Li Sizhong

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Li Sizhong (李思忠), né Wamosi (嗢沒斯), formally the Prince of Huaihua (懷化王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty of Huigu ancestry, who submitted to Emperor Wuzong after the collapse of the Huigu Khanate in 840 and subsequently served the Tang imperial government.

History of China Account of past events in the Chinese civilisation

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.

Emperor Wuzong of Tang emperor of the Tang Dynasty

Emperor Wuzong of Tang, né Li Chan, later changed to Li Yan just before his death, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, reigning from 840 to 846. Emperor Wuzong is mainly known in modern times for the religious persecution that occurred during his reign. In addition, he was known for his successful reactions against incursions by remnants of the Huigu Khanate and the rebellion by Liu Zhen, as well as his deep trust in the chancellor Li Deyu.

Contents

Background

Little is known about Wamosi's early years, and it is not known when he was born. The first reference to him in Chinese historical sources, chronologically, was in 840, during the reign of Tang Dynasty's Emperor Wuzong. That year, Xiajiasi (Kirghiz) forces, under the Xiajiasi khan Are (阿熱), defeated and killed Huigu's khan Yaoluoge Hesa (藥羅葛闔馺) and chancellor Jueluowu (掘羅勿). The Huigu people scattered; some fled to the Geluolu (葛邏祿) tribes; some fled to Tufan; and some fled to Anxi (安西, in modern Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang). Some of the Huigu people, led by Wamosi — who was said to be a brother of a khan [1] (and the modern historian Bo Yang believed that he was Yaoluoge Hesa's brother [2] ), along with the chancellors Chixin (赤心), Pugu (僕固), and the noble Najiachuo (那頡啜), arrived at the Tang border city of Tiande (天德軍, in modern Bayan Nur, Inner Mongolia). They traded for food with other non-Han tribesmen, while seeking protection from Tang. [1]

Aksu Prefecture Prefecture in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Aksu Prefecture is located in mid-western Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It has an area of 131,161 km2 (50,642 sq mi) and 2.37 million inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 535,657 lived in the built-up area made up of Aksu urban district. The name Aksu is Turkic for 'white water'.

Xinjiang Autonomous region

Xinjiang, officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2. Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China and claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan), and India. The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun, and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang also borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, and it is currently China's largest natural gas-producing region.

Bo Yang, sometimes also erroneously called Bai Yang, was a Chinese poet, essayist and historian based in Taiwan. He is also regarded as a social critic. According to his own memoir, the exact date of his birthday was unknown even to himself. He later adopted 7 March, the date of his 1968 imprisonment, as his birthday.

Submission to Tang

In spring 841, another group of Huigu remnants had supported another noble, Yaoluoge Wuxi (藥羅葛烏希), to be the new khan (as Wujie Khan). The defender of Tiande, Tian Mou (田牟) and eunuch monitor Wei Zhongping (韋仲平), wanting to crush Wamosi's group of Huigu in order to claim it as their achievement, thus claimed that Wamosi was a Huigu rebel and, based on the past alliance between Tang and Huigu, should be attacked. Most imperial officials agreed, but the lead chancellor, Li Deyu, pointing out that Wamosi had fled to Tang borders long before Wujie Khan claimed the khan title, argued that Wamosi was not a rebel. He advocated accepting Wamosi's submission. Emperor Wuzong, while not immediately doing so, ordered Tian not to provoke the Huigu, while ordering the armies of Hedong (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) and Zhenwu (振武, headquartered in modern Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, which Tiande was part of) Circuits to mobilize to prepare to respond if the Huigu army attacked. [1]

Li Deyu, courtesy name Wenrao (文饒), formally the Duke of Wei (衛公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of brothers Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wuzong and (briefly) their uncle Emperor Xuānzong. He was the leader of the so-called Li Faction in the decades-long Niu-Li Factional Struggles, and was particularly powerful during Emperor Wuzong's reign, dominating the court scene and guiding policies during the campaigns against the crumbling Huigu Khanate and against the warlord Liu Zhen. After Emperor Wuzong's death, Emperor Xuānzong, who had long despised him for his hold on power, had him demoted and banished, where he died in exile.

Taiyuan Prefecture-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.

Shanxi Province

Shanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.

Meanwhile, in spring 842, Wamosi believed that Chixin would not be obedient to him, and therefore falsely informed Tian that Chixin was planning to attack Tiande. Tian responded by luring Chixin and Pugu into a trap and killing them. Najiachuo took some of the Huigu remnants and fled east. In the aftermaths, with various Huigu remnant groups, including the group under Wujie Khan, pillaging the northern Tang regions, Li Deyu advocated accepting Wamosi's submission, in order to encourage other Huigu nobles to submit. As a result, in summer 842, Wamosi was allowed to submit along with 2,200 other nobles. Wamosi was given a general title and was created the Prince of Huaihua. [1]

Service to Tang

Wujie Khan was continuing to pillage the Tang border regions, and was also demanding that Tang surrender Wamosi to him, a demand that Emperor Wuzong rejected. Meanwhile, Wamosi went to the Tang capital Chang'an to pay homage to Emperor Wuzong. Thereafter, Emperor Wuzong gave his army the name of Guiyi Army (歸義軍, i.e., "the army that submitted to righteousness") and made him the commander of the Guiyi Army. Apparently to further assure Emperor Wuzong of his faithfulness, Wamosi requested that his family members be kept at Hedong's capital Taiyuan Municipality and that he and his brothers be posted to the borders to help defend Tang. Emperor Wuzong ordered that the military governor ( Jiedushi ) of Hedong, Liu Mian (劉沔), to treat Wamosi's family with kindness. He also bestowed the Tang imperial clan name of Li on Wamosi and changed his name to Li Sizhong. (Wamosi's brothers Alizhi (阿歷支), Xiwuchuo (習勿啜), and Wuluosi (烏羅思) were given the names of Li Sizhen (李思貞), Li Siyi (李思義), and Li Sili (李思禮), respectively.) [1]

Changan ancient city of China

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.

Jiedushi regional military governor function.

The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The post of jiedushi has been translated as "military commissioner", "legate", or "regional commander". Originally introduced in 711 to counter external threats, the jiedushi were posts authorized with the supervision of a defense command often encompassing several prefectures, the ability to maintain their own armies, collect taxes and promote and appoint subordinates.

In fall 842, with Wujie Khan and other Huigu remnants still posing threats, Emperor Wuzong ordered Liu, Li Sizhong, and Zhang Zhongwu the military governor of Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing), to rendezvous at Taiyuan to prepare for further operations. Li Sizhong subsequently volunteered to fight the Huigu remnants along with soldiers from the Qibi (契苾), Shatuo, and Tuyuhun tribesmen; in response, Emperor Wuzong ordered two prefects, He Qingchao (何清朝) and Qibi Tong (契苾通), to report to him. When, subsequently, in winter 842, Liu and Zhang requested a delay in the operations, but Li Zhongshun (李忠順) the military governor of Zhenwu requested that Li Sizhong attack the Huigu with him, Emperor Wuzong sent Li Sizhong to prepare for such an operation. [1] (It is unclear, however, whether such an operation was actually ever launched.)

Zhang Zhongwu (張仲武), formally Prince Zhuang of Lanling (蘭陵莊王) or Duke Zhuang of Lanling (蘭陵莊公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who governed Lulong Circuit as its military governor (Jiedushi) in de facto independence from the imperial government, but who followed imperial orders in campaigns against Huigu Khanate remnants, as well as Khitan, Xi, and Shiwei tribes.

Beijing Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.

The Shatuo were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century. They are noted for founding three of the five dynasties and one of the kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

In spring 843, Li Sizhong went to Chang'an to again pay homage to Emperor Wuzong. Believing that the Tang border generals were suspicious of him, he requested that he, his brothers, as well as his ally, the noble Ai Hongshun (愛弘順), all be transferred to Chang'an. Emperor Wuzong agreed. Subsequently, the Guiyi Army was disbanded, with the Huigu soldiers being dispersed to various circuits. [3] That was the last reference to Li Sizhong in Chinese historical records, and it is not known when he died.

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Zizhi Tongjian , vol. 246.
  2. Bo Yang Edition of the Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 59 [840].
  3. Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 247.

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