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The **Liénard–Wiechert potentials** describe the classical electromagnetic effect of a moving electric point charge in terms of a vector potential and a scalar potential in the Lorenz gauge. Built directly from Maxwell's equations, these potentials describe the complete, relativistically correct, time-varying electromagnetic field for a point charge in arbitrary motion, but are not corrected for quantum-mechanical effects. Electromagnetic radiation in the form of waves can be obtained from these potentials. These expressions were developed in part by Alfred-Marie Liénard in 1898^{ [1] } and independently by Emil Wiechert in 1900.^{ [2] }^{ [3] }

**Electromagnetism** is a branch of physics involving the study of the **electromagnetic force**, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. It is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force.

**Electric charge** is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: *positive* and *negative*. Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as *neutral*. Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

In vector calculus, a **vector potential** is a vector field whose curl is a given vector field. This is analogous to a *scalar potential*, which is a scalar field whose gradient is a given vector field.

The Liénard–Wiechert potentials (scalar potential field) and (vector potential field) are for a source point charge at position traveling with velocity :

and

where:

is the velocity of the source expressed as a fraction of the speed of light

is the distance from the source

and is the unit vector pointing in the direction from the source.

(see also ** retarded potential **.)

We can calculate the electric and magnetic fields directly from the potentials using the definitions:

- and

The calculation is nontrivial and requires a number of steps. The electric and magnetic fields are (in non-covariant form):

and

where , and (the Lorentz factor).

The **Lorentz factor** or **Lorentz term** is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving. The expression appears in several equations in special relativity, and it arises in derivations of the Lorentz transformations. The name originates from its earlier appearance in Lorentzian electrodynamics – named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz.

Note that the part of the first term updates the direction of the field toward the instantaneous position of the charge, if it continues to move with constant velocity . This term is connected with the "static" part of the electromagnetic field of the charge.

The second term, which is connected with electromagnetic radiation by the moving charge, requires charge acceleration and if this is zero, the value of this term is zero, and the charge does not radiate (emit electromagnetic radiation). This term requires additionally that a component of the charge acceleration be in a direction transverse to the line which connects the charge and the observer of the field . The direction of the field associated with this radiative term is toward the fully time-retarded position of the charge (i.e. where the charge was when it was accelerated).

In physics, **electromagnetic radiation** refers to the waves of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

In the case that there are no boundaries surrounding the sources, the retarded solutions for the scalar and vector potentials (SI units) of the nonhomogeneous wave equations with sources given by the charge and current densities and are, in the Lorenz gauge (see Nonhomogeneous electromagnetic wave equation),

and

where is the retarded time.

For a moving point charge whose trajectory is given as a function of time by , the charge and current densities are as follows:

where is the three-dimensional Dirac delta function and is the velocity of the point charge.

In mathematics, the **Dirac delta function** is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac. It is used to model the density of an idealized point mass or point charge as a function equal to zero everywhere except for zero and whose integral over the entire real line is equal to one. As there is no function that has these properties, the computations made by the theoretical physicists appeared to mathematicians as nonsense until the introduction of distributions by Laurent Schwartz to formalize and validate the computations. As a distribution, the Dirac delta function is a linear functional that maps every function to its value at zero. The Kronecker delta function, which is usually defined on a discrete domain and takes values 0 and 1, is a discrete analog of the Dirac delta function.

Substituting into the expressions for the potential gives

These integrals are difficult to evaluate in their present form, so we will rewrite them by replacing with and integrating over the delta distribution :

We exchange the order of integration:

The delta function picks out which allows us to perform the inner integration with ease. Note that is a function of , so this integration also fixes .

The retarded time is a function of the field point and the source trajectory , and hence depends on . To evaluate this integral, therefore, we need the identity

where each is a zero of . Because there is only one retarded time for any given space-time coordinates and source trajectory , this reduces to:

where and are evaluated at the retarded time, and we have used the identity . Finally, the delta function picks out , and

which are the Liénard–Wiechert potentials.

In order to calculate the derivatives of and it is convenient to first compute the derivatives of the retarded time. Taking the derivatives of both sides of its defining equation (remembering that ):

Differentiating with respect to t,

Similarly, Taking the gradient with respect to gives

It follows that

These can be used in calculating the derivatives of the vector potential and the resulting expressions are

These show that the Lorenz gauge is satisfied, namely that .

Similarly one calculates:

By noting that for any vectors , , :

The expression for the electric field mentioned above becomes

which is easily seen to be equal to

Similarly gives the expression of the magnetic field mentioned above:

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The study of classical electrodynamics was instrumental in Einstein's development of the theory of relativity. Analysis of the motion and propagation of electromagnetic waves led to the special relativity description of space and time. The Liénard–Wiechert formulation is an important launchpad into a deeper analysis of relativistic moving particles.

In physics, **special relativity** is the generally accepted and experimentally confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time. In Albert Einstein's original pedagogical treatment, it is based on two postulates:

- the laws of physics are invariant in all inertial frames of reference ; and
- the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of the motion of the light source or observer.

The Liénard–Wiechert description is accurate for a large, independently moving particle (i.e. the treatment is "classical" and the acceleration of the charge is due to a force independent of the electromagnetic field). The Liénard–Wiechert formulation always provides two sets of solutions: Advanced fields are absorbed by the charges and retarded fields are emitted. Schwarzschild and Fokker considered the advanced field of a system of moving charges, and the retarded field of a system of charges having the same geometry and opposite charges. Linearity of Maxwell's equations in vacuum allows one to add both systems, so that the charges disappear: This trick allows Maxwell's equations to become linear in matter. Multiplying electric parameters of both problems by arbitrary real constants produces a coherent interaction of light with matter which generalizes Einstein's theory (A. Einstein, “Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung.” Phys. Z. 18 121-128, 1917) which is now considered as founding theory of lasers: it is not necessary to study a large set of identical molecules to get coherent amplification in the mode obtained by arbitrary multiplications of advanced and retarded fields. To compute energy, it is necessary to use the absolute fields which includes the zero point field; otherwise, an error appears, for instance in photon counting.

It is important to take into account the zero point field discovered by Planck (M. Planck, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Vol. 13, 1911, pp. 138–175.). It replaces Einstein's "A" coefficient and explains that the classical electron is stable on Rydberg's classical orbits. Moreover, introducing the fluctuations of the zero point field produces Willis E. Lamb's correction of levels of H atom.

Quantum electrodynamics helped bring together the radiative behavior with the quantum constraints. It introduces quantization of normal modes of the electromagnetic field in assumed perfect optical resonators.

The force on a particle at a given location * r* and time

where is the distance of the particle from the source at the retarded time. Only electromagnetic wave effects depend fully on the retarded time.

A novel feature in the Liénard–Wiechert potential is seen in the breakup of its terms into two types of field terms (see below), only one of which depends fully on the retarded time. The first of these is the static electric (or magnetic) field term that depends only on the distance to the moving charge, and does not depend on the retarded time at all, if the velocity of the source is constant. The other term is dynamic, in that it requires that the moving charge be *accelerating* with a component perpendicular to the line connecting the charge and the observer and does not appear unless the source changes velocity. This second term is connected with electromagnetic radiation.

The first term describes near field effects from the charge, and its direction in space is updated with a term that corrects for any constant-velocity motion of the charge on its distant static field, so that the distant static field appears at distance from the charge, with **no** aberration of light or light-time correction. This term, which corrects for time-retardation delays in the direction of the static field, is required by Lorentz invariance. A charge moving with a constant velocity must appear to a distant observer in exactly the same way as a static charge appears to a moving observer, and in the latter case, the direction of the static field must change instantaneously, with no time-delay. Thus, static fields (the first term) point exactly at the true instantaneous (non-retarded) position of the charged object if its velocity has not changed over the retarded time delay. This is true over any distance separating objects.

The second term, however, which contains information about the acceleration and other unique behavior of the charge that cannot be removed by changing the Lorentz frame (inertial reference frame of the observer), is fully dependent for direction on the time-retarded position of the source. Thus, electromagnetic radiation (described by the second term) always appears to come from the direction of the position of the emitting charge **at the retarded time**. Only this second term describes information transfer about the behavior of the charge, which transfer occurs (radiates from the charge) at the speed of light. At "far" distances (longer than several wavelengths of radiation), the 1/R dependence of this term makes electromagnetic field effects (the value of this field term) more powerful than "static" field effects, which are described by the 1/R^{2} field of the first (static) term and thus decay more rapidly with distance from the charge.

The retarded time is not guaranteed to exist in general. For example, if, in a given frame of reference, an electron has just been created, then at this very moment another electron does not yet feel its electromagnetic force at all. However, under certain conditions, there always exists a retarded time. For example, if the source charge has existed for an unlimited amount of time, during which it has always travelled at a speed not exceeding , then there exists a valid retarded time . This can be seen by considering the function . At the present time ; . The derivative is given by

By the mean value theorem, . By making sufficiently large, this can become negative, *i.e.*, at some point in the past, . By the intermediate value theorem, there exists an intermediate with , the defining equation of the retarded time. Intuitively, as the source charge moves back in time, the cross section of its light cone at present time expands faster than it can recede, so eventually it must reach the point . This is not necessarily true if the source charge's speed is allowed to be arbitrarily close to , *i.e.*, if for any given speed there was some time in the past when the charge was moving at this speed. In this case the cross section of the light cone at present time approaches the point as the observer travels back in time but does not necessarily ever reach it.

For a given point and trajectory of the point source , there is at most one value of the retarded time , *i.e.*, one value such that . This can be realized by assuming that there are two retarded times and , with . Then, and . Subtracting gives by the triangle inequality. Unless , this then implies that the average velocity of the charge between and is , which is impossible. The intuitive interpretation is that one can only ever "see" the point source at one location/time at once unless it travels at least at the speed of light to another location. As the source moves forward in time, the cross section of its light cone at present time contracts faster than the source can approach, so it can never intersect the point again.

The conclusion is that, under certain conditions, the retarded time exists and is unique.

- Maxwell's equations which govern classical electromagnetism
- Classical electromagnetism for the larger theory surrounding this analysis
- Relativistic electromagnetism
- Special relativity, which was a direct consequence of these analyses
- Rydberg formula for quantum description of the EM radiation due to atomic orbital electrons
- Jefimenko's equations
- Larmor formula
- Abraham–Lorentz force
- Inhomogeneous electromagnetic wave equation
- Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory also known as the Wheeler–Feynman time-symmetric theory
- Paradox of a charge in a gravitational field
- Whitehead's theory of gravitation

In physics the **Lorentz force** is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields. A particle of charge *q* moving with a velocity **v** in an electric field **E** and a magnetic field **B** experiences a force of

An **electric field** surrounds an electric charge, and exerts force on other charges in the field, attracting or repelling them. Electric field is sometimes abbreviated as **E**-field. The electric field is defined mathematically as a vector field that associates to each point in space the force per unit of charge exerted on an infinitesimal positive test charge at rest at that point. The SI unit for electric field strength is volt per meter (V/m). Newtons per coulomb (N/C) is also used as a unit of electric field strength. Electric fields are created by electric charges, or by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding. Electric fields and magnetic fields are both manifestations of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

**Synchrotron radiation** is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, e.g., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity. It is produced, for example, in synchrotrons using bending magnets, undulators and/or wigglers. If the particle is non-relativistic, then the emission is called cyclotron emission. If, on the other hand, the particles are relativistic, sometimes referred to as ultrarelativistic, the emission is called synchrotron emission. Synchrotron radiation may be achieved artificially in synchrotrons or storage rings, or naturally by fast electrons moving through magnetic fields. The radiation produced in this way has a characteristic polarization and the frequencies generated can range over the entire electromagnetic spectrum which is also called continuum radiation.

In the calculus of variations, a field of mathematical analysis, the **functional derivative** relates a change in a functional to a change in a function on which the functional depends.

In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, **analytical mechanics**, or **theoretical mechanics** is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics. It was developed by many scientists and mathematicians during the 18th century and onward, after Newtonian mechanics. Since Newtonian mechanics considers vector quantities of motion, particularly accelerations, momenta, forces, of the constituents of the system, an alternative name for the mechanics governed by Newton's laws and Euler's laws is *vectorial mechanics*.

**Virtual work** arises in the application of the *principle of least action* to the study of forces and movement of a mechanical system. The work of a force acting on a particle as it moves along a displacement is different for different displacements. Among all the possible displacements that a particle may follow, called virtual displacements, one will minimize the action. This displacement is therefore the displacement followed by the particle according to the principle of least action. *The work of a force on a particle along a virtual displacement is known as the virtual work*.

In continuum mechanics, the **finite strain theory**—also called **large strain theory**, or **large deformation theory**—deals with deformations in which strains and/or rotations are large enough to invalidate assumptions inherent in infinitesimal strain theory. In this case, the undeformed and deformed configurations of the continuum are significantly different, requiring a clear distinction between them. This is commonly the case with elastomers, plastically-deforming materials and other fluids and biological soft tissue.

In calculus, **Leibniz's rule** for differentiation under the integral sign, named after Gottfried Leibniz, states that for an integral of the form

The **Larmor formula** is used to calculate the total power radiated by a non relativistic point charge as it accelerates. This is used in the branch of physics known as electrodynamics and is not to be confused with the Larmor precession from classical nuclear magnetic resonance. It was first derived by J. J. Larmor in 1897, in the context of the wave theory of light.

A **quasiprobability distribution** is a mathematical object similar to a probability distribution but which relaxes some of Kolmogorov's axioms of probability theory. Although quasiprobabilities share several of general features with ordinary probabilities, such as, crucially, *the ability to yield expectation values with respect to the weights of the distribution*, they all violate the *σ*-additivity axiom, because regions integrated under them do not represent probabilities of mutually exclusive states. To compensate, some quasiprobability distributions also counterintuitively have regions of negative probability density, contradicting the first axiom. Quasiprobability distributions arise naturally in the study of quantum mechanics when treated in phase space formulation, commonly used in quantum optics, time-frequency analysis, and elsewhere.

In electromagnetism and applications, an **inhomogeneous electromagnetic wave equation**, or **nonhomogeneous electromagnetic wave equation**, is one of a set of wave equations describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves generated by nonzero source charges and currents. The source terms in the wave equations make the partial differential equations *inhomogeneous*, if the source terms are zero the equations reduce to the homogeneous electromagnetic wave equations. The equations follow from Maxwell's equations.

The **Newman–Penrose** (**NP**) **formalism** is a set of notation developed by Ezra T. Newman and Roger Penrose for general relativity (GR). Their notation is an effort to treat general relativity in terms of spinor notation, which introduces complex forms of the usual variables used in GR. The NP formalism is itself a special case of the tetrad formalism, where the tensors of the theory are projected onto a complete vector basis at each point in spacetime. Usually this vector basis is chosen to reflect some symmetry of the spacetime, leading to simplified expressions for physical observables. In the case of the NP formalism, the vector basis chosen is a null tetrad: a set of four null vectors—two real, and a complex-conjugate pair. The two real members asymptotically point radially inward and radially outward, and the formalism is well adapted to treatment of the propagation of radiation in curved spacetime. The Weyl scalars, derived from the Weyl tensor, are often used. In particular, it can be shown that one of these scalars— in the appropriate frame—encodes the outgoing gravitational radiation of an asymptotically flat system.

In many-body theory, the term **Green's function** is sometimes used interchangeably with correlation function, but refers specifically to correlators of field operators or creation and annihilation operators.

There are various **mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field** that are used in the study of electromagnetism, one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. In this article, several approaches are discussed, although the equations are in terms of electric and magnetic fields, potentials, and charges with currents, generally speaking.

The **fractional Schrödinger equation** is a fundamental equation of fractional quantum mechanics. It was discovered by Nick Laskin (1999) as a result of extending the Feynman path integral, from the Brownian-like to Lévy-like quantum mechanical paths. The term *fractional Schrödinger equation* was coined by Nick Laskin.

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**Multipole radiation** is a theoretical framework for the description of electromagnetic or gravitational radiation from time-dependent distributions of distant sources. These tools are applied to physical phenomena which occur at a variety of length scales - from gravitational waves due to galaxy collisions to gamma radiation resulting from nuclear decay. Multipole radiation is analyzed using similar multipole expansion techniques that describe fields from static sources, however there are important differences in the details of the analysis because multipole radiation fields behave quite differently from static fields. This article is primarily concerned with electromagnetic multipole radiation, although the treatment of gravitational waves is similar.

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In optics, the **Ewald–Oseen extinction theorem**, sometimes referred to as just "extinction theorem", is a theorem that underlies the common understanding of scattering. It is named after Paul Peter Ewald and Carl Wilhelm Oseen, who proved the theorem in crystalline and isotropic media, respectively, in 1916 and 1915. Originally, the theorem applied to scattering by an isotropic dielectric objects in free space. The scope of the theorem was greatly extended to encompass a wide variety of bianisotropic media.

The **streamline upwind Petrov–Galerkin pressure-stabilizing Petrov–Galerkin formulation for incompressible Navier–Stokes equations** can be used for finite element computations of high Reynolds number incompressible flow using equal order of finite element space by introducing additional stabilization terms in the Navier–Stokes Galerkin formulation.

- ↑ http://data.bnf.fr/10743554/alfred_lienard/ - A. Liénard, Champ électrique et magnétique produit par une charge concentrée en un point et animée d’un mouvement quelconque, L’éclairage Electrique ´ 16 p.5; ibid. p. 53; ibid. p. 106 (1898)
- ↑ Wiechert, E. (1901). "Elektrodynamische Elementargesetze".
*Annalen der Physik*.**309**(4): 667–689. Bibcode:1901AnP...309..667W. doi:10.1002/andp.19013090403. - ↑ Some Aspects in Emil Wiechert

- Griffiths, David. Introduction to Electrodynamics. Prentice Hall, 1999. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.

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