|Elevation||8,410 m (27,590 ft)|
|Prominence||60 m (200 ft)|
|Isolation||0.43 km (0.27 mi)|
|Location|| Lhotse, Khumbu, Nepal |
Lhotse, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China
|First ascent||May 23, 2001|
|Easiest route||Snow/rock climb|
Lhotse Middle is a subsidiary peak to Lhotse, and was the final eight-thousander to be summited. It is a sharp, jagged peak rising 8,410 metres (27,590 ft) high, and has been described as the most difficult peak over eight thousand meters to climb.[ citation needed ]
Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain in the world at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft), after Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga. Part of the Everest massif, Lhotse is connected to the latter peak via the South Col. Lhotse means “South Peak” in Tibetan. In addition to the main summit at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) above sea level, the mountain comprises the smaller peaks Lhotse Middle (East) at 8,414 m (27,605 ft), and Lhotse Shar at 8,383 m (27,503 ft). The summit is on the border between Tibet of China and the Khumbu region of Nepal.
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence and since 2012, the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.
Lhotse Middle was first climbed in 2001 by three groups of Russian climbers.At the time, it was the last unclimbed named eight-thousand-metre summit. Several members of the 2001 expedition had attempted to reach the summit in 1997, but bad weather forced them to abandon the attempt, and one climber was killed during the descent.
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
K2, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori, at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft). It is located on the China–Pakistan border between Baltistan in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram range and the highest point in both Pakistan and Xinjiang.
Annapurna is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft), thirteen peaks over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft), and sixteen more over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The massif is 55 kilometres (34 mi) long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and by Pokhara Valley on the south. At the western end the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. Annapurna I Main is the tenth highest mountain in the world at 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) above sea level, and was the first of the Eight-thousanders to be climbed.
Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres (27,838 ft). It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km (12 mi) southeast of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepal and Tibet, China. One of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid.
Jerzy Kukuczka was a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber. Born in Katowice, his family origin is Silesian Goral. On 18 September 1987, he became the second man, to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world; a feat which took him less than 8 years to accomplish. He is the only person in the world who has climbed two eight-thousanders in one winter. Altogether, he ascended four eight-thousanders in winter, including three as first ascents. Along with Tadeusz Piotrowski, Kukuczka established a new route on K2 in alpine style, which no one has repeated.
Alan Hinkes OBE is an English Himalayan high-altitude mountaineer from Northallerton in North Yorkshire. He is the first and remains the only, British mountaineer to claim all 14 Himalayan eight-thousanders, which he did on 30 May 2005.
Lhotse Shar is a subsidiary mountain of Lhotse, and the 11th-highest mountain on Earth, at 8,383 m (27,503 ft) high. It has the highest fatality rate of all the eight-thousanders – for every two people who summit the mountain, one person dies attempting to. However, this is primarily because most climbers tend to try to ascend to the primary peak of Lhotse, rather than the lowest summit of the mountain. It was first climbed by Sepp Mayerl and Rolf Walter on May 12, 1970.
Edurne Pasaban Lizarribar is a Basque Spanish mountaineer. On May 17, 2010, she became the 21st person and the first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World. Her first 8,000 peak had been achieved 9 years earlier, on May 23, 2001, when she climbed to the summit of Mount Everest.
Mera Peak is a mountain in the Mahalangur section, Barun sub-section of the Himalaya and administratively in Nepal's Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu District. At 6,476 metres (21,247 ft) it is classified as a trekking peak. It contains three main summits: Mera North, 6,476 metres (21,247 ft); Mera Central, 6,461 metres (21,198 ft); and Mera South, 6,065 metres (19,898 ft), as well as a smaller "trekking summit", visible as a distinct summit from the south but not marked on most maps of the region.
Elizabeth Hawley was an American journalist, author, and chronicler of Himalayan mountaineering expeditions. Hawley's The Himalayan Database became the unofficial record for climbs in the Nepalese Himalaya. She was also the honorary consul in Nepal for New Zealand.
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Andrew James Lock OAM is an Australian high-altitude mountaineer. He became the first, and still remains the only, Australian to climb all 14 "eight-thousanders" on the 2 October 2009, and is the 18th person to ever complete this feat. He climbed 13 of the 14 without using bottled oxygen, only using it on Mount Everest, which he has summited twice. He retired from eight-thousander climbing in 2012.
Anna Czerwińska is a Polish mountaineer, known for being the oldest woman to Summit Mount Everest at the age of 50. She has also published several books about mountaineering.
Carlos Carsolio Larrea is a Mexican mountain climber. Carsolio is known for being the fourth man and the second youngest to climb the world's 14 eight-thousander mountain peaks, all of them without supplementary oxygen.
Denis Urubko is a mountaineer. In 2009, as a citizen of Kazakhstan he became the 15th person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders and the 8th person to achieve the feat without the use of supplementary oxygen. He had Soviet citizenship, but after the dissolution of the Soviet Union he became a citizen of Kazakhstan, but renounced the citizenship in 2012. In 2013, he received Russian citizenship and in 12 February 2015 he received Polish citizenship.
Ralf Dujmovits is a German mountaineer. In May 2009 he became the 16th person, and the first German, to climb the 14 eight-thousanders.
Garrett Madison is an American mountaineer and guide. Madison began guiding professionally in 1999 on Mount Rainier, and his company, Madison Mountaineering, specializes in climbs on Mount Everest and other high altitude peaks, operates on the highest peaks on all seven continents, and also provides training programs and summit climbs in Washington State. On May 19–20, 2011, he reached the summit of Mt Everest on his fourth successful attempt as expedition leader and guide for Alpine Ascents International, and reached the summit of Lhotse 21 hours later as guide to climber Tom Halliday. Also on the expedition was guide Michael Horst who made both summits as well in under a 24-hour period, a few days earlier. This was the first time that both Everest and Lhotse were summited together in less than 24 hours, and Madison repeated the "double header" feat again in 2013, the only person to do so twice. In 2014, Madison led the first successfully guided ascent of K2, reaching the summit with two climbers and three Sherpas on July 27, 2014. On 22 July 2018, Madison successfully led a team of 24 to the summit of K2 and became the first American to summit K2 more than once. Madison also regularly guides many "7 Summits" expeditions such as Carstensz Pyramid, Aconcagua, Vinson Massif, Kilimanjaro and Elbrus during the year.
Martin Walter Schmidt, known as Marty, was a New Zealand-American mountain climber, guide and adventurer.