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Map of the Liao River drainage basin
|Province||Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning|
|Source||various sources of its tributaries|
|Length||1,345 km (836 mi)|
|Basin size||232,000 km2 (90,000 sq mi)|
The Liao River (simplified Chinese : 辽 河 ; traditional Chinese : 遼 河 ; pinyin :Liáo Hé) is the principal river in southern Northeast China, and one of the seven main river systems in mainland China. Its name derived from the Liao region, a historical name for southern Manchuria, from which the Liaoning province, Liaodong Peninsula and Liao dynasty also all have derived their names. The river is also popularly known as the "mother river" in Northeast China. Coursing 1,345 kilometres (836 mi) long, the Liao River system drains a catchment basin of over 232,000 square kilometres (90,000 sq mi), but its mean discharge is quite small at only about 500 cubic metres per second (18,000 cu ft/s), about one-twentieth that of the Pearl River. The Liao River has an exceedingly high sediment load because many parts of it flow through powdery loess.
The Liao River is also an important geographical landmark, as it divides the province of Liaoning into two broad regions — Liaodong ("east of Liao River") and Liaoxi ("west of Liao River").
The Liao River is formed from the confluence of its two main tributaries, the Xiliao River from the west, and Dongliao River from the east. The western tributary resides entirely in Inner Mongolia, and is formed by the confluence of the Xar Moron River and the Laoha River at approximately 43° 25' N, 120° 45' E, before being reinforced by another tributary called the Xinkai River at its lower section. The eastern tributary arises in western Jilin Province, and goes through an S-shaped course before meeting its counterpart near the junction region of Liaoning, Jilin and Inner Mongolia, approximately 42° 59' N, 123° 33' E.
The resultant river, the Liao River proper, then enters Liaoning Province and courses southwards through the Northeast China Plain, receiving numerous tributaries along the way. It makes a westward turn near Pingdingbao Town, Tieling County, and after receiving more tributaries, earns an infrequently used nickname Juliu River (巨流河, "giant stream river"). The Liao River will then course southwest until it reaches near the Liujianfang Hydrological Station (六间房水文站) at Tai'an County, and historically bifurcates into two distributaries, forming the Liao River Delta (辽河三角洲). The western distributary of the delta, originally smaller, was called the Shuangtaizi River (双台子河) until 2011, receives the tributary Raoyang River at Panjin's Panshan County before draining into the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Sea west of Dawa County. The eastern distributary, originally the larger and the main body of lower Liao River, was called the Wailiao River (外辽河, "Outer Liao River"). The Wailiao River travelled southwards to pick up two large tributaries, the Hun River and Taizi River , at a confluence locally referred as the "Trident River" (三岔河), where it then adopted the new name Daliao River (大辽河, "Great Liao River") and drained into the Liaodong Bay just west of Yingkou.
However, the Liao River Delta has a flat topography made up of soft sediment soil, with meandrous waterways that had a rich history of rerouting. This coupled with the risk of storm surges due to the region's low elevation, created a huge problem in flood control. This flood risk at the coastal section of the Liao River system was particularly threatening to Yingkou, a city immediately adjacent to the mouth of Daliao River and home to 2 million people. In 1958, the upriver of the Wailiao River at Liujianfang was blocked off via a river engineering project, redirecting the water flow from the Liao River proper entirely towards the Shuangtaizi River (which was renamed to simply the "Liao River" in 2011), effectively separating the Hun River and Taizi River from the Liao River system. Therefore, the Daliao River system is considered an independent water system of their own since 1958, and the Hun and Taizi River are no longer tributaries of the Liao River. Also, due to the Wailiao River's upstream flow being cut off, the Liao River no longer has any distributaries, therefore the Liao River Delta technically also ceased to exist from 1958 onwards, however the term remains in use to describe the area of Panjin between the Liao River's left bank and Wailiao/Daliao River's right bank.
These following tributaries drain into the Liao River proper throughout its course within the Liaoning Province. [ citation needed ]
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean.
Liaoning is a coastal province in Northeast China, and is the smallest, southernmost, but the most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province in China.
Jinzhou is a coastal prefecture-level city in central-west Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" (辽西走廊), which connects most of the land transports between North China and Northeast China, and is the economic center of western Liaoning. Located on the northern shore of Liaodong Bay, Jinzhou encompasses a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi), with the Port of Jinzhou being China's northernmost seaport.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern/coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River in the west and the Yalu River in the east, and encompasses the territories of the whole sub-provincial city of Dalian and parts of prefectural cities of Yingkou, Anshan and Dandong.
Hebei is a province in China.
Yingkou is a coastal prefecture-level city of central southern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, on the northeastern shore of Liaodong Bay. It is the third-smallest city in Liaoning with a total area of 4,970 square kilometres (1,920 sq mi), and the ninth most populous with a population of 2,428,534, of whom 1,340,993 live in the built-up area made of three urban districts and one county-level city (Dashiqiao). It borders the sub-provincial city of Dalian to the south, the prefectural cities of Anshan to the north and east and Panjin to the northwest, and also shares maritime boundaries with Jinzhou and Huludao across the Liaodong Bay to its west.
Liaodong Bay is largest and longest of the three main bays of the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea.
Panjin is a coastal prefecture-level city in southern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, situated on the northern shore of the Liaodong Bay. It borders Anshan to the east, Yingkou to the southeast, and Jinzhou to the west and north. It is the smallest city in Liaoning with an administrative area of 4,071 square kilometres (1,572 sq mi), and Liaoning's least populous city with a population of 1.39 million people.
The Hun River is a river in Liaoning Province, China, and was formerly one of the largest tributaries of the Liao River. It was also formerly known as Shen River (瀋水). Two of Liaoning's most important cities, the provincial capital Shenyang and the seventh largest city Fushun, are located on the Hun River.
The Port of Yingkou is an international seaport in Yingkou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is the second-largest port in northeast China and the tenth-largest nationwide. It includes two separate dockland areas, the Yingkou old port at the mouth of the Daliao River, and the Bayuquan port located directly on Liaodong Bay on the Bohai Sea.
The Xiliao or West Liao River is a river in Inner Mongolia and Liaoning province, in northeast China. Its source is the Xilamulun River in Inner Mongolia. It is one of the headwaters of the Liao River.
Shuangtaizi District is an urban district under the administration of the prefectural city of Panjin in Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. The district's name came from the Shuangtaizi River, the old name of the modern-day lower Liao River, which flows through the southern edge of the district. It has a total area of 62 square kilometres (24 sq mi), and a population of approximately 200,000 people. The district's postal code is 124000, and the district government is located at 32 Shengli Street.
The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay, is a marginal sea approximately 78,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area in the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it communicates to the east via the Bohai Strait. A medium-sized gulf, it is enclosed by four provinces from three different regions of China — Liaoning, Hebei and the Tianjin municipality and Shandong, and considered an internal waters of the People's Republic of China. It is the center of the Bohai Economic Rim, and its proximity to the Chinese capital Beijing makes it one of the busiest seaways in the world.
Shuangliao is a city in western Jilin, People's Republic of China, bordering Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. It is under the administration of Siping City.
Yanzhou Village is a small settlement in Dengta Prefecture of Liaoyang Prefecture in Liaoning Province in China. The village is the site of the ancient Goguryeo city of Baegam in Korea or Baiyan City in Chinese. The ancient city was the scene a major battle between the Tang dynasty Chinese emperor Taizong and the Goguryeo in 645 AD.
The Liuyang River, also known as Liu River or Liuwei River, is a right-bank tributary of Xiang River, the largest tributary of Xiang River in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. The river has a length of 234.8 kilometres (145.9 mi) with its drainage area of 4,665 square kilometres (1,801 sq mi), accounting for 39.47% of the total area of Changsha, with surface water resources of 4,506 million cubic meters, accounting for 41.08% of that. It flows through Liuyang City, Changsha County, Yuhua, Furong and Kaifu Districts, and merges into Xiang River at Xinhe Delta Mouth of Kaifu District.
The Taizi River is a major river in the Liaoning province of Northeastern China. The river was historically also known as Yan River (衍水) or Liang River (梁水). It was originally the third largest tributary of the Liao River, southern Northeast's principal river, draining with the neighboring Hun River into a confluence known as "Trident River" near Haicheng, until a river engineering project in 1958 cut off the eastern distributary of the river delta from the Liao River's main course, making the Hun River and Taizi Rivers a separate system that drains into the Bohai Bay independently from the Liao River. However, both sister rivers are still usually considered a part of the Liao River system because they are both within the historical Liao River drainage basin.
The Daling River is a river in Northeast China. With a length of 435 kilometres (270 mi), it is the main river in the arid western part of Liaoning. Its drainage basin covers 23,837 square kilometres (9,204 sq mi), 85% of which is located in Liaoning, 13% in Inner Mongolia and the remaining 2% in Hebei.
The Daliao River is a major river system in eastern Liaoning province of Northeast China, and formerly the main distributary of the lower Liao River until 1958. The Daliao River proper is formed from the confluence of three rivers at the border between Anshan's Haicheng city and Panjin's Panshan County, after where it runs a length of 94 kilometres (58 mi) covering a catchment area of 1,926 square kilometres (744 sq mi), before coursing meandrously southwest and draining into the Liaodong Bay just west of Yingkou.