Li Siyuan

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Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang
後唐明宗
2nd Emperor of Later Tang
Reign3 June 926 [1] – 15 December 933
Predecessor Li Cunxu (Emperor Zhuangzong), adoptive brother
Successor Li Conghou (Emperor Min), son
Born10 October 867
Yingzhou, Tang Empire [2] (today's Ying County, Shanxi)
Died15 December 933(933-12-15) (aged 66)
Luoyang, Later Tang (today's Luoyang, Henan)
Burial11 June 934 [3]
in today's Mengjin County, Luoyang, Henan 34°47′5.28″N112°33′54.72″E / 34.7848000°N 112.5652000°E / 34.7848000; 112.5652000
Spouse
  • Lady Xia (夏氏)
  • Empress Cao (曹皇后)
Concubines
  • Lady Wei (魏氏)
  • Consort Wang (王淑妃)
  • Concubine Wang (王昭儀)
  • Concubine Ge (葛昭容)
  • Concubine Liu (劉昭媛)
  • Concubine Gao (高婕妤)
  • Concubine Shen (沈美人)
  • Concubine Zhu (朱順御)
Issue
At least 13 other daughters
Names
Shatuo name: Miaojilie ( )
Chinese surname: Lǐ ()
Chinese given name: Sìyuán ( ), changed to Dǎn () on 5 February 927 [4]
Era dates
Tiānchéng ( )
Year 1: 3 June 926 – 4 February 927
Year 2: 5 February 927 – 25 January 928
Year 3: 26 January 928 – 12 February 929
Year 4: 13 February 929 – 1 February 930
Year 5: 2 February 930 – 2 March 930
Chángxīng ( )
Year 1: 3 March 930 – 21 January 931
Year 2: 22 January 931 – 8 February 932
Year 3: 9 February 932 – 28 January 933
Year 4: 29 January 933 – 17 January 934
Regnal name
Emperor Shèngmíng Shénwǔ Wéndé Gōngxiào ( 皇帝), after 30 December 929 [5]
Emperor Shèngmíng Shénwǔ Guǎngdào Fǎtiān Wéndé Gōngxiào ( 皇帝), after 27 August 933 [6]
Posthumous name
Short: Emperor Héwǔ ( 皇帝)
Full: Emperor Shèngdé Héwǔ Qīnxiào ( 皇帝) [2]
Temple name
Míngzōng ( , "Bright Ancestor")
FatherLi Ni (李霓) (biological)
Li Keyong (adoptive)
MotherLady Liu (劉氏) (biological)
Li Siyuan
Chinese

Family

Parents:

Consorts and issues:

Nephews


Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Zizhi Tongjian, ch. 275.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Old History of the Five Dynasties, ch. 35.
  3. Zizhi Tongjian, ch. 279.
  4. 1 2 Wudai Shi , ch. 38. Many Chinese emperors changed their given names to rarely encountered characters to alleviate the burden of the populace who must observe naming taboo.
  5. Zizhi Tongjian, ch. 276.
  6. 1 2 Zizhi Tongjian, ch. 278.
  7. 1 2 Wudai Shi , ch. 44.
  8. 1 2 Wudai Shiji , ch. 6.
  9. Zizhi Tongjian , ch. 253.
  10. Zizhi Tongjian , ch. 254.
  11. 1 2 Zizhi Tongjian , ch. 255.
  12. Zizhi Tongjian , ch. 258.
  13. Zizhi Tongjian , ch. 263.
  14. 1 2 Zizhi Tongjian , ch. 266.
  15. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 267.
  16. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 268.
  17. 1 2 3 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 269.
  18. 1 2 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 270.
  19. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 271.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 272.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 273.
  22. 1 2 3 4 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 274.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 276.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 277.
  25. Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 68 (930).
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 278.
  27. 1 2 3 4 Wudai Shiji , ch. 15.
  28. Wudai Shi, ch. 35. Considering his ancestors were Turkic without surnames, the fact that they all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Li Siyuan became a "Chinese" emperor.
  29. Became the empress in 930. She died in 937 as the empress dowager of her stepson Li Congke
  30. Lady Wei (魏氏), from Pingshan, Zhenzhou (鎮州平山; in modern Hebei), originally married to a man surnamed Wang (王) with a young son. When Li Siyuan attacked Zhenzhou in c. 893, he took Lady Wei and the son whom he renamed Li Congke. Lady Wei died a few years later in Taiyuan.
  31. In 928 and killed in 933 with his wife Princess Consort Liu (劉妃), son Li Chongguang (李重光) and a younger son
  32. She was from Binzhou (邠州, in today's Shaanxi), originally sold to the house of Later Liang general Liu Xun as a maid. When Liu was killed, An heard of her beauty and mentioned it to Li Siyuan. Very respectful and dutiful towards Empress Cao and the emperor which soon made her the emperor's favorite concubine with the ability to influence politics. She was killed in 947 with her adoptive son Li Congyi.
  33. Wudai Huiyao , ch. 1
  34. Wudai Shi , ch. 51.
  35. Ouyang, Xiu. Historical Records of the Five Dynasties. Vol.46.|volume= has extra text (help)

Sources

Davis, Richard L., From Warhorses to Ploughshares: The Later Tang Reign of Emperor Mingzong. (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2014)

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