Liaoyuan

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Liaoyuan

辽源市

Liao-yüan
Nickname(s): 
大疙瘩 ("Great lump")
Location of Liaoyuan Prefecture within Jilin (China).png
Liaoyuan City (yellow) in Jilin (light grey) and China
China Jilin location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Liaoyuan
Location of city centre in Jilin
Coordinates(Liaoyuan municipal government): 42°53′17″N125°08′41″E / 42.8880°N 125.1447°E / 42.8880; 125.1447 Coordinates: 42°53′17″N125°08′41″E / 42.8880°N 125.1447°E / 42.8880; 125.1447
Country People's Republic of China
Province Jilin
County-level divisions 4
Incorporated (county)August 4, 1902
Incorporated (County-level city)October 15, 1948
Incorporated (Prefecture-level city)October 3, 1983
Municipal seat Longshan District
Government
  Type Prefecture-level city
   CPC Liaoyuan Secretary Wu Lan
  Mayor Jin Yuhui
Area
   Prefecture-level city 5,125 km2 (1,979 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [1]
46.30 km2 (17.88 sq mi)
Elevation
260 m (850 ft)
Population
 (2010) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 1,176,645
  Density230/km2 (590/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [1]
475,400
  Urban density10,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
136200
Area code(s) 0437
ISO 3166 code CN-JL-04
License Plate Prefix 吉D

Liaoyuan (simplified Chinese :辽源; traditional Chinese :遼源; pinyin :Liáoyuán) is a prefecture-level city in Jilin province, People's Republic of China. It is bounded on the west and south by Tieling of Liaoning province, west and north by Siping, and east by Tonghua and Jilin City. Liaoyuan lies some 100 km (62 mi) south of Changchun, the provincial capital. Covering an area of 5,125 km2 (1,979 sq mi), Liaoyuan is the smallest among the prefecture-level divisions of Jilin. Liaoyuan has a total population of 1,176,645 in the prefecture, while the urban area has a population of 462,233. [2]

Contents

History

Liaoyuan was an imperial hunting ground during the Qing dynasty, going by the name Shengjing Paddock (盛京圍場). Ordinary citizens were prohibited from entering this region until late 1800s, when waves of immigrants from Hebei, Shandong and Henan began to populate Manchuria (see Chuang Guandong). In 1902, Qing government established Xi'an County (西安縣) in this region, which became today's Xi'an District.

The discovery of coal underground shortly afterwards brought prosperity to the city. Between 1931 and 1945, Xi'an was an important coal-mining city in Manchukuo and also the place where American Army General Jonathan M. Wainwright was held as a prisoner. During the Chinese Civil War after World War II, Xi'an was a focal point of the intense fighting between the Communist and Nationalist forces until the summer of 1947 when it was permanently captured by the Communist force. The city was renamed Liaoyuan (literally the source of the East Liao River) in 1952 as the former name conflicted with that of the much larger city of Xi'an in Shaanxi province. As a county-level city, Liaoyuan was under Siping Prefecture's jurisdiction till 1983, when it became a prefecture-level city, administering two districts and two counties.

Geography

Liaoyuan has a temperate semi-humid monsoon climate. The average annual sunshine totals 2,580 hours, while the average annual precipitation is just above 620 mm (24 in). [3] The average temperature is 5.78 °C (42.4 °F). [3] Liaoyuan is replete with water resources. There are 56 rivers and streams running through the city, including tributes of Liao River and Songhua River. In addition, Liaoyuan is also rich in timber and mineral resources. Mineral resources such as limestone, marble, coal, silica, and wollastonite are abundant. Forests cover 42% of the city's lands.

Climate data for Liaoyuan (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−7.8
(18.0)
−2.9
(26.8)
4.8
(40.6)
15.1
(59.2)
21.9
(71.4)
26.5
(79.7)
27.8
(82.0)
27.1
(80.8)
22.3
(72.1)
14.4
(57.9)
3.2
(37.8)
−4.9
(23.2)
12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−15.8
(3.6)
−10.5
(13.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
8.4
(47.1)
15.5
(59.9)
20.7
(69.3)
23.0
(73.4)
21.7
(71.1)
15.2
(59.4)
7.3
(45.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
−11.7
(10.9)
5.8
(42.4)
Average low °C (°F)−22.1
(−7.8)
−17.0
(1.4)
−7.4
(18.7)
1.8
(35.2)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
18.5
(65.3)
17.0
(62.6)
8.9
(48.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−8.1
(17.4)
−17.3
(0.9)
−0.1
(31.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)5.7
(0.22)
6.7
(0.26)
15.8
(0.62)
33.3
(1.31)
55.2
(2.17)
89.1
(3.51)
162.5
(6.40)
152.2
(5.99)
48.5
(1.91)
30.0
(1.18)
16.1
(0.63)
7.5
(0.30)
622.6
(24.5)
Average relative humidity (%)72676055586881827668687169
Source: China Meteorological Administration [3]

Administrative divisions

Map including Liaoyuan (labeled as Liao Yuan 
LIAO-YUAN (CHENGKIATUN)) (AMS, 1956) Txu-oclc-6614368-nk51-2.jpg
Map including Liaoyuan (labeled as 遼源 LIAO-YÜAN (CHENGKIATUN)) (AMS, 1956)
Map
#Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 est.)Area (km²)Density (/km²)
1 Longshan District 龙山区Lóngshān Qū283,0452571,101
2 Xi'an District 西安区Xī'ān Qū179,1881721,042
3 Dongfeng County 东丰县Dōngfēng Xiàn408,6792,522162
4 Dongliao County 东辽县Dōngliáo Xiàn396,1212,174182

Economy

Coal mining in Liaoyuan started in late Qing dynasty and continued to be the most important industry for more than 100 years. During the Japanese occupation from 1931 to 1945, Liaoyuan was the second largest coal-mining center of Manchukuo, preceded only by Fushun. This city continued to produce approximately 3 million tons of coal every year till the mid 1990s, when the exhaustion of coal resource brought the economy of this city to a standstill. The city succeeded in transforming its economic structure from a mining oriented one to a light manufacturing oriented one. At present, the city is the largest cotton-sock manufacturing center in China. Furthermore, the aluminum shell of Apple Macbook Pro is also manufactured in this city. Liaoyuan has a GDP of RMB 50 billion in 2011, rising 15.6% year on year. [4]

Transportation

The Changchun-Liaoyuan Expressway and the Siping-Meihekou Railway run through the city. Changchun Airport is within one and a half-hour's drive from Liaoyuan.

Tourism

Guandong deer meat is one of the popular dishes among local people since Liaoyuan has a long history of raising deer.

Notable people

Accident

On December 16, 2005, a fire in Liaoyuan Central Hospital killed at least 39 people, 33 of whom were patients. The cause of the fire was wire-aging, as reported by local media.(BBC)

Sports

The 15,000-capacity Liaoyuan Stadium is the largest stadium in the city. It opened in 2006 and it is used mostly for association football matches. The stadium also has an athletics track.

Sister cities

Related Research Articles

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Shuangyang District District in Jilin, Peoples Republic of China

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Dongliao County County in Jilin, Peoples Republic of China

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Xian District, Liaoyuan District in Jilin, Peoples Republic of China

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References

  1. 1 2 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 50. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. 1 2 吉林省统计局发布辽源市常住人口1176645人. Sina. Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
  3. 1 2 3 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  4. Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks