Li Sizhong (李思忠), né Wamosi (嗢沒斯), formally the Prince of Huaihua (懷化王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty of Huigu ancestry, who submitted to Emperor Wuzong after the collapse of the Huigu Khanate in 840 and subsequently served the Tang imperial government.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
Emperor Wuzong of Tang, né Li Chan, later changed to Li Yan just before his death, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, reigning from 840 to 846. Emperor Wuzong is mainly known in modern times for the religious persecution that occurred during his reign. In addition, he was known for his successful reactions against incursions by remnants of the Huigu Khanate and the rebellion by Liu Zhen, as well as his deep trust in the chancellor Li Deyu.
Little is known about Wamosi's early years, and it is not known when he was born. The first reference to him in Chinese historical sources, chronologically, was in 840, during the reign of Tang Dynasty's Emperor Wuzong. That year, Xiajiasi (Kirghiz) forces, under the Xiajiasi khan Are (阿熱), defeated and killed Huigu's khan Yaoluoge Hesa (藥羅葛闔馺) and chancellor Jueluowu (掘羅勿). The Huigu people scattered; some fled to the Geluolu (葛邏祿) tribes; some fled to Tufan; and some fled to Anxi (安西, in modern Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang). Some of the Huigu people, led by Wamosi — who was said to be a brother of a khan(and the modern historian Bo Yang believed that he was Yaoluoge Hesa's brother ), along with the chancellors Chixin (赤心), Pugu (僕固), and the noble Najiachuo (那頡啜), arrived at the Tang border city of Tiande (天德軍, in modern Bayan Nur, Inner Mongolia). They traded for food with other non-Han tribesmen, while seeking protection from Tang.
Aksu Prefecture is located in mid-western Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It has an area of 131,161 km2 (50,642 sq mi) and 2.37 million inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 535,657 lived in the built-up area made up of Aksu urban district. The name Aksu is Turkic for 'white water'.
Xinjiang, officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan), and India. The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun, and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang also borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, and it is currently China's largest natural gas-producing region.
Bo Yang, sometimes also erroneously called Bai Yang, was a Chinese poet, essayist and historian based in Taiwan. He is also regarded as a social critic. According to his own memoir, the exact date of his birthday was unknown even to himself. He later adopted 7 March, the date of his 1968 imprisonment, as his birthday.
In spring 841, another group of Huigu remnants had supported another noble, Yaoluoge Wuxi (藥羅葛烏希), to be the new khan (as Wujie Khan). The defender of Tiande, Tian Mou (田牟) and eunuch monitor Wei Zhongping (韋仲平), wanting to crush Wamosi's group of Huigu in order to claim it as their achievement, thus claimed that Wamosi was a Huigu rebel and, based on the past alliance between Tang and Huigu, should be attacked. Most imperial officials agreed, but the lead chancellor, Li Deyu, pointing out that Wamosi had fled to Tang borders long before Wujie Khan claimed the khan title, argued that Wamosi was not a rebel. He advocated accepting Wamosi's submission. Emperor Wuzong, while not immediately doing so, ordered Tian not to provoke the Huigu, while ordering the armies of Hedong (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) and Zhenwu (振武, headquartered in modern Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, which Tiande was part of) Circuits to mobilize to prepare to respond if the Huigu army attacked.
Li Deyu, courtesy name Wenrao (文饒), formally the Duke of Wei (衛公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of brothers Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wuzong and (briefly) their uncle Emperor Xuānzong. He was the leader of the so-called Li Faction in the decades-long Niu-Li Factional Struggles, and was particularly powerful during Emperor Wuzong's reign, dominating the court scene and guiding policies during the campaigns against the crumbling Huigu Khanate and against the warlord Liu Zhen. After Emperor Wuzong's death, Emperor Xuānzong, who had long despised him for his hold on power, had him demoted and banished, where he died in exile.
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.
Shanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.
Meanwhile, in spring 842, Wamosi believed that Chixin would not be obedient to him, and therefore falsely informed Tian that Chixin was planning to attack Tiande. Tian responded by luring Chixin and Pugu into a trap and killing them. Najiachuo took some of the Huigu remnants and fled east. In the aftermaths, with various Huigu remnant groups, including the group under Wujie Khan, pillaging the northern Tang regions, Li Deyu advocated accepting Wamosi's submission, in order to encourage other Huigu nobles to submit. As a result, in summer 842, Wamosi was allowed to submit along with 2,200 other nobles. Wamosi was given a general title and was created the Prince of Huaihua.
Wujie Khan was continuing to pillage the Tang border regions, and was also demanding that Tang surrender Wamosi to him, a demand that Emperor Wuzong rejected. Meanwhile, Wamosi went to the Tang capital Chang'an to pay homage to Emperor Wuzong. Thereafter, Emperor Wuzong gave his army the name of Guiyi Army (歸義軍, i.e., "the army that submitted to righteousness") and made him the commander of the Guiyi Army. Apparently to further assure Emperor Wuzong of his faithfulness, Wamosi requested that his family members be kept at Hedong's capital Taiyuan Municipality and that he and his brothers be posted to the borders to help defend Tang. Emperor Wuzong ordered that the military governor ( Jiedushi ) of Hedong, Liu Mian (劉沔), to treat Wamosi's family with kindness. He also bestowed the Tang imperial clan name of Li on Wamosi and changed his name to Li Sizhong. (Wamosi's brothers Alizhi (阿歷支), Xiwuchuo (習勿啜), and Wuluosi (烏羅思) were given the names of Li Sizhen (李思貞), Li Siyi (李思義), and Li Sili (李思禮), respectively.)
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.
The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The post of jiedushi has been translated as "military commissioner", "legate", or "regional commander". Originally introduced in 711 to counter external threats, the jiedushi were posts authorized with the supervision of a defense command often encompassing several prefectures, the ability to maintain their own armies, collect taxes and promote and appoint subordinates.
In fall 842, with Wujie Khan and other Huigu remnants still posing threats, Emperor Wuzong ordered Liu, Li Sizhong, and Zhang Zhongwu the military governor of Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing), to rendezvous at Taiyuan to prepare for further operations. Li Sizhong subsequently volunteered to fight the Huigu remnants along with soldiers from the Qibi (契苾), Shatuo, and Tuyuhun tribesmen; in response, Emperor Wuzong ordered two prefects, He Qingchao (何清朝) and Qibi Tong (契苾通), to report to him. When, subsequently, in winter 842, Liu and Zhang requested a delay in the operations, but Li Zhongshun (李忠順) the military governor of Zhenwu requested that Li Sizhong attack the Huigu with him, Emperor Wuzong sent Li Sizhong to prepare for such an operation.(It is unclear, however, whether such an operation was actually ever launched.)
Zhang Zhongwu (張仲武), formally Prince Zhuang of Lanling (蘭陵莊王) or Duke Zhuang of Lanling (蘭陵莊公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who governed Lulong Circuit as its military governor (Jiedushi) in de facto independence from the imperial government, but who followed imperial orders in campaigns against Huigu Khanate remnants, as well as Khitan, Xi, and Shiwei tribes.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.
The Shatuo were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century. They are noted for founding three of the five dynasties and one of the kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
In spring 843, Li Sizhong went to Chang'an to again pay homage to Emperor Wuzong. Believing that the Tang border generals were suspicious of him, he requested that he, his brothers, as well as his ally, the noble Ai Hongshun (愛弘順), all be transferred to Chang'an. Emperor Wuzong agreed. Subsequently, the Guiyi Army was disbanded, with the Huigu soldiers being dispersed to various circuits.That was the last reference to Li Sizhong in Chinese historical records, and it is not known when he died.
Emperor Dezong of Tang, personal name Li Kuo, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of Emperor Daizong. His reign of 26 years was the third longest in the Tang dynasty. Emperor Dezong started out as a diligent and frugal emperor and he tried to reform the governmental finances by introducing new tax laws. His attempts to destroy the powerful regional warlords and the subsequent mismanagement of those campaigns, however, resulted in a number of rebellions that nearly destroyed him and the Tang Dynasty. After those events, he dealt cautiously with the regional governors, causing warlordism to become unchecked, and his trust of eunuchs caused the eunuchs' power to rise greatly. He was also known for his paranoia about officials' wielding power, and late in his reign, he did not grant much authority to his chancellors.
Wang Zhongsi, né Wang Xun (王訓), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. Because of how his father Wang Haibin (王海賓) had died in army service, Emperor Xuanzong took him and raised him in the palace, and subsequently entrusted him with army commands. Eventually, though, he was accused of intentionally hindering an attack on Tubo, and was demoted. He died the following year.
Pugu Huai'en (僕固懷恩), formally the Prince of Da'ning (大寧王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, of Tiele ancestry. He was instrumental in the final suppression of the Anshi Rebellion, but rebelled against Emperor Daizong in fear that he was being accused of treason. After an initial defeat by other Tang generals, he led his own forces, allied with Uyghur Khaganate and Tibetan Empire forces, to attack the Tang capital Chang'an, but died on the way.
Ma Sui (馬燧), courtesy name Xunmei (洵美), formally Prince Zhuangwu of Beiping (北平莊武王), was a Chinese general who served during the Tang dynasty. He was known mostly for his battles against the rebel generals Li Lingyao (李靈曜), Tian Yue, Zhu Tao, and Li Huaiguang.
Princess Taihe, later known as Princess Ding'an (定安公主) or Princess Anding (安定公主), was a princess of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and a Khatun (empress) of Huigu. She was married to Huige's Chongde Khan as part of the Heqin system of marriages between Tang princesses and Huigu khans, but suffered through Huigu's subsequent collapse before being welcomed back to the Tang court.
Li Guochang, né Zhuye Chixin (朱邪赤心), courtesy name Dexing (德興), posthumously honored by Later Tang as Emperor Wenjing (文景皇帝) with the temple name of Xianzu (獻祖), was a leader of the Shatuo Turks during the waning years of the Tang Dynasty.
Wang Tingcou, formally the Duke of Taiyuan (太原公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who, in 821, during the reign of Emperor Muzong, took over control of Chengde Circuit and thereafter ruled it in a de facto independent manner from the imperial government. He was said to be particularly cruel even for a warlord. After his death, his family held onto control of the circuit, even after the end of Tang Dynasty, until his great-great-grandson Wang Rong was overthrown in 921 – 100 years after Wang Tingcou had initially taken over the circuit.
Li Zaiyi (李載義), né Li Zaiyi, courtesy name Fanggu (方谷), formally the Prince of Wuwei (武威王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who, from 826 to 831, ruled Lulong Circuit in de facto independence from the imperial government as the circuit's military governor (Jiedushi), although he was respectful to Emperor Wenzong and participated in the imperial campaign against the rebel general Li Tongjie. After he was expelled in a mutiny by Yang Zhicheng, the imperial government continued to commission him as a military governor, and he served at two other circuits subsequently.
Wang Yuankui (王元逵) (812–854), formally Duke Zhong of Taiyuan (太原忠公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. Like his father Wang Tingcou, Wang Yuankui ruled Chengde Circuit in de facto independence from the imperial government, but unlike Wang Tingcou, he was respectful to the imperial government and often followed its orders.
Li Shi (李石), courtesy name Zhongyu (中玉), formally the Count of Longxi (隴西伯), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Wenzong. He was credited with stabilizing the political scene in the aftermaths of the Ganlu Incident, a failed attempt by Emperor Wenzong to slaughter the powerful eunuchs.
Chen Yixing (陳夷行), courtesy name Zhoudao (周道), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving twice as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wuzong. He was viewed as a Li Faction leader in the Niu-Li Factional Struggles.
Liu Zhen (劉稹) was an adopted son of the Tang Dynasty general Liu Congjian who, after his adoptive father's death, tried to take over Zhaoyi Circuit, which Liu Congjian had governed as military governor (Jiedushi), without approval from Emperor Wuzong. When Emperor Wuzong declared a general campaign against him, he was defeated, and he was subsequently killed, along with his clan members, by his own officer Guo Yi (郭誼).
Wang Zai (王宰), né Wang Yanzai (王晏宰), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, most well known for his participation in Emperor Wuzong's campaign against the warlord Liu Zhen, who ruled Zhaoyi Circuit.
Shi Xiong (石雄) was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, most known for his participation in two campaigns during the reign of Emperor Wuzong — against the remnants of the Huigu Khanate, and against the warlord Liu Zhen, who controlled Zhaoyi Circuit.
Li Keju (李可舉) was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who controlled Lulong Circuit from 876 to 885.
Gu Yanlang (顧彥朗) was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who controlled Dongchuan Circuit from 887 to his death in 891 as its military governor (Jiedushi).
Li Kening (李克寧) was a younger brother of the late Chinese Tang Dynasty warlord Li Keyong the Prince of Jin. After Li Keyong's death, Li Kening initially served as a key advisor to Li Keyong's son and successor Li Cunxu, but soon was persuaded by his wife Lady Meng to try to take over from Li Cunxu. His plot was discovered, and Li Cunxu put him to death.