, Fobos-Grunt was expected to perform two burns to depart Earth orbit bound for Mars. However, these burns did not take place, leaving both probes stranded in orbit. On 17 November 2011, Chinese state media reported that Yinghuo-1 had been declared lost by the CNSA. After a period of orbital decay, Yinghuo-1 and Fobos-Grunt underwent destructive re-entry on 15 January 2012, finally disintegrating over the Pacific Ocean.

Vladimir Popovkin retired Russian general and former head of the federal space agency Roscosmos

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Popovkin was the General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency and former First Deputy Defense Minister of Russia. He was a General of the Army and former commander of the Russian Space Forces.

Mars-Grunt, also known as Expedition-M, is a robotic spacecraft sample return mission proposed to be sent to Mars in mid-2020s. It was proposed to the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) by the Russian Space Research Institute.


Mercury-P is a mission concept for an orbiter and lander by the Russian Federal Space Agency to study the planet Mercury. The initial study suggested a launch in 2024, but because of crash of the Phobos-Grunt spacecraft, the implementation period was postponed to the 2030s. The letter P in Mercury-P, stands for the Russian word 'posadka', meaning landing.

Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment

Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME) is a low-cost NASA Mars orbiter mission concept that would address longstanding unknowns about Mars' two moons Phobos and Deimos and their environment.

Phootprint is a proposed sample-return mission to the Mars moon Phobos by the European Space Agency (ESA), proposed to be launched in 2024.

Luna 26

Luna 26 (Luna-Resurs-Orbiter) is a planned lunar polar orbiter, part of the Luna-Glob program, by the Russian space agency Roscosmos. In addition to its scientific role, the Luna 26 orbiter would also function as a telecomm relay between Earth and Russian landed assets. This mission was announced in November 2014, and its launch is planned for 2022 on a Soyuz-2 rocket.

Deimos and Phobos Interior Explorer (DePhine) is a European mission concept to use a dedicated orbiter to explore the two Moons of Mars: Phobos and Deimos. The mission concept was proposed in 2016 to the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision programme for launch in 2030, but it was not chosen as a finalist for the M5 mission class.


  1. Warmflash, David (2011-12-08). "Scientist: Russia's Failed Mars' Moon Probe Worth a Second Try" . Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  2. Daniel Clery (February 2, 2012). "Russia Explores New Phobos-Grunt Mission to Mars". ScienceInsider. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  3. Konstantin Bogdanov (11 April 2012). "Russia to Go Back to the Moon Before Reaching for Mars". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 12 April 2012. Fobos will be repeated, but not immediately.
  4. "Federal Space Agency accepted the offer to renew the RAS Project "Phobos-Grunt"". Interfax.ru (in Russian). April 10, 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  5. "Russian scientists do not abandon the study satellites of Mars". Russia Today (in Russian). 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.