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The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, simplified Chinese :辽东半岛; traditional Chinese :遼東半島; pinyin :Liáodōng Bàndǎo) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River (the historical lower section of the Liao River) in the west and the Yalu River in the east, and encompasses the territories of the whole sub-provincial city of Dalian and parts of prefectural cities of Yingkou, Anshan and Dandong.
The word "Liaodong" literally means "Liao region's east", referring initially to the Warring States period Yan commandery of Liaodong, which encompassed an area from modern Liaoning-Jilin border in the north to the Chongchon River on the Korean Peninsula in the south, and from just east of the Qian Mountains to a now-disappeared large wetland between the western banks of middle Liao River and the base of Yiwulü Mountain, historically known as the "Liao Mire" (遼澤, Liáo zé) roughly in between the modern Xinmin, Liaozhong, Tai'an, Panshan and Beizhen). The modern usage of "Liaodong" however simply refers to the half of Liaoning province to the left/east bank of the Liao/Daliao River.
The Liaodong Peninsula lies on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, dividing the Liaodong Bay (the largest of the three bays of the Bohai Sea) to its west from the Korea Bay to its east. It forms the southern part of a mountain belt that continues northward in the Changbai Mountains. The part of the mountain range on the peninsula is known as the Qianshan Mountains, named after Qian Mountain in Anshan, which includes Dahei Mountain in Dalian.
The Liaodong region was settled since prehistoric times by Neolithic people such as Xinle culture. It later came under the rule of the Gojoseon kingdom, which encompassed the northern Korean Peninsula and the region southeast of the Liao River. In the late 4th century BC, the expanding Chinese State of Yan conquered this region from Gojoseon,and established the Liaodong Commandery.
After the fall of the Yan state, the region was taken over by the short-lived Qin Dynasty, and then its prominent successor Han Dynasty. After the Han Dynasty fragmented at the turn of the 3rd century, the region changed hands between various warlord states such as the Gongsun Yuan, the nomadic Wuhuan, and Cao Wei, before eventually falling under the reunified Western Jin dynasty.
However, after the Western Jin fell from the Uprising of the Five Barbarians and during the subsequent chaotic Sixteen Kingdoms periods, the region was ruled by Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yanand later Goguryeo, before being reconquered by the Tang Dynasty.
In 698 AD, Wu Zhou's defeat at the Battle of Tianmenling allowed the newly founded Balhae to rule the region for the next two centuries, before they were supplanted by the Khitan Liao Dynasty, and followed by the Jin dynasty, Yuan dynasty, Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty.
The peninsula was an important area of conflict during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Defeat precipitated decline in the Qing dynasty which was exploited by colonial powers who extracted numerous concessions. The peninsula was ceded to Japan, along with Taiwan and Penghu, by the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 17 April 1895. However the ceding of Liaodong peninsula was rescinded after the Triple Intervention of 23 April 1895 by Russia, France and Germany. In the aftermath of this intervention, the Russian government pressured the Qing dynasty to lease Liaodong and the strategically important Lüshunkou (Port Arthur) for use by the Russian Navy.
As in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Liaodong peninsula was the scene of major fighting in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), including the bloody Siege of Port Arthur. As a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth (5 September 1905), which ended the Russo-Japanese War, both sides agreed to evacuate Manchuria and return it to China, with the exception of the Liaodong Peninsula leased territory which was transferred to Japan,which was to administer it as the Kwantung Leased Territory.
After Japan lost World War II, and the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Liaodong was again under unified Chinese rule, where it has been to this day.
The Treaty of Shimonoseki, also known as Treaty of Maguan in China and Treaty of Bakan in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel (春帆樓), Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from 20 March to 17 April 1895. This treaty followed and superseded the Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty of 1871.
Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Lelang Commandery was a commandery of the Han Dynasty established after conquering Wiman Joseon in 108 BC and lasted until Goguryeo conquered it in 313. The Lelang Commandery extend the rule of the Four Commanderies of Han as far south as the Han River (Korea), which largely follows along the boundary between modern day North and South Korea. South Korean scholars have described its administrative areas as being limited to the Pyongan and Hwanghae regions, whose southern bounds lie roughly 75 miles North of the Han River.
Jinzhou, formerly Chinchow, is a coastal prefecture-level city in central-west Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the Liaoxi Corridor, which connects most of the land transports between North China and Northeast China, and is the economic center of western Liaoning. Located on the northern shore of Liaodong Bay, Jinzhou encompasses a coastline of 97.7 km (60.7 mi), with the Port of Jinzhou being China's northernmost seaport.
Wi Man or Wei Man was originally a military leader of the Kingdom of Yan. When king Lu Wan of Yan was defeated by the Han in 195 BCE, Wi Man fled to Gojoseon in north-western Korea and later usurped power from its king in 194 BCE, establishing Wiman Joseon. Recorded in the Shiji and the Book of Han, Wiman was the first ruler in the history of Korea to have been recorded in documents from the same time period.
Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, is the umbrella name for various ancient states on the Korean Peninsula. The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the much later Joseon dynasty (1392–1897).
Wiman Joseon was part of the Gojoseon period of ancient Korean history. It began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gojoseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo who was a grandson of Wiman. Apart from archaeological data, the main source on this period of Korean history comes from chapter 115 of Sima Qian's Shiji. Wiman was asylum-seeker in Gojoseon, originally a military leader from the Kingdom of Yan under the Han dynasty.
The Kwantung Leased Territory, was a leased territory of the Empire of Japan in the Liaodong Peninsula from 1905 to 1945.
Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three provinces east of the Greater Khingan Range, namely Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, but historically is meant to also encompass the four easternmost prefectures of Inner Mongolia west of the Greater Khingan. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain, the largest plain in China, with an area over 350,000 km2 (140,000 sq mi). It is separated from Russian Far East to the north by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers; from Korea to the south by the Yalu and Tumen Rivers; and from Inner Mongolian to the west by the Greater Khingan and parts of the Xiliao River.
Samhan, or Three Han, is the collective name of the Byeonhan, Jinhan, and Mahan confederacies that emerged in the first century BC during the Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea, or Samhan, period. Located in the central and southern regions of the Korean Peninsula, the Samhan confederacies eventually merged and developed into the Baekje, Gaya, and Silla kingdoms. The name "Samhan" also refers to the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
The Liao River is the principal river in southern Northeast China, and one of the seven main river systems in mainland China. Its name derived from the Liao region, a historical name for southern Manchuria, from which the Liaoning province, Liaodong Peninsula and Liao dynasty also all have derived their names. The river is also popularly known as the "mother river" in Northeast China. Coursing 1,345 kilometres (836 mi) long, the Liao River system drains a catchment basin of over 232,000 square kilometres (90,000 sq mi), but its mean discharge is quite small at only about 500 cubic metres per second (18,000 cu ft/s), about one-twentieth that of the Pearl River. The Liao River has an exceedingly high sediment load because many parts of it flow through powdery loess.
Liaodong Bay is largest and longest of the three main bays of the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea.
The Hun River is a river in Liaoning Province, China, and was formerly one of the largest tributaries of the Liao River. It was also formerly known as Shen River (瀋水). Two of Liaoning's most important cities, the provincial capital Shenyang and the seventh largest city Fushun, are located on the Hun River.
The Four Commanderies of Han were Chinese commanderies located in the north of the Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula from around the end of the second century BC through the early 4th AD, for the longest lasting. The commanderies were set up to control the populace in the former Gojoseon area as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lelang near present-day Pyongyang by Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty in early 2nd century BC after his conquest of Wiman Joseon. As such, these commanderies are seen as Chinese colonies by some scholars. Though disputed by North Korean scholars, Western sources generally describe the Lelang Commandery as existing within the Korean peninsula, and extend the rule of the four commanderies as far south as the Han River. However, South Korean scholars assumed its administrative areas to Pyongan and Hwanghae provinces.
Jiaoliao or Jiao–Liao Mandarin is a primary dialect of Mandarin Chinese, spoken on the Jiaodong Peninsula, from Yantai to Qingdao, Ganyu District in northeastern Jiangsu and the Liaodong Peninsula, from Dalian to Dandong, and along the Yalu River and the Ussuri River, in northeast China. Yantai, Dalian, and Weihai dialects are the standard Jiao–Liao Mandarin.
The Han conquest of Gojoseon was a campaign launched by Emperor Wu of Han China against Wiman Joseon between 109 and 108 BCE. It resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and the establishment of the Four Commanderies of Han in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula.
Jinzhou District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of the city centre and facing the Bohai Sea to the west as well as the Korea Bay to the east and has a longer history than Dalian itself, and used to be a thriving walled city where the officials of this area were dispatched from the central government. Recently, it is again a thriving town, having Dalian Development Area within its area as well as becoming a bedroom community to downtown Dalian. Its area is 1,352.54 square kilometres (522.22 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 1,102,773.
The history of Sino-Korean relations dates back to prehistoric times.
Liaodong Commandery was a commandery in imperial China that existed from the Warring States period to the Northern dynasties. It was located in modern Liaoning, to the east of the Liao River.
The Daliao River is a major river system in eastern Liaoning province of Northeast China, and formerly the main distributary of the lower Liao River until 1958. The Daliao River proper is formed from the confluence of three rivers at the border between Anshan's Haicheng city and Panjin's Panshan County, after where it runs a length of 94 kilometres (58 mi) covering a catchment area of 1,926 square kilometres (744 sq mi), before coursing meandrously southwest and draining into the Liaodong Bay just west of Yingkou.
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