Li Jinzhong (李盡忠) (died September 23, 696), titled Mushang Khan (無上可汗, literally "the khan that had no superior"), was a khan of the Khitan who, along with his brother-in-law Sun Wanrong, rose against Chinese hegemony in 696 and further invaded Chinese territory then under the rule of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. He died late in 696 and was succeeded by Sun.
Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.
The Mongols are an East Asian/Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China, as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.
Mohammed Aamir Hussain Khan is an Indian actor, director, filmmaker, and television talk show host. Through his career spanning over 30 years in Hindi films, Khan has established himself as one of the most popular and influential actors of Indian cinema. He has a large global following, especially in India and China, and has been described by Newsweek as "the biggest movie star" in the world. Khan is the recipient of numerous awards, including nine Filmfare Awards, four National Film Awards, and an AACTA Award. He was honoured by the Government of India with the Padma Shri in 2003 and the Padma Bhushan in 2010, and received an honorary title from the Government of China in 2017. For years, he has been regularly listed one among The 500 Most Influential Muslims of the world.
The history of the Khitans dates back to the 4th century. The Khitan people dominated much of Mongolia and modern Manchuria by the 10th century, under the Liao dynasty, and eventually collapsed by 1125.
The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northward into parts of the Arctic; eastward and southward into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westward as far as the Levant, Carpathian Mountains and to the borders of Northern Europe.
Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and second khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia. Like all of Genghis' primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in China, Iran, and Central Asia.
Güyük was the third Khagan-Emperor of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.
Möngke was the fourth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, ruling from 1 July 1251, to 11 August 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Dali.
Tolui (c.1191–1232) was the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte. His ulus, or territorial inheritance, at his father's death in 1227 was the homelands in Mongolia, and he also served as civil administrator until 1229, the time it took to confirm Ögedei as second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (1206–1368). Before that he had served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin dynasty, the Western Xia and the Khwarezmid Empire, where he was instrumental in the capture and massacre at Merv and Nishapur. He is a direct ancestor of most of the Ilkhanids.
Sun is a transliteration of a common Chinese surname. It is the third name listed in the Song dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.
Karakorum was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260 and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries. Its ruins lie in the northwestern corner of the Övörkhangai Province of Mongolia, near today's town of Kharkhorin and adjacent to the Erdene Zuu Monastery, the probable earliest surviving Buddhist monastery in Mongolia. They are part of the upper part of the World Heritage site Orkhon Valley.
Li Kaigu (李楷固), also known as Wu Kaigu (武楷固) from 700 to 705, formally the Duke of Yan (燕公), was a general during the reign of Wu Zetian. He was of Khitan ethnicity.
Sun Wanrong (孫萬榮) was a khan of the Khitan people who, along with his brother-in-law Li Jinzhong, rose against Chinese hegemony in 696, with Li Jinzhong as khan, and they further invaded Chinese territory then under the rule of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. After Li Jinzhong's death later in 696, Sun succeeded him and continued to be successful against the forces sent against him by Wu Zetian, but in 697, after the Tujue khan Ashina Mochuo successfully launched a surprise attack against Sun's headquarters, Sun's forces collapsed, and he was killed, ending the Khitan rebellion.
Qapaghan Qaghan or Qapghan Qaghan and Bug-chor was the second Khaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate during Wu Zetian's reign and was the younger brother of the first kaghan, Ilterish Qaghan.
The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol–Vietnamese wars and Mongol–Cham war were military campaigns launched by the Mongol Empire, and later the Yuan dynasty, against the kingdom of Đại Việt ruled by the Trần dynasty and the kingdom of Champa in 1258, 1282–1284, 1285, and 1287–88. The campaigns are treated by a number of scholars as a success due to the establishment of tributary relations with Đại Việt despite the Mongols suffering major military defeats. In contrast, Vietnamese historiography regards the war as a major victory against foreign invasion.
Wang Xiaojie (王孝傑), formally the Duke of Geng (耿國公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving in campaigns against Tibet, Eastern Turks, and Khitan and briefly serving as chancellor during Wu Zetian's reign. He was killed in 697 in a battle against Khitan's khan Sun Wanrong.
Genghis Khan, born Temüjin, was the founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia, reaching as far west as Poland in Europe and the Levant in the Middle East. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Khwarezmia, and the Western Xia and Jin dynasties, and raids into Medieval Georgia, the Kievan Rus', and Volga Bulgaria.
Kublai, also known as the Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire, reigning from 1260 to 1294. He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294.
Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei state, the Rouran Khaganate (330–555), the First (552–603) and Second Turkic Khaganates (682–744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia. The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded an empire known as the Liao dynasty (916–1125) and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East, northern Korea, and North China.
The Mongol invasion of Central Asia occurred after the unification of the Mongol and Turkic tribes on the Mongolian plateau in 1206. It was finally complete when Genghis Khan conquered the Khwarizmian Empire in 1221.