Li Duozuo (Chinese :李多祚; pinyin :Lǐ Duōzuò) (died August 7, 707 ), formally the Prince of Liaoyang (遼陽王), was an ethnically Mohe general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. He is mostly known for his participation in the successful coup of 705 that overthrew Wu Zetian and returned her son Emperor Zhongzong to the throne, and the failed coup of 707 in which Emperor Zhongzong's son Li Chongjun tried to overthrow Emperor Zhongzong's wife Empress Wei.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie, were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, and the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River. The Mohe constituted a major part of the population in the kingdom of Balhae, which lasted from the late 7th century to early 10th century. After the fall of Balhae, few historical traces of the Mohe can be found, though they are considered to be the primary ethnic group from whom the Jurchen people descended. The Heishui Mohe in particular are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the 17th century Manchu people originated. The Mohe practiced a sedentary agrarian lifestyle and were predominantly farmers who grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice, supplemented by pig raising and hunting for meat. The Mohe were also known to have worn pig and dog skin coats.
It is not known when Li Duozuo was born. His ancestors were said to be Mohe chieftains with the title "Yellow-headed Commandant" (黃頭都督, Huangtou Dudu), but had, long before Li Duozuo's time, submitted to Chinese rule, and the family history was not well preserved. He was said to be brave and strong, capable at archery, and for his military achievementswas made You Yingyang Da Jiangjun (右鷹揚大將軍), one of the generals commanding the imperial guards, at the recommendation of the general Pei Xingjian (裴行儉). In one of the campaigns against the Heishui Mohe, he induced the chieftains of the Heishui Mohe to feast with him and got them drunk, and then slaughtered them.
The Heishui Mohe ,, also known as the Heuksu Malgal,, rendered in English as Blackriver Mohe or Blackwater Mohe, were a tribe of Mohe people in Outer Manchuria along the Amur River in what is now Russia's Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, and Heilongjiang in China.
In 687, when Emperor Ruizong's mother Empress Dowager Wu (later known as Wu Zetian) served as regent, there was an invasion by the Eastern Tujue khan Ashina Gudulu and his general Ashide Yuanzhen (阿史德元珍). Empress Dowager Wu commissioned the ethnically Baekje general Heichi Changzhi, assisted by Li Duozuo, to defend against Ashina Gudulu's attack, and they were able to defeat Eastern Tujue forces at Huanghuadui (黃花堆, in modern Shuozhou, Shanxi), causing Eastern Tujue forces to flee.
Emperor Ruizong of Tang, personal name Li Dan, also known at times during his life as Li Xulun, Li Lun, Wu Lun, and Wu Dan, was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty. He was the eighth son of Emperor Gaozong and the fourth son of Emperor Gaozong's second wife Empress Wu.
Wu Zetian, alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty, which interrupted the Tang dynasty. Wu was the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia.
A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent".
In 694—by which time Empress Dowager Wu had seized the throne from Emperor Ruizong, establishing a new Zhou Dynasty as its "emperor" and interrupting Tang—the Shiwei rose against Chinese rule, and Li Duozuo was commissioned against them. He was able to defeat the Shiwei.
Shiwei were a Mongolic people that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia, northern Manchuria and the area near the Okhotsk Sea beach. Records mentioning the Shiwei were recorded from the time of the Northern Wei (386-534) until the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan in 1206 when the name "Mongol" and "Tatar" were applied to all the Shiwei tribes.
In 696, the Khitan chieftains Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong launched a major rebellion against Zhou rule, invading Zhou territory. Li Duozuo was one of the 28 generals sent against the Khitan, and after the Khitan rebellion ended in 697, Li Duozuo was given the slightly greater office of You Yulin Da Jiangjun (右羽林大將軍), and became the commander of the imperial guards at the north gate of the palace.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East. They spoke the Khitan language, which appears to be related to the Mongolic languages. As the Liao dynasty, they dominated a vast area north of and including parts of China. After the fall of the Liao dynasty in 1125 following the Jurchen invasion, many Khitans followed Yelü Dashi's group westward to establish the Qara Khitai, or Western Liao dynasty, in Central Asia, which lasted several decades before falling to the Mongol Empire in 1218.
Li Jinzhong (李盡忠), titled Mushang Khan, was a khan of the Khitan who, along with his brother-in-law Sun Wanrong, rose against Chinese hegemony in 696 and further invaded Chinese territory then under the rule of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. He died late in 696 and was succeeded by Sun.
Sun Wanrong (孫萬榮) was a khan of the Khitan people who, along with his brother-in-law Li Jinzhong, rose against Chinese hegemony in 696, with Li Jinzhong as khan, and they further invaded Chinese territory then under the rule of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. After Li Jinzhong's death later in 696, Sun succeeded him and continued to be successful against the forces sent against him by Wu Zetian, but in 697, after the Tujue khan Ashina Mochuo successfully launched a surprise attack against Sun's headquarters, Sun's forces collapsed, and he was killed, ending the Khitan rebellion.
In 702, when Wu Zetian was apparently contemplating further military action in the northeast and put the chancellor Wei Yuanzhong in command, Li Duozuo made acting commandant at You Prefecture (幽州, roughly modern Beijing), assisted by the generals Xue Na and Luo Wuzheng (駱務整). However, it appeared that military action was not launched.
Wei Yuanzhong (魏元忠), né Wei Zhenzai (魏真宰), formally Duke Zhen of Qi (齊貞公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian and her son Emperor Zhongzong.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.
As of spring 705, Wu Zetian was ill, and her lovers Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong wielded much power, leading to speculation that they might try to displace her son Li Xian the Crown Prince, a former emperor (Emperor Ruizong's older brother). The chancellor Zhang Jianzhi, who was planning with other officials Cui Xuanwei, Huan Yanfan, Jing Hui, and Yuan Shuji, to act against Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong, decided to engage Li Duozuo in the plot as well. He asked Li Duozuo, "Who gave you this glory and honor, general?" Li Duozuo wept and responded, "The Great Emperor [(i.e., Wu Zetian's husband Emperor Gaozong)]." Zhang Jianzhi then stated, "Now, the sons of the Great Emperor are being endangered by two hoodlums, and do you not want to repay the Great Emperor?" Li Duozuo responded, "As long as it is beneficial to the state, I will follow your direction, chancellor. I do not dare to consider my own safety and that of my family." He therefore agreed to join the plot. Subsequently, with Li Xian's agreement, the coup leaders killed Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong and surrounded Wu Zetian's palace, forcing her to yield the throne to Li Xian (as Emperor Zhongzong). For Li Duozuo's participation in the coup, Emperor Zhongzong created him the Prince of Liaoyang. Later that year, when Emperor Zhongzong was offering sacrifices at the imperial ancestral temple, he had Li Dan the Prince of Xiang (the former Emperor Ruizong) and Li Duozuo accompany him—a great honor—against suggestions that Li Duozuo, as a non-Han, should not be given this great of an honor equivalent to the emperor's brother.
Soon, however, power slipped into the hands of Emperor Zhongzong's wife Empress Wei and her lover Wu Sansi the Prince of Dejing (Emperor Zhongzong's cousin and Wu Zetian's nephew). Zhang Jianzhi and most of the other coup leaders were falsely accused of crimes and exiled or executed. Li Duozuo, in fear, pretended to serve the interests of Empress Wei and avoided being killed himself.
Meanwhile, however, resentment against Empress Wei and Wu Sansi was brewing, centering on Emperor Zhongzong's son Li Chongjun the Crown Prince, born of a concubine, who was resentful toward Wu Sansi and his son Wu Chongxun (武崇訓) over Wu Chongxun's encouragement of his wife Li Guo'er the Princess Anle (Empress Wei's daughter) to repeatedly ask that Emperor Zhongzong make her crown princess to displace Li Chongjun and Wu Chongxun's and Li Guo'er's disrespect toward him. In 707, Li Chongjun rose in rebellion, in conjunction with Li Duozuo, Li Qianli (李千里) the Prince of Cheng (the son of Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Ke), and Li Qianli's son Li Xi (李禧) the Prince of Tianshui. Li Duozuo's son-in-law Ye Huli (野呼利) also participated and served as the forward commander of the coup forces. The coup forces attacked Wu Sansi's mansion and killed him, Wu Chongxun, and a number of Wu Sansi's associates, and then marched on the palace, claiming to be looking to arrest Emperor Zhongzong's concubine Consort Shangguan Wan'er, who also carried on an affair with Wu Sansi. Emperor Zhongzong went up onto a palace tower to look over the events, and the coup forces stopped, as Li Chongjun hoped for a chance to talk with Emperor Zhongzong. Meanwhile, however, Emperor Zhongzong's eunuch Yang Sixu (楊思勗) counterattacked, killing Ye and discouraging the coup forces. When Emperor Zhongzong further encouraged the soldiers to turn against the coup leaders, they did, and Li Duozuo, along with other generals participating in the coup, was killed. Eventually, Li Chongjun was killed in flight. In the aftermath, two sons of Li Duozuo were killed, and his family members were reduced to servitude.
After Emperor Zhongzong died in 710—a death that traditional historians believed to be a poisoning carried out by Empress Wei and LI Guo'er—another coup overthrew Empress Wei, and Li Dan was returned to the throne. He posthumously honored Li Chongjun and the generals participating in his coup. Li Duozuo was posthumously restored to the title of Prince of Liaoyang, and his family members were released. Emperor Ruizong was also set to bestow further honors on the coup leaders. However, the official Wei Cou (韋湊) submitted an objection, pointing out that while Empress Wei was guilty of crimes, it was still improper for Li Chongjun to start a coup. Emperor Ruizong agreed, and therefore halted further posthumous honors.
Li Jiao, courtesy name Jushan (巨山), formally the Duke of Zhao (趙公), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian, her sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong, and her grandson Emperor Shang.
Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, personal name Li Xian, and at other times Li Zhe or Wu Xian, was the fourth Emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710.
Princess Taiping was a princess of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and her mother Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. She was the youngest daughter of Wu Zetian and Emperor Gaozong and was powerful during the reigns of her mother and her elder brothers Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong, particularly during Emperor Ruizong's second reign.
Zhang Jianzhi (張柬之) (625-706), courtesy name Mengjiang (孟將), formally Prince Wenzhen of Hanyang (漢陽文貞王), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian and her son Emperor Zhongzong. He was a key figure in the coup that overthrew Wu Zetian and restored Emperor Zhongzong in 705, but was later exiled due to false accusations instigated by Wu Zetian's nephew Wu Sansi and died in exile.
Shangguan Wan'er was a concubine/imperial consort to two emperors of the Tang dynasty. Although caught up in court intrigues and executed in 710, she is famous for her talent as a poet, writer and politician.
Empress Wei was an empress of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. She was the second wife of Emperor Zhongzong, who reigned twice, and during his second reign, she tried to emulate the example of her mother-in-law Wu Zetian and seize power. After Emperor Zhongzong's death in 710—a death traditionally believed to be a poisoning she carried out together with her daughter Li Guo'er the Princess Anle—which gave her the power to become the empress dowager, but in short order was overthrown and killed in a coup led by Emperor Zhongzong's nephew Li Longji and Emperor Zhongzong's sister Princess Taiping.
Li Chongjun (李重俊), formally Crown Prince Jiemin (節愍太子), was a crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, during the second reign of his father Emperor Zhongzong. He was made crown prince because the only son of his father's wife Empress Wei, Li Chongrun, had been killed before his father's return to the throne, but on account of his mother's low birth, he was often humiliated by Empress Wei's daughter Li Guo'er the Princess Anle and her husband Wu Chongxun (武崇訓). In 707, in anger, he started a coup and killed Wu Chongxun and his father Wu Sansi the Prince of Dejing, but his subsequent attempt to arrest Empress Wei, Li Guo'er, and Consort Shangguan Wan'er was thwarted, and he was killed in flight.
Princess Anle (安樂公主), personal name Li Guo'er (李裹兒), was a princess of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Zhongzong and his wife Empress Wei. Popular history holds that she was doted upon heavily by her parents and siblings, which contributed to her later drive for power.
Wu Youji (武攸暨), formally Prince Zhongjian of Ding (定忠簡王), was an imperial prince of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty and an official of Tang Dynasty. He is best known as the second husband of Wu Zetian's powerful daughter Princess Taiping.
Yang Zaisi (楊再思), formally Duke Gong of Zheng (鄭恭公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving several times as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian and her son Emperor Zhongzong. Yang was criticized by traditional historians for his flattery.
Zong Chuke (宗楚客), courtesy name Shu'ao (叔敖), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian, her son Emperor Zhongzong, and her grandson Emperor Shang.
Wu Sansi, posthumously Prince Xuan of Liang (梁宣王), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and his aunt Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, becoming an imperial prince and chancellor during the reign of Wu Zetian and subsequently, while only briefly chancellor during the second reign of Wu Zetian's son and his cousin Emperor Zhongzong, becoming very powerful due to both the trust Emperor Zhongzong had in him and his affair with Emperor Zhongzong's powerful wife Empress Wei. He was killed in a rebellion by Emperor Zhongzong's son the crown prince Li Chongjun in 707.
Cui Xuanwei, né Cui Ye (崔曄), formally Prince Wenxian of Boling (博陵文獻王), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian and her son Emperor Zhongzong. He was a key figure in the coup that overthrew Wu Zetian and restored Emperor Zhongzong in 705, but was later exiled due to false accusations instigated by Wu Zetian's nephew Wu Sansi and died in exile.
Yuan Shuji (袁恕己), formally Prince Zhenlie of Nanyang (南陽貞烈王), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong. He was a key figure in the coup that overthrew Wu Zetian and restored Emperor Zhongzong in 705, but was later exiled due to false accusations instigated by Wu Zetian's nephew Wu Sansi and killed in exile in a cruel manner.
Jing Hui (敬暉), courtesy name Zhongye (仲瞱), formally Prince Sumin of Pingyang (平陽肅愍王), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong. He was a key figure in the coup that overthrew Wu Zetian and restored Emperor Zhongzong in 705, but was later exiled due to false accusations instigated by Wu Zetian's nephew Wu Sansi and killed in exile in a cruel manner.
Huan Yanfan (桓彥範) (653–706), courtesy name Shize (士則), formally Prince Zhonglie of Fuyang (扶陽忠烈王), briefly known during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang as Wei Yanfan (韋彥範), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong. He was a key figure in the coup that overthrew Wu Zetian and restored Emperor Zhongzong in 705, but was later exiled due to false accusations instigated by Wu Zetian's nephew Wu Sansi and killed in exile in a cruel manner.
Zheng Yin (鄭愔), courtesy name Wenjing (文靖), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, briefly serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong.
Women of the Tang Dynasty, also known as The World of Tang Women, is a 2013 Chinese television series based on events in the Tang dynasty starting from the late reign of Wu Zetian to Emperor Xuanzong's accession to the throne. The series was produced by Lafeng Entertainment, directed by Chang Hsiao-cheng, and starred an ensemble cast from various regions. Filming for the series started in October 2011 in Hengdian World Studios. The series was first shown on Hunan Satellite TV from 24 August to 23 September 2013.