Lieutenant Governor of Quebec

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Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
Armoiries du Quebec.svg
Coat of arms of Quebec and emblem of the lieutenant governor
Incumbent
J. Michel Doyon

since 24 September 2015
Viceroy
Style His Honour the Honourable
Residence None
Appointer Governor General of Canada
Term length At the Governor General's pleasure
Formation1 July 1867
First holderSir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau
Website

The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec ( UK: /lɛfˈtɛnənt/ , French (masculine): Lieutenant-gouverneur du Québec, or (feminine): Lieutenante-gouverneure du Québec) is the viceregal representative in Quebec of the Canadian monarch , Queen  Elizabeth II , who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is similarly tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties. [1] The present and 29th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is J. Michel Doyon, who has served in the role since 24 September 2015. [2]

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

A viceroy is an official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjective form is viceregal, less often viceroyal. The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.

Contents

Role and presence

The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is tasked with a number of governmental duties. Not among them, though, is delivering the Throne Speech, which sets the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec apart from the other Canadian viceroys. (Instead, new parliaments begin with the Opening Speech by the premier. [3] [4] ) The lieutenant governor is also expected to undertake various ceremonial roles. For instance, upon installation, the lieutenant governor automatically becomes a Knight or Dame of Justice and the Vice-Prior in Quebec of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. As well, he or she will present numerous other provincial honours and decorations [5] and various awards that are named for and presented by the lieutenant governor, [6] which were reinstated in 2000 by Lieutenant Governor Lise Thibault. These honours are presented at official ceremonies, which count among hundreds of other engagements the lieutenant governor partakes in each year, either as host or guest of honour; in 2006, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec undertook 400 engagements and 200 in 2007. [7]

Speech from the throne

A speech from the throne is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed. When a session is opened, the address sets forth the government's priorities with respect to its legislative agenda, for which the cooperation of the legislature is sought. The speech is often accompanied with formal ceremony and is often held annually, although in some places it may occur more or less frequently, whenever a new session of the legislature is opened.

Premier of Quebec head of the government of Quebec

The Premier of Quebec (French: Premier ministre du Québec or Première ministre du Québec is the head of government of the Canadian province of Quebec. The current Premier of Quebec is François Legault of the Coalition Avenir Québec, sworn in on October 18, 2018 following the 2018 election.

Lise Thibault Canadian civil servant

Lise Thibault is a Canadian politician who served as the 27th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec in 1997 and later spent six months in jail for misuse of public funds and ordered to repay the government.

Standard of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Flag of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec.svg
Standard of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
Standard of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1939-1952) Flag of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec (1939-1952).svg
Standard of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1939–1952)
Standard of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1870-1939) Flag of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1870-1939).svg
Standard of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1870-1939)

At these events, the lieutenant governor's presence is marked by the lieutenant governor's standard, consisting of a blue field bearing the escutcheon of the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Quebec surmounted by a crown and set within a white disc; the Quebec viceregal flag is only one of two that are significantly different from all the others in Canada. Within Quebec, the lieutenant governor also follows only the sovereign in the province's order of precedence, preceding even other members of the Canadian Royal Family and the Queen's federal representative.

Coat of arms of Quebec coat of arms

The coat of arms of Quebec was adopted by order-in-council of the Government of Quebec on 9 December 1939, replacing the arms assigned by royal warrant of Queen Victoria on 26 May 1868.

The Quebec order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the province of Quebec. It has no legal standing but is used to dictate ceremonial protocol at events of a provincial nature.

  1. The Queen of Canada
  2. The Lieutenant Governor
  3. The Premier
  4. The Cardinals followed, when not a cardinal, by the Roman Catholic Archbishop having the status of Primate
  5. The President of the National Assembly
  6. The Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal
  7. The Vice-Premier
  8. The Dean of the Diplomatic Corps and the heads of diplomatic missions
  9. The Leader of the Opposition
  10. The members of the Executive Council
  11. The local Archbishop or Bishop followed by the representatives of other faith communities
  12. The local Mayor
  13. The Dean of the Consular Corps in Quebec City followed by the Dean of the Consular Corps in Montréal, the heads of post of the Consular Corps residing in the capital, for events happening there, and other heads of post, governed by their respective precedence
  14. The vice-presidents of the National Assembly
  15. The chief justices of the Superior Court
  16. The local member of the National Assembly followed by other members
  17. The Secretary General of the Executive Council
  18. The President of the Council of the National Order of Quebec
  19. The chief justices of the Court of Quebec
  20. The rectors/principals of the local universities
  21. The judges of the Court of Appeal
  22. The Principal Secretary to the Premier followed by the deputy ministers
  23. The judges of the Superior Court
  24. The Ombudsman, the Chief Electoral Officer, the Auditor General, the presidents of the Government Agencies and Crown Corporations and the Chief of Protocol
  25. The judges of the Court of Quebec
  26. The members of the National Order of Quebec
Governor General of Canada representative of the monarch of Canada

The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The person of the sovereign is shared equally both with the 15 other Commonwealth realms and the 10 provinces of Canada, but resides predominantly in her oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. The Queen, on the advice of her Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an unfixed period of time—known as serving at Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Beginning in 1959, it has also been traditional to rotate between anglophone and francophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual. Once in office, the governor general maintains direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.

The entrance of the offices of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, at 1050 des Parlementaires (Edifice Andre-Laurendeau), in Quebec City Cabinet du Lieutenant-gouverneur du Quebec.jpg
The entrance of the offices of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, at 1050 des Parlementaires (Édifice André-Laurendeau), in Québec City

It has been argued by Jeremy Webber and Robert Andrew Young that, as the office is the core of authority in the province, the secession of Quebec from the Confederation would first require the abolition or transformation of the post of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec; such an amendment to the constitution of Canada could not be done without, according to Section 41 of the Constitution Act, 1982, the approval of the federal parliament and all other provincial legislatures in Canada. [8] Others, such as J. Woehrling, however, have claimed that the legislative process towards Quebec's independence would not require any prior change to the viceregal post. [9] Young also felt that the lieutenant governor could refuse Royal Assent to a bill that proposed to put an unclear question on sovereignty to referendum or was based on the results of a referendum that asked such a question. [10]

Quebec sovereignty movement Movement for Québécois independence

The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement as well as an ideology of values, concepts and ideas that advocates independence for the Canadian province of Quebec.

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. It outlines Canada's system of government and the civil and human rights of those who are citizens of Canada and non-citizens in Canada. Furthermore, its contents are in fact an amalgamation of various codified acts, treaties between the Crown and indigenous peoples, uncodified traditions and conventions. Canada is one of the oldest constitutional democracies in the world.

The Constitution Act, 1982 is a part of the Constitution of Canada. The Act was introduced as part of Canada's process of patriating the constitution, introducing several amendments to the British North America Act, 1867, including re-naming it the Constitution Act, 1867. In addition to patriating the Constitution, the Constitution Act, 1982 enacted the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; guaranteed rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada; provided for future constitutional conferences; and set out the procedures for amending the Constitution in the future.

History

The office of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec came into being in 1867, upon the creation of Quebec at Confederation, [11] and evolved from the earlier position of Lieutenant Governor of Canada East. Since that date, 28 lieutenant governors have served the province, amongst whom were notable firsts, such as Lise Thibault—the first female and first disabled lieutenant governor of the province. The shortest mandate by a Lieutenant Governor of Quebec was Lomer Gouin, from January to March 1929, while the longest was Hugues Lapointe, from 1966 to 1978. [12]

Canadian Confederation process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867

Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada, on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories.

Lomer Gouin Canadian politician

Sir Jean Lomer Gouin, was a Canadian politician. He served as 13th Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec, as a Cabinet minister in the federal government of Canada, and as the 15th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.

Hugues Lapointe, was a Canadian lawyer, Member of Parliament and Lieutenant Governor of Quebec from 1966 to 1978.

Lomer Gouin, 15th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, from January to March 1929 Lomer Gouin, 1929.png
Lomer Gouin, 15th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, from January to March 1929

One of the few examples in Canada of a viceroy exercising the royal prerogative against or without ministerial advice came in 1887, when Lieutenant Governor Auguste-Réal Angers dismissed the Cabinet headed by Premier Honoré Mercier; a report concluded that Mercier's government had benefited from a kickback scheme with contractors building the Baie des Chaleurs railway. [13]

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government. It is the means by which some of the executive powers of government, possessed by and vested in a monarch with regard to the process of governance of the state, are carried out.

Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another. Especially in parliamentary systems of government, heads of state often act on the basis of advice issued by prime ministers or other government ministers. For example, in constitutional monarchies, the monarch usually appoints Ministers of the Crown on the advice of his or her prime minister.

Auguste-Réal Angers Canadian politician

Sir Auguste-Réal Angers was a Canadian judge and parliamentarian, holding seats both as a member of the House of Commons of Canada, and as a Senator. He was born in 1837 probably in Quebec City and died in Westmount, Quebec, in 1919.

The appointment of Jean-Louis Roux as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc, on the advice of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, stirred controversy, as Roux was well known as a strong opponent of Quebec independence and, soon after he took up the post, it was revealed that, as a university student in the 1940s, he had worn a swastika on his lab coat in protest of the proposal to invoke conscription for service in World War II and had participated in an anti-Semitic protest. [14] [15] Roux had, in an interview after his appointment as lieutenant governor, stated that he might have to use the reserve powers of the Crown should certain circumstances arise following a referendum result in favour of Quebec's separation from Canada; a statement that displeased Roux's premier at the time, Lucien Bouchard. Bouchard thereafter exploited the revelation of Roux's past anti-Semitism and the Lieutenant Governor soon resigned his post voluntarily in 1996. [14] [16] The following year, Bouchard tabled in the legislature three motions, calling the Office of the Lieutenant Governor "a heritage of the colonial past", the appointment process controversial and interfering, and demanding the post be abolished, though, until then, the federal Crown-in-Council should appoint a person "democratically designated by the [Quebec] Assembly". [16]

Residences and Offices

Since 1997 there is no longer an official residence; the Lieutenant Governors must instead obtain their own home in or near the capital. However, they still retain an official office at Édifice André-Laurendeau.

Previous residences includes Maison Sewell at 87, rue Saint-Louis (still standing), Spencer Wood from 1870 to 1966 (destroyed by fire 1966) and 1010 rue St. Louis (Maison Dunn) from 1967 to 1997. [17]

See also

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46°47′20″N71°14′24″W

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References

  1. Victoria (1867). "Constitution Act, 1867". V.58. Westminster: Queen's Printer (published 29 March 1867). Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  2. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada (21 July 2015). "PM Announces J. Michel Doyon as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 4 August 2015.[ permanent dead link ]
  3. National Assembly of Quebec. "Parliament and Government". Éditeur officiel du Québec. Archived from the original on February 23, 2010.
  4. Wiseman, Nelson (2009). "In Search of a Quebec Constitution" (PDF). Revue québécoise de droit constitutionnel. Quebec City: l'Association québécoise de droit constitutionnel. 2: 144. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  5. "Canada Wide > About Us > The Order of St. John > The Order of St. John in Canada". St. John Ambulance Canada. Retrieved 2 June 2009.
  6. Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. "Awards Program > Lieutenant Governor of Québec Awards Program". Éditeur officiel du Québec. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
  7. Berezovsky, Eugene (2009). Staff of Canadian Monarchist News (ed.). $1.52 per Canadian: The Cost of Canada's Constitutional Monarchy (PDF) (4 ed.). Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  8. Young, Andrew (1998). The secession of Quebec and the future of Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press. p. 215. ISBN   978-0-7735-1530-7.
  9. Webber, Jeremy (1997). "The Legality of a Unilateral Declaration of Independence under Canadian Law" (PDF). The McGill Law Journal. Montreal: McGill University. 42 (2): 288. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  10. Young 1998 , p. 457
  11. Victoria 1867 , V.63
  12. Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. "History > Previous Lieutenant Governors". Éditeur officiel du Québec. http://www.lieutenant-gouverneur.qc.ca/distinctions-honorifiques/programme-distinctions-en.html. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009.External link in |publisher= (help)
  13. Gougeon, Gilles (1994). A History of Quebec Nationalism. Bardfield End Green: Miles Kelly Publishing. p. 52. ISBN   978-1-55028-440-9.
  14. 1 2 McWhinney, Edward (2005). The Governor General and the Prime Ministers. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press. p. 46. ISBN   1-55380-031-1.
  15. Boyce, Peter John (2008). The Queen's Other Realms: The Crown and Its Legacy in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Sydney: Federation Press. p. 99. ISBN   9781862877009.
  16. 1 2 Boyce 2008 , p. 100
  17. "Site du Lieutenant-gouverneur du Québec — Residence". lieutenant-gouverneur.qc.ca. Retrieved 2018-11-22.