Levi P. Morton
|22nd Vice President of the United States|
March 4, 1889 –March 4, 1893
|Preceded by||Thomas A. Hendricks|
|Succeeded by||Adlai Stevenson|
|31st Governor of New York|
January 1, 1895 –December 31, 1896
|Lieutenant||Charles T. Saxton|
|Preceded by||Roswell P. Flower|
|Succeeded by||Frank S. Black|
|United States Minister to France|
August 5, 1881 –May 14, 1885
|Appointed by||James A. Garfield|
|Preceded by||Edward Follansbee Noyes|
|Succeeded by||Robert Milligan McLane|
|Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives |
from New York's 11th district
March 4, 1879 –March 21, 1881
|Preceded by||Benjamin A. Willis|
|Succeeded by||Roswell P. Flower|
Levi Parsons Morton
May 16, 1824
Shoreham, Vermont, U.S.
|Died||May 16, 1920 96) (aged|
Rhinebeck, New York, U.S.
Lucy Young Kimball
(m. 1856;died 1871)
Anna Livingston Reade Street
(m. 1873;died 1918)
|Relations|| Daniel O. Morton (brother)|
William Morton Grinnell (nephew)
|Parents||Daniel Oliver Morton|
Lucretia Parsons Morton
Levi Parsons Morton (May 16, 1824 – May 16, 1920) was the 22nd vice president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He also served as United States ambassador to France, as a representative from New York, and as the 31st governor of New York.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States.
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. In order to distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State.
The son of a Congregational minister, Morton was born and educated in Vermont and Massachusetts, and trained for a business career by clerking in stores and working in mercantile establishments in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. After relocating to New York City, Morton became a successful merchant, cotton broker, and investment banker.
Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England. Congregational churches in other parts of the world are often related to these in the United States due to American missionary activities.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U.S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U.S. states. The state capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the United States. The most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. In crime statistics, it was ranked as the safest state in the country since 2016.
Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.
Active in politics as a Republican, Morton was an ally of Roscoe Conkling. He was twice elected to the United States House of Representatives, and he served one full term, and one partial one (March 4, 1879 – March 21, 1881). In 1880, Republican presidential nominee James A. Garfield offered Morton the vice presidential nomination in an effort to win over Conkling loyalists who were disappointed that their choice for president, Ulysses S. Grant, had lost to Garfield. Conkling advised Morton to decline, which he did. Garfield then offered the nomination to another Conkling ally, Chester A. Arthur, who accepted.
Roscoe Conkling was a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party, the first Republican senator from New York to be elected for three terms, and the last person to turn down a U.S. Supreme Court appointment after he had already been confirmed to the post. While in the House, Conkling served as bodyguard for Representative Thaddeus Stevens, a sharp-tongued anti-slavery representative, and fully supported the Republican War effort. Conkling, who was temperate and detested tobacco, was known for his physical condition, maintained through regular exercise and boxing, an unusual devotion for his time. Conkling was elected to the Senate in 1867 as a leading Radical, who supported the rights of African Americans during Reconstruction.
James Abram Garfield was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. He was the first sitting member of Congress to be elected to the presidency, and remains the only sitting House member to gain the White House.
Ulysses S. Grant was an American soldier, politician, and international statesman who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. During the American Civil War, General Grant, with President Abraham Lincoln, led the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy. During the Reconstruction Era, President Grant led the Republicans in their efforts to remove the vestiges of Confederate nationalism, racism, and slavery.
After Garfield and Arthur were elected, Garfield nominated Morton to be Minister Plenipotentiary to France, and Morton served in Paris until 1885. In 1888, Morton was nominated for Vice President on the Republican ticket with presidential nominee Benjamin Harrison; they were elected, and Morton served as Vice President from 1889 to 1893. In 1894, Morton was the successful Republican nominee for governor of New York, and he served one term, 1895 to 1896.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
Benjamin Harrison was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 23rd president of the United States from 1889 to 1893. He was a grandson of the ninth president, William Henry Harrison, creating the only grandfather–grandson duo to have held the office. He was also a great-grandson of Benjamin Harrison V, a founding father. Before ascending to the presidency, Harrison had established himself as a prominent local attorney, Presbyterian church leader, and politician in Indianapolis, Indiana. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a colonel, and was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers in 1865. Harrison unsuccessfully ran for governor of Indiana in 1876. The Indiana General Assembly elected Harrison to a six-year term in the U.S. Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1887.
The Governor of New York is the head of government of the U.S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces.
In retirement, Morton resided in New York City and Rhinebeck, New York. He died in 1920, and was buried at Rhinebeck Cemetery.
Morton was born in Shoreham, Vermont. He was one of six children born to the Reverend Daniel Oliver Morton (1788–1852), a Congregational minister and Lucretia Parsons (1789–1862).Morton was named for his mother's brother Reverend Levi Parsons (1792-1822), a clergyman who was also the first U.S. missionary to work in Palestine. His older brother, Daniel Oliver Morton (1815–59), served as the Mayor of Toledo, Ohio from 1849 to 1850. His younger sister, Mary Morton, was married to William F. Grinnell, and was the mother of William Morton Grinnell (who later served as the Third Assistant Secretary of State while Morton was Vice President).
Shoreham is a town in Addison County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,265 at the 2010 census.
Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia usually considered to include Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan.
Daniel Oliver Morton was a lawyer from Toledo, Ohio who was a United States Attorney and Mayor of Toledo.
Morton's family moved to Springfield, Vermont in 1832, when his father became the minister of the Congregational church there. Rev. Morton headed the congregation during the construction of the brick colonial revival-style church on Main Street that is still in use today. Levi P. Morton was considered by his Springfield peers to be a "leader in all affairs in which schoolboys usually engage."The Morton family later moved to Winchendon, Massachusetts, where Rev. Morton continued to serve as a church pastor.
Morton attended the public schools of Vermont and Massachusetts and the academy in Shoreham, Vermont.
He decided on a business career, and worked as a general store clerk in Enfield, Massachusetts.Morton also taught school in Boscawen, New Hampshire, engaged in mercantile pursuits in Hanover, New Hampshire, and moved to Boston to work in the Beebe & Co. importing business. He eventually settled in New York City, where he entered the dry goods business in partnership with George Grennell Jr., became a successful cotton broker, and established himself as one of the country's top investment bankers in a firm he founded, Morton, Bliss & Co. He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1876 to the 45th Congress, and was appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes to be an honorary commissioner to the Paris Exhibition of 1878.
Morton was elected as a Republican to represent Manhattan in the 46th and 47th Congresses, and he served from March 4, 1879 until his resignation, effective March 21, 1881.The 1880 Republican National Convention was dominated by Half-Breed supporters of James G. Blaine and Stalwart supporters of Ulysses S. Grant for the presidential nomination. James A. Garfield, who was not affiliated with either faction, but was a friend of Blaine's, won the nomination and attempted to win over Stalwarts by asking Morton to be his vice presidential running mate. Senator Roscoe Conkling, Grant's campaign manager and the Stalwart leader, advised Morton to decline; Morton followed Conkling's advice. Garfield's supporters then turned to Chester A. Arthur, a close Conkling friend and a Stalwart. Conkling also advised Arthur to decline, but Arthur accepted; Garfield and he were narrowly elected over their Democratic opponents.
After Garfield's election, Garfield offered Morton appointment as Secretary of the Navy, which he declined.Morton then asked to be appointed United States ambassador to either the United Kingdom or France, and Garfield appointed him to the position in Paris. He was U.S. Minister Plenipotentiary to France from 1881 to 1885.
Morton was very popular in France.He helped commercial relations between the two countries run smoothly during his term, and in Paris on October 24, 1881, he placed the first rivet in the construction of the Statue of Liberty. (It was driven into the big toe of Lady Liberty's left foot.) After completion of the statue, he accepted Liberty on behalf of the United States in a ceremony on July 4, 1884, by signing the Union Franco Americaine contract.
After returning to the United States, Morton was a candidate for U.S. Senator in 1885.He lost the Republican nomination to William M. Evarts, who went on to win election by the full New York State Legislature. He was again a candidate in 1887. Republicans controlled the legislature, meaning their nominee would win the election. Incumbent Warner Miller was recognized as a member of the Half-Breed faction, while state Republican boss Thomas C. Platt was a Stalwart, and had been succeeded in the Senate by Miller in 1881. Platt was determined to see Miller defeated, and backed Morton, a fellow Stalwart. A third candidate, Frank Hiscock, was not affiliated with either faction and had little initial support. After 17 ballots failed to produce a nominee, Morton withdrew and asked his supporters to back Hiscock. Hiscock was chosen on the 18th ballot, and won the election by defeating Democrat Smith Mead Weed.
Morton was elected Vice President of the United States, on the Republican ticket with President Benjamin Harrison, in which capacity he served from March 4, 1889 to March 4, 1893.During his term, Harrison tried to pass the Lodge Bill, an election law enforcing the voting rights of blacks in the South; the billed failed because Morton did little in his role as the Senate's presiding officer to support the bill against a Democratic filibuster. Harrison blamed Morton for the bill's eventual failure, and at the Republican convention prior to the 1892 election, Morton decided not to run for a second term and was replaced by Whitelaw Reid as the vice-presidential candidate. Harrison and Reid went on to lose the 1892 election, to Grover Cleveland and Adlai E. Stevenson, the Democratic candidates.
In 1894, Morton was elected governor of New York, defeating Democratic nominee David B. Hill and several minor-party candidates.He served one two-year term, and focused his efforts on initiatives including road construction and civil-service reform. He was a leading contender for the Republican presidential nomination in 1896, but the delegates chose William McKinley. He was then considered for the vice presidential nomination, but McKinley's campaign manager, Mark Hannah, was opposed and the nomination went to Garret Hobart. After Morton completed his term as governor, he became a real estate investor and was active in other business ventures.
In 1890, he became one of the first members of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was assigned national society membership number 1838 and district society number 38. He was also a member of the General Society of Colonial Wars.
In retirement, he served as president of the Metropolitan Club at One East 60th Street, New York, between 1900 and 1911. He was preceded in that office by J. Pierpont Morgan and succeeded by Frank Knight Sturgis.He was also a member of the Union League Club of New York, and served as president of the New York Zoological Society from 1897 to 1909.
On October 15, 1856, Morton was married to his first wife, Lucy Young Kimball (1836–1871), the daughter of Elijah Huntingdon Kimball, in Flatlands, Brooklyn. Together, they had one child, a daughter, Carrie Morton, who died in infancy, in 1857.
After his first wife's death in 1871, Morton married Anna Livingston Reade Street in 1873.She was Second Lady of the United States during her husband's vice presidency, and often handled entertaining duties for the administration due to First Lady Caroline Harrison's ill health. She had five daughters with Morton, and a son who died in infancy.
Morton became ill during the winter of 1919 to 1920; a cold developed into bronchitis, and Morton eventually contracted pneumonia, which proved fatal.He died in Rhinebeck, New York, on May 16, 1920. His death occurred on his 96th birthday. After a memorial service at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, he was interred at Rhinebeck Cemetery.
Morton was the second-longest lived Vice President of the United States. Only Franklin D. Roosevelt's first Vice President, John Nance Garner (who died 15 days before his 99th birthday), lived longer. Morton survived five of his successors in the vice presidency: Adlai E. Stevenson, Garret Hobart, Theodore Roosevelt, Charles W. Fairbanks, and James S. Sherman.
In 1881, Morton received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Dartmouth College.In 1882, Middlebury College presented him with an honorary LL.D.
The Village of Morton Grove, Illinois, is named after Morton. He provided the funding necessary to allow Miller's Mill (now Lincoln Avenue) to pass through the upstart neighborhood, and provide goods to trade and sell. Morton Grove was incorporated in December 1895.
Morton owned property in Newport, Rhode Island, spending his summers on Bellevue Avenue in his mansion called "Fairlawn", built 1852-1853, which is currently owned by Salve Regina University, housing the Pell Center of International Relations and Public Policy. He left a nearby property to the city of Newport for use as a park. The park is at the corner of Coggeshall and Morton Avenues (the latter formerly Brenton Road), and is named Morton Park.
Morton sold or donated property he owned in Hanover, New Hampshire, to Dartmouth College, and the college built Webster Hall on the land. Morton was considered an honorary alumnus at alumni gatherings in New York. He also owned a summer retreat in the Adirondack Park, on Eagle Island.The architecture is of the Great Camps style, designed by the notable architect William L. Coulter. Over the years, the island found its way into the ownership of the Girl Scouts of the USA, where it remains today as Camp Eagle Island.
The United States presidential election of 1880 was the 24th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1880. The voter turnout rate was one of the highest in the nation's history.
William Almon Wheeler was an American politician and attorney. He served as a United States representative from New York from 1861 to 1863 and 1869 to 1877, and the 19th vice president of the United States from 1877 to 1881.
The Stalwarts were a faction of the Republican Party that existed briefly in the United States during and after Reconstruction and the Gilded Age during the 1870s and 1880s. Led by U.S. Senator Roscoe Conkling—also known as "Lord Roscoe"—Stalwarts were sometimes called Conklingites. Other notable Stalwarts include Chester A. Arthur and Thomas C. Platt, who were in favor of Ulysses S. Grant, the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877), running for a third term. They were the "traditional" Republicans who opposed Rutherford B. Hayes's civil service reform. They were pitted against the "Half-Breeds" (moderates) for control of the Republican Party. The most prominent issue between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds was patronage. The Half-Breeds worked to get civil service reform, and finally created the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. This was signed by Arthur, who became President after the assassination of James A. Garfield, a Half-Breed. Stalwarts favored traditional machine politics.
Thomas Collier Platt was a two-term member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1873–1877) and a three-term U.S. Senator from New York in the years 1881 and 1897–1909. He is best known as the "political boss" of the Republican Party in New York State in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Upon his death, the New York Times stated that "no man ever exercised less influence in the Senate or the House of Representatives than he," but "no man ever exercised more power as a political leader." He considered himself the "political godfather" of many Republican governors of the state, including Theodore Roosevelt.
The 1880 Republican National Convention convened from June 2 to June 8, 1880, at the Interstate Exposition Building in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and nominated Representative James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New York as the official candidates of the Republican Party for President and Vice President, respectively, in the 1880 presidential election.
The "Half-Breeds" were a political faction of the United States Republican Party in the late 19th century. The Half-Breeds were a moderate group, and were the opponents of the Stalwarts, the other main faction of the Republican Party. The main issue that divided the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds was political patronage. The Stalwarts were in favor of political machines and spoils system-style patronage, while the Half-Breeds, led by Maine senator James G. Blaine, were in favor of civil service reform and a merit system. The epithet "Half-Breed" was invented in derision by the Stalwarts to denote those whom they perceived as being only half Republican.
Anna Livingston Reade Street Morton was the second wife of United States Vice President Levi P. Morton. She was known as Anna Street Morton.
The presidency of Chester A. Arthur began on September 19, 1881, when Arthur became the 21st President of the United States upon the assassination and death of President James A. Garfield, and ended on March 4, 1885. Arthur, a Republican, had been Vice President of the United States for only 199 days when he succeeded to the presidency. In ill health and lacking the full support of his party by the end of his term, Arthur made only a token effort for the Republican nomination in the 1884 presidential election. He was succeeded by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
The 1876 Republican National Convention was a presidential nominating convention held at the Exposition Hall in Cincinnati, Ohio on June 14–16, 1876. President Ulysses S. Grant considered seeking a third term, but with various scandals, a weak economy and Democratic gains in the House of Representatives leading many Republicans to repudiate him, he did not run. The convention resulted in the nomination of Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio for President and Representative William A. Wheeler of New York for Vice President.
The 1888 Republican National Convention was a presidential nominating convention held at the Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois, on June 19–25, 1888. It resulted in the nomination of former Senator Benjamin Harrison of Indiana for President and Levi P. Morton of New York, a former Congressman and Minister to France, for Vice President. During the convention, Frederick Douglass was invited to speak and became the first African-American to have his name put forward for a presidential nomination in a major party's roll call vote; he received one vote from Kentucky on the fourth ballot.
Chester Alan Arthur was an American attorney and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885. He previously was the 20th vice president of the United States, and he succeeded to the presidency upon the death of President James A. Garfield in September 1881, two months after Garfield was shot by an assassin.
The 1867 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 15, 1867, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
The 1873 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 21, 1873, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
The 1879 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 21, 1879, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
The 1881 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 18, 1881, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
The 1881 United States Senate special election in New York was held from May 31 to July 22, 1881, by the New York State Legislature to elect two U.S. Senators to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.
The United States Senate elections of 1880 and 1881 were elections that coincided with the presidential election of 1880, and had the Democratic Party lose five seats in the United States Senate. The newly elected Readjuster senator caucused with the Republicans, and the Republican Vice President's tie-breaking vote gave the Republicans the slightest majority. All of that changed September 19, 1881 when the Vice President ascended to the Presidency and the Senate became evenly-divided.
The 1888 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 6, 1888. All contemporary 38 states were part of the 1888 United States presidential election. New York voters chose 36 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.
Seven presidents have presided over the club: J. Pierpont Morgan, L. P. Morton, F. K. Sturgis...
The estate of ex-Governor Levi P. Morton will probably Day to the State of New York only the inheritance tax due from the estate of a nonresident, as Mr. Morton had made Washington, DC, his residence for ten years.
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|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Levi P. Morton .|
|U.S. House of Representatives|
Benjamin A. Willis
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives |
from New York's 11th congressional district
Roswell P. Flower
| United States Minister to France |
Robert Milligan McLane
|Party political offices|
John A. Logan
| Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States|
| Republican nominee for Governor of New York |
Frank S. Black
Thomas A. Hendricks
| Vice President of the United States |
Roswell P. Flower
| Governor of New York |
Frank S. Black