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Teng County, Guangxi, Qing Empire
|Died||7 August 1864 40–41) (aged|
Jiangning, Nanjing, Qing Empire
|Allegiance|| Qing Empire (to 1849)|
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (to 1864)
|Years of service||1852–1864|
|Battles/wars|| Eastern campaign |
Li Xiucheng (Chinese :李秀成; pinyin :Lǐ Xiùchéng; 1823 – August 7, 1864) was a military rebel commander opposing the Qing dynasty during the Taiping Rebellion. He was born to a peasant family. In 1864, he was captured and interrogated at the third and final Battle of Nanjing. He was then executed by Zeng Guofan.
He was sometimes called Zhong Wang (Chinese :忠王; pinyin :Zhōng Wáng). This title was bestowed after he refused a bribe from a Qing general officer to kill Hong Xiuquan, the founder and leader of the rebellion.
Army Group Jiangnan (江南大營) was an important Qing army barracks in Nanjing. Forces led by Li Xiucheng besieged the barracks in an attempt to force its occupants to surrender. Beginning from March 1858 during the second encirclement, the Qing army commanded 200,000 soldiers to fight with Taiping forces , but they were routed by Li Xiucheng in May 1860. After that, Li went on to occupy all of Jiangsu provinces except Shanghai.
Li worked together with fellow Taiping General Chen Yucheng to defend and release the capital during the siege of Nanking in 1860.
Li Xiucheng's palace in Suzhou is the only one from the Taiping Rebellion that exists today. In July 1863, Li ordered his daughter's husband, Tan Shaoguang, to capture Suzhou. But Li Hongzhang led the Huai Army combined by the "Ever Victorious Army," which, having been raised by an American named Frederick Townsend Ward, was placed under the command of Charles George Gordon. With this support, Li Hongzhang gained numerous victories leading to the surrender of Suzhou.
According to one legend, three months after Donkey Jiang (蔣驢子) became the manager of Li Xiucheng's stables in 1864 — and before the fall of Nanjing — Li Xiucheng took his wealth (including much plunder) to Donkey Jiang. At Li's request, Jiang quickly transported that wealth outside the Nanjing area, planning to meet back up with Li later. Jiang delivered on his promise to accompany the transport with 20 horses and an ox, but Li was captured and executed before he could rendezvous with Jiang. Jiang was left with wealth that he was able to bring back to Nanjing after the war.
Loyal Prince Li Xiucheng In His Own Words (《忠王李秀成自述》) is his autobiographical account written shortly before his execution.
When Li withdrew from Suzhou, his sword - the symbol of power - was given to his young brother Li Shixian. Li Shixian took this sword, but it was confiscated when Li was captured by Charles George Gordon in Liyang.
When Charles George Gordon returned to the UK with Li's sword, he presented it to Queen Victoria's cousin, Chief Commander of the Military the Duke of Cambridge.
On 30 August 1961, the sword ended up in the hands of a history professor at the University of London. In 1981, this sword was returned to China where it is currently stored in the National Museum of China.
Li Xiucheng had a son Li Ronfar and three daughters. Li's daughters married Taiping generals, including Tan Shaoguang and Chen Binwen.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China between the Manchu Qing dynasty and the Han, Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. It lasted from 1850 to 1864, although following the fall of Nanjing the last rebel army was not wiped out until 1871. After fighting the bloodiest civil war in world history, with 30 to 50 million dead, the established Qing government won decisively, although the outcome is considered a pyrrhic victory.
Hong Tianguifu was the second and last king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as the Junior Lord (幼主). Officially, like his father Hong Xiuquan, he was the King of Heaven (天王). To differentiate, he is also called the Junior King of Heaven (幼天王).
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili, Huguang and Liangguang.
The Third Battle of Nanking was the last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, occurring in 1864 after the death of the king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. There were probably more than a million troops in the battle. Zeng Guofan claimed that the Taiping army sustained 100,000 dead in the three-day clash. Nanking had been the capital of the Heavenly Kingdom and was known by the Taipings as Tianjing. This battle was the effective end of the Taiping army and Nanking was the last major Taiping city to fall back under Imperial control.
Chen Yucheng, born Chen Picheng, was a Chinese general during the Taiping Rebellion and later served as the Heroic (Ying) Prince of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the later stages of the rebellion, his famous nickname was "Four-eyed Dog" because of two prominent moles below his eyes. His two moles resembled eyes from afar, and it spooked some Qing soldiers.
Li Shixian was a pre-eminent military leader of the late Taiping Rebellion. He was the cousin of military leader Li Xiucheng and was known for being very tall for a native of Guangxi province, standing at 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall. During his military tenure, he was given the title of King of Shi (侍王). In the latter part of the Taiping rebellion, he led Taiping forces to many military victories. Later in his life, he invited an aging Wei Yuan to live in his home and was known to hold counsel with the famous scholar. He was eventually assassinated by a traitor in Guangdong.
Zeng Guoquan, courtesy name Yuanfu, art name Shuchun, was a Chinese official and military leader of the late Qing dynasty. He was the ninth brother of Zeng Guofan, a prominent statesman and general, and a descendant of the philosopher Zengzi. He served in the Xiang Army, a standing military force organised by his brother to counter the Taiping rebels, and was nicknamed "Ninth Marshal" (九帥). He was known for his expertise in siege warfare, particularly the use of trenches, hence he was also nicknamed "Zeng the Iron Container" (曾鐵桶). During the conquest of Tianjing (Nanjing), the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Zeng was notorious for condoning massacres of the city populace, which resulted in him being called "Zeng the Butcher" (曾屠戶).
Cheng Xueqi (Chinese: 程學啟; courtesy name Fangzhong 方忠; born in Tongcheng, Anhui, was a general of the Taiping Rebellion who surrendered to the Qing dynasty in 1861 with Ding Ruchang. He was an eminent Han Chinese official and a Captain General in the army of the late Qing dynasty. He led the Huai Army to fight effectively against the Taiping rebels and helped to restore the stability of Qing, along with other prominent figures, including Li Hongzhang and Zeng Guofan, setting the scene for the successful defense of Shanghai and the Suzhou Massacre POW Incident. The Tongzhi Emperor praised Cheng as "intelligent and brave".
Jiangnan Daying (Chinese: 江南大營 or the Jiangnan Battalion; was an army group assembled by the Qing dynasty. The army group consist of mostly Green Standard Army, and their goal was to quell the Taiping Rebellion around the Jiangnan region. The army group twice encircled Nanjing, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but were defeated by the Taiping forces on both occasions.
The Battle of Jiangnan (1860), also known as the Second rout of the Jiangnan Battalion was a battle between the Qing government's Green Standard Army and the army of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion. The Green Standard Army twice attempted to besiege Nanjing, capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but was unable to break through. To break the siege of Nanjing, the Taiping forces maneuvered to divert Qing forces by sacking Hangzhou, before quickly moving back to Nanjing to counter-encircle the Qing siege forces and routing the Green Standard Army garrison completely, breaking the siege of Nanjing.
Chen Kunshu, prominent military leader of the Taiping Rebellion, and known during his military tenure as the King of Hu (護王). He led Taiping forces to many military victories especially the Second rout the Army Group Jiangnan. He was executed by Li Hongzhang after interrogation in 1864, Chen was an important General and was the sole person responsible for the late-Taiping Rebellion.
The Battle of Shanghai (太平軍二攻上海) was a major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion that occurred from June 1861 to July 1862. British and French troops used modern artillery on a large scale for the first time in China. Cannon fire inflicted heavy casualties on the Taiping forces, whose commander Li Xiucheng was wounded in the left leg by a shot fired from a cannon.
Li Rongfa (1845–1891) was a military rebel leader of the Taiping Rebellion. He was the second son of Li Xiucheng.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Chinese Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.
Tan Shaoguang was a military leader of the Taiping Rebellion. During his military tenure he was known as the King of Mu (慕王). As a young soldier he joined the Jintian Uprising. After several years he was promoted to general, and led the Taiping forces to many military victories. He was awarded the E An in 1861. He was murdered by traitors after an interrogation in 1863.
Twilight of a Nation is a Hong Kong television series based on the events of the Taiping Rebellion and the rise and fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the late Qing dynasty. The 45 episodes long series was produced by Siu Sang and was first aired on TVB Jade in Hong Kong in November 1988. It was broadcast again on TVB in 1996. The theme songs and insert songs in the series were performed by Roman Tam.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is a Chinese television series based on the events of the Taiping Rebellion and the rise and fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the late Qing dynasty. The 48-episode series was first broadcast on CCTV in China in 2000. The series was also broadcast on STAR Chinese Channel in Taiwan and on ATV in Hong Kong.
The Red Turban Rebellion of 1854–1856 was a rebellion by members of the Tiandihui or Heaven and Earth Society (天地會) in the Guangdong province of South China.
Pan Dingxin was a Qing dynasty governor and military commander of the Huai Army, best known for his role in the Sino-French War.
Firefly is an armed steamer of the Ever Victorious Army, who fought for the Qing Dynasty against the rebels of the Taiping Rebellion in 1860 to 1864. She was briefly captured by Taiping troops and renamed Ti-ping under their service.