Ligue 2

Last updated
Ligue 2
Ligue 2 logo.svg
Founded1933
CountryFrance
Confederation UEFA
Number of teams 20 (18 from 2024–25)
Level on pyramid2
Promotion to Ligue 1
Relegation to Championnat National
Domestic cup(s) Coupe de France
International cup(s) UEFA Europa League (via cups)
Current champions Toulouse (3rd title)
(2021–22)
Most championships Le Havre
Nancy
(5 titles each)
TV partners beIN Sports
Téléfoot
Website Ligue2.fr (in French)
Current: 2021–22 Ligue 2
The Ligue 2 trophy Trophee de la Ligue 2.JPG
The Ligue 2 trophy

Ligue 2 (French pronunciation:  [liɡ dø] , League 2), also known as Ligue 2 BKT due to sponsorship by Balkrishna Industries, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the second division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel (LFP), the other being Ligue 1, the country's top football division. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with both Ligue 1 and the third division Championnat National. Seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 38 games each, totalling 380 games in the season. Most games are played on Fridays and Mondays, with a few games played during weekday and weekend evenings. Play is regularly suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January.

Contents

Ligue 2 was founded a year after the creation of the first division in 1933 under the name Division 2 and has served as the second division of French football ever since. The name lasted until 2002 before switching to its current name. Since the league is a part of the LFP, it allows clubs who are on the brink of professionalism to become so. However, if a club suffers relegation to the Championnat National, its professional status can be revoked temporarily until they return to Ligue 2.

History

The second division of French football was established in 1933, one year after the creation of the all-professional first division. The inaugural season of the competition consisted of the six clubs who were relegated following the 1932–33 National season, as well as many of the clubs who opposed the creation of the first division the previous season. Clubs such as Strasbourg, RC Roubaix, and Amiens SC all played in the second division's debut season despite having prior grievances with the subjective criteria needed to become professional and play in the first division. The first year of the second division consisted of twenty-three clubs and were divided into two groups (Nord and Sud). Fourteen of the clubs were inserted into the Nord section, while the remaining nine were placed in Sud. Following the season, the winner of each group faced each other to determine which club would earn promotion. On 20 May 1934, the winner of the Nord group, Red Star Saint-Ouen, faced Olympique Alès, the winner of the Sud group. Red Star were crowned the league's inaugural champions following a 3–2 victory. Despite losing, Alès was also promoted to the first division and they were followed by Strasbourg and Mulhouse, who each won a pool championship, after the first division agreed to expand its teams to 16.

Division 2 champions (Pre-WWII)
SeasonWinner
1933–34 Red Star Saint-Ouen
1934–35 CS Metz
1935–36 Rouen
1936–37 Lens
1937–38 Le Havre
1938–39 Red Star Saint-Ouen

Due to several clubs merging, folding, or losing their professional status, the federation turned the second division into a 16-team league and adopted the single-table method for the 1934–35 season. Due to the unpredictable nature of French football clubs, the following season, the league increased to 19 clubs and, two years later, increased its allotment to 25 teams with the clubs being divided into four groups. Because of World War II, football was suspended by the French government and the Ligue de Football Professionnel. Following the end of the war, the second division developed stability. Due to the increase in amateur clubs, the league intertwined professional and amateur clubs and allowed the latter to become professional if they met certain benchmarks. In 2002, the league changed its name from Division 2 to Ligue 2.

In November 2014, the presidents of Caen and Nîmes were amongst several arrested on suspicion of match fixing. The arrests followed a 1–1 draw between Caen and Nîmes in May 2014, a result very beneficial for each club. [1] [2]

Competition format

There are 20 clubs in Ligue 2. During the course of a season, usually from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion and promoted to Ligue 1. If points are equal, the goal difference and then goals scored determine the winner. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position. If there is a tie for the championship or for relegation, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank. The second-place finisher are also promoted to the first division. The fourth and fifth-place finishers play a one leg fixture at the fourth-place finisher's stadium, the winner of this fixture faces the third-place finisher at the third-place finisher's stadium, the winner of this fixture plays the 18th-placed team in Ligue 1 for the right to play in Ligue 1 the following season. The three lowest placed teams are relegated to the Championnat National and the top three teams from National are promoted in their place. While a decision was originally made that during the 2015–16 season only the best two teams would be promoted to Ligue 1 and the last two teams would be relegated to the National, [3] that decision was later overturned by an appeal to the Conseil d'État [4] and the French Football Federation. [5] [6]

In December 2021, the majority of LFP member clubs, including Championnat National club leaders, voted to contract Ligue 2 from 20 to 18 clubs for the 2024–25 season. This will happen one year after Ligue 1 itself drops from 20 to 18 teams for the 2023-24 season. The plan is for Ligue 2 to relegate four clubs to, and promote two from, National at the end of 2023–24. [7]

Ligue 2 members (2021–22 season)

ClubFinishing position last season LocationVenueCapacity
Ajaccio 13th Ajaccio Stade François Coty 10,446
Amiens 10th Amiens Stade de la Licorne 12,097
Auxerre 6th Auxerre Stade de l'Abbé-Deschamps 21,379
Bastia 1st in Championnat National (promoted) Furiani Stade Armand Cesari 16,078
Caen 17th Caen Stade Michel d'Ornano 21,215
Dijon 20th in Ligue 1 (relegated) Dijon Stade Gaston Gérard 15,995
Dunkerque 16th Dunkirk Stade Marcel-Tribut 4,200
Grenoble 4th Grenoble Stade des Alpes 20,068
Guingamp 9th Guingamp Stade de Roudourou 18,378
Le Havre 12th Le Havre Stade Océane 25,178
Nancy 8th Tomblaine Stade Marcel Picot 20,087
Nîmes 19th in Ligue 1 (relegated) Nîmes Stade des Costières 18,482
Niort 18th Niort Stade René Gaillard 10,886
Paris FC 5th Paris (13th arrondissement) Stade Charléty 20,000
Pau 14th Pau Stade du Hameau 13,819
Rodez 15th Rodez Stade Paul-Lignon 5,955
Quevilly-Rouen 2nd in Championnat National (promoted) Rouen Stade Robert Diochon 12,018
Sochaux 7th Montbéliard Stade Auguste Bonal 20,005
Toulouse 3rd Toulouse Stadium Municipal 33,150
Valenciennes 11th Valenciennes Stade du Hainaut 25,172

    Previous winners

    ClubWinnersRunners-upWinning yearsRunner-up years
    Le Havre 511937–38, 1958–59, 1984–85, 1990–91, 2007–081949–50
    Nancy 511974–75, 1989–90, 1997–98, 2004–05, 2015–161969–70
    Lens 421936–37, 1948–49, 1972–73, 2008–092013–14, 2019–20
    Nice 411947–48, 1964–65, 1969–70, 1993–941984–85
    Lille 411963–64, 1973–74, 1977–78, 1999–20001970–71
    Metz 431934–35, 2006–07, 2013–14, 2018–191950–51, 1960–61, 1966–67
    Montpellier 331945–46, 1960–61, 1986–871951–52, 1980–81, 2008–09
    Saint-Étienne 331962–63, 1998–99, 2003–041933–34, 1937–38, 1985–86
    Strasbourg 321976–77, 1987–88, 2016–171971–72, 2001–02
    Toulouse 311981–82, 2002–03, 2021–221996–97
    Lyon 31950–51, 1953–54, 1988–89
    Rennes 251955–56, 1982–831938–39, 1957–58, 1975–76, 1989–90, 1993–94
    Valenciennes 251971–72, 2005–061934–35, 1936–37, 1961–62, 1974–75, 1991–92
    Red Star 231933–34, 1938–391954–55, 1964–65, 1973–74
    Angers 231968–69, 1975–761955–56, 1977–78, 1992–93
    Sochaux 221946–47, 2000–011963–64, 1987–88
    Ajaccio 221966–67, 2001–022010–11, 2021–22
    Caen 221995–96, 2009–102003–04, 2006–07
    Troyes 222014–15, 2020–211953–54, 1972–73
    Alès 211933–34, 1956–571946–47
    FC Nancy 211945–46, 1957–581959–60
    Reims 211965–66, 2017–182011–12
    Grenoble 21959–60, 1961–62
    Bastia 21967–68, 2011–12
    Nîmes 131949–501967–68, 1990–91, 2017–18
    Sedan 131954–551971–72, 1998–99, 2005–06
    Brest 131980–811978–79, 2009–10, 2018–19
    Marseille 131994–951965–66, 1983–84, 1995–96
    Monaco 132012–131952–53, 1970–71, 1976–77
    Rouen 121935–361933–34, 1981–82
    Stade Français 121951–521945–46, 1958–59
    Lorient 122019–201997–98, 2000–01
    Toulouse (1937) 111952–531945–46
    Tours 111983–841979–80
    Bordeaux 111991–921948–49
    Paris Saint-Germain 11970–71
    Gueugnon 11978–79
    Auxerre 11979–80
    RCF Paris 11985–86
    Martigues 11992–93
    Châteauroux 11996–97
    Evian 12010–11

    Notes:

    Top goalscorers

    SeasonGoalsTop Scorer(s)Club(s)
    1933–34 54 goals Jean Nicolas Rouen
    1934–35 30 goals Jean Nicolas Rouen
    1935–36 45 goals Jean Nicolas Rouen
    1936–37 30 goals Viktor Spechtl Lens
    1937–38 29 goals Hugo Lammana CA Paris
    1938–39 39 goals Harold Newell & Planques Boulogne & Toulouse FC (1937)
    1939–45 World War II
    1945–46 27 goalsCampiglia Angers
    1946–47 45 goals Jozef "Pépé" Humpal Sochaux
    1947–48 28 goals Henri Arnaudeau Bordeaux
    1948–49 41 goals Camille Libar Bordeaux
    1949–50 27 goals Edmund Haan Nîmes
    1950–51 23 goals Thadée Cisowski Metz
    1951–52 34 goals Egon Johnsson Stade Français
    1952–53 27 goals Bror Mellberg Toulouse FC (1937)
    1953–54 36 goals Jean Courteaux RC Paris
    1954–55 40 goals Petrus Van Rhijn Valenciennes
    1955–56 32 goals Petrus Van Rhijn Valenciennes
    1956–57 27 goals Fernand Devlaeminck Lille
    1957–58 29 goals Egon Johnsson FC Nancy
    1958–59 31 goals Petrus Van Rhijn Stade Français
    1959–60 29 goalsCorbel Rouen
    1960–61 28 goals Casimir Kozakiewicz Strasbourg
    1961–62 21 goals Serge Masnaghetti Valenciennes
    1962–63 24 goals Ernesto Gianella Béziers
    1963–64 21 goals Abderrahmane Soukhane Le Havre
    1964–65 22 goals Anton Groschulski Red Star
    1965–66 30 goals Pierre Ferrazzi Grenoble
    1966–67 23 goals Etienne Sansonetti Bastia
    1967–68 26 goals Jacques Bonnet Avignon
    1968–69 55 goals Gérard Grizetti Angoulême
    1969–70 21 goals Robert Blanc FC Nancy
    1970–71 20 goals
    20 goals
    20 goals
    Nord: Yves Triantafyllos
    Centre: Robert Blanc
    Sud: Emmanuel Koum
    Boulogne
    Limoges
    Monaco
    1971–72 20 goals
    28 goals
    40 goals
    Gr. A: Pierre Pleimelding
    Gr. B: Yegba Maya Joseph
    Gr. C: Marc Molitor
    Troyes
    Valenciennes
    Strasbourg
    1972–73 22 goals
    31 goals
    Gr. A: Eugeniusz Faber
    Gr. B: Gérard Tonnel
    Lens
    Troyes
    1973–74 26 goals
    24 goals
    Gr. A: Erwin Wilczek
    Gr. B: Nestor Combin
    Valenciennes
    Red Star
    1974–75 25 goals
    28 goals
    Gr. A: Georges Tripp
    Gr. B: Jean Martinez
    Laval
    Nancy
    1975–76 22 goals
    25 goals
    Gr. A: Boško Antić
    Gr. B: Marc Berdoll
    Caen
    Angers
    1976–77 30 goals
    24 goals
    Gr. A: Delio Onnis
    Gr. B: Albert Gemmrich
    Monaco
    Strasbourg
    1977–78 19 goals
    23 goals
     
    Gr. A: Giudicelli
    Gr. B: Jean-Claude Garnier
    Gr. B: Pierre-Antoine Dossevi
    Alès
    Dunkerque
    Tours
    1978–79 24 goals
    26 goals
    Gr. A: Antoine Trivino
    Gr. B: Patrice Martet
    Gueugnon
    Brest
    1979–80 16 goals
    19 goals
     
    Gr. A: Alain Polaniok
    Gr. A: Bernard Ferrigno
    Gr. B: Jacky Vergnes
    Gr. B: Robert Pintenat
    Reims
    Tours
    Montpellier
    Toulouse
    1980–81 32 goals
    22 goals
    Gr. A: Robert Pintenat
    Gr. B: Marcel Campagnac
    Toulouse
    Sporting Club Abbeville
    1981–82 18 goals
    25 goals
     
    Gr. A: Marc Pascal
    Gr. B: Zarko Olaveric
    Gr. B: Isiaka Ouattara
    Marseille
    Le Havre
    Mulhouse
    1982–83 28 goals
    18 goals
    Gr. A: Wlodzimierz Lubanski
    Gr. B: Christian Dalger
    Valenciennes
    Toulon
    1983–84 23 goals
    23 goals
    Gr. A: Mario Relmy
    Gr. B: Omar Da Fonseca
    Limoges
    Tours
    1984–85 27 goals
    28 goals
    Gr. A: John Eriksen
    Gr. B: Jorge Dominguez
    Mulhouse
    Nice
    1985–86 22 goals
    29 goals
    Gr. A: Jean-Marc Valadier
    Gr. B: Eugene N'Goy Kabongo
    Montpellier
    RC Paris
    1986–87 22 goals
    21 goals
    Gr. A: Zvonko Kurbos
    Gr. B: Gaspard N'Gouete
    Mulhouse
    Bastia
    1987–88 18 goals
     
    26 goals
    Gr. A: Jean-Pierre Orts
    Gr. A: Stéphane Paille
    Gr. B: Patrice Martet
    Lyon
    Sochaux
    Rouen
    1988–89 22 goals
    27 goals
    Gr. A: Roberto Cabanas
    Gr. B: Robby Langers
    Brest
    Orléans
    1989–90 26 goals
    21 goals
    Gr. A: Didier Monczuk
    Gr. B: Jean-Pierre Orts
    Strasbourg
    Rouen
    1990–91 23 goals
    19 goals
    Gr. A: Didier Monczuk
    Gr. B: Christophe Lagrange
    Strasbourg
    Angers
    1991–92 22 goals
    21 goals
    Gr. A: Jean-Pierre Orts
    Gr. B: Didier Monczuk
    Rouen
    Strasbourg
    1992–93 21 goals
    18 goals
    Gr. A: Franck Priou
    Gr. B: Jean-Pierre Orts
    Cannes
    Rouen
    1993–94 27 goals Yannick Le Saux Stade Briochin
    1994–95 31 goals Tony Cascarino Marseille
    1995–96 30 goals Tony Cascarino Marseille
    1996–97 23 goals Samuel Michel Sochaux
    1997–98 20 goals Reginald Ray Le Mans
    1998–99 20 goals Hamed Diallo Laval
    1999–2000 17 goals Amara Traoré Gueugnon
    2000–01 21 goals Francileudo Santos Sochaux
    2001–02 18 goals Hamed Diallo Amiens
    2002–03 20 goals Cédric Fauré Toulouse
    2003–04 17 goals David Suarez Amiens
    2004–05 24 goals Bakari Koné Lorient
    2005–06 16 goals Jean-Michel Lesage & Steve Savidan Le Havre & Valenciennes
    2006–07 18 goals Jean-Michel Lesage & Kandia Traore Le Havre & Le Havre
    2007–08 28 goals Guillaume Hoarau Le Havre
    2008–09 18 goals Grégory Thil Boulogne
    2009–10 21 goals Olivier Giroud Tours
    2010–11 23 goals Sebastián Ribas Dijon
    2011–12 15 goals Cédric Fauré Reims
    2012–13 23 goals Mustapha Yatabaré Guingamp
    2013–14 23 goals Andy Delort & Mathieu Duhamel Tours & Caen
    2014–15 18 goals Mickaël Le Bihan Le Havre
    2015–16 21 goals Famara Diedhiou Clermont
    2016–17 23 goals Adama Niane Troyes
    2017–18 24 goals Umut Bozok Nîmes
    2018–19 27 goals Gaëtan Charbonnier Brest
    2019–20 20 goals Tino Kadewere Le Havre
    2020–21 22 goals Mohamed Bayo Clermont

    Records

    77 points (1994–95 season) or 1.833 points per game (42 games) for Toulouse FC.
    72 points (1995–96 season, 22 teams involved): or 1.71 points per game for Stade Lavallois.
    71 points (2018-19 season, 20 teams involved): or 1.868 points per game for Troyes.
    70 points (2020–21 season, 20 teams involved): or 1.84 points per game for Toulouse FC.
    52 points (curtailed 2019-20 season, 20 teams involved) or 1.857 points per game (28 games) for AC Ajaccio.

    Broadcaster

    France

    BroadcasterDuration
    beIN Sports 2012–13 → 2023–24
    Eurosport 2008–09 → 2011–12
    Numericable 2008–09 → 2009–10
    Téléfoot 2020–21

    International

    Sponsorship names

    Notes

      Related Research Articles

      Ligue 1 Association football league in France

      Ligue 1, officially known as Ligue 1 Uber Eats for sponsorship reasons, is a French professional league for men's association football clubs. At the top of the French football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Administrated by the Ligue de Football Professionnel, Ligue 1 is contested by 20 clubs and operates on a system of promotion and relegation from and to Ligue 2.

      Toulouse FC French association football club

      Toulouse Football Club is French professional football club based in Toulouse. The club was founded in 1970 and currently plays in Ligue 2, the second division of French football, but will play in Ligue 1 in the 2022–23 season. Toulouse plays its home matches at the Stadium de Toulouse located within the city.

      Ligue de Football Professionnel Football league

      The Ligue de Football Professionnel, commonly known as the LFP, is a French governing body that runs the major professional football leagues in France. It was founded in 1944 and serves under the authority of the French Football Federation. The current president of the league is Vincent Labrune. It is headquartered in Paris.

      Championnat National Football league

      The Championnat de France National, commonly referred to as simply National or Division 3, serves as the third division of the French football league system behind Ligue 1 and Ligue 2. Contested by 18 clubs, the Championnat National operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Ligue 2 and the Championnat National 2, the fourth division of French football.

      The 2000–01 Ligue 1 season was the 63rd since its establishment. FC Nantes won the French Association Football League for the eighth time with 68 points.

      Olympique de Marseille won the 1992–93 Division 1 season of the French Association Football League with 53 points but lost its title due to a bribery scandal. The club that finished second, Paris Saint Germain refused it, making it unattributed.

      Olympique de Marseille won Division 1 season 1991/1992 of the French Association Football League with 58 points.

      The Ligue 2 2009–10 season was the sixty-ninth edition since its establishment. The fixtures were announced on 5 June 2009, and the league began on 7 August and ended on 14 May 2010.

      The 2009–10 Coupe de la Ligue was the 16th edition of France's league cup, organized by the LFP. The defending champions were Ligue 1 club Bordeaux who defeated second division club Vannes 4–0 in the 2009 final. The competition began on 25 July 2009 and the final was held on 27 March 2010 at the Stade de France. The winners of the Coupe de la Ligue will qualify for the third qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League 2010–11. Ligue 1 club Marseille won the competition by defeating fellow first division club Bordeaux by a score of 3–1 in the final, thus giving them their first trophy since 1992.

      The 2010–11 Ligue 1 season was the 73rd since its establishment. Entering the season, Marseille were the defending champions. The fixtures were announced on 21 May 2010 and the season began on 7 August and ended on 29 May 2011. The winter break was in effect between 23 December and 15 January 2011. There were three promoted teams from Ligue 2, replacing the three teams that were relegated from Ligue 1 following the 2009–10 season. A total of 20 teams currently competes in the league with three clubs suffering relegation to the second division, Ligue 2. All clubs that secured Ligue 1 status for the season were subject to approval by the DNCG before becoming eligible to participate. In addition, German sportswear company Puma, whom the Ligue de Football Professionnel share a partnership with, provided a brand new match ball for the new season.

      The 2010–11 Ligue 2 season was the 72nd since its establishment. Caen were the defending champions. The fixtures were announced on 22 May 2010 and the season began on 6 August and ended on 27 May 2011. The winter break would be in effect between 22 December and 14 January 2011. There were three promoted teams from the Championnat National, replacing the three teams that were relegated from Ligue 2 following the 2009–10 season. A total of 20 teams currently competes in the league with three clubs suffering relegation to the third division, the Championnat National. All clubs that secured Ligue 2 status for the season were subject to approval by the DNCG before becoming eligible to participate. In addition, German sportswear company Puma, whom the Ligue de Football Professionnel share a partnership with, provided a brand new match ball for the new season.

      The 2012–13 Ligue 2 season was the 74th season since its establishment. The league schedule was announced in April 2012 and the fixtures were determined on 30 May. The season began on 27 July and ended on 24 May 2013. The winter break was in effect from 22 December to 12 January 2013. In addition, German sportswear company Uhlsport became the official provider of match balls for the season after agreeing to a long-term partnership with the Ligue de Football Professionnel.

      Umut Dilan Bozok is a professional footballer who plays as a striker for Süper Lig club Kasımpaşa, on loan from Ligue 1 club Lorient. Born in France, he is a youth international for Turkey.

      The 2018–19 Ligue 1 season, also known as Ligue 1 Conforama for sponsorship reasons, was the 81st season since its establishment. The season began on 10 August 2018 and concluded on 24 May 2019. Paris Saint-Germain were the defending champions.

      The 2018–19 Championnat National 3 is the second season of the fifth tier in the French football league system in its current format. The competition is due to be contested by 168 clubs split geographically across 12 groups of 14 teams. The teams include amateur clubs and the reserve teams of professional clubs.

      The 2019–20 Ligue 1 season, also known as Ligue 1 Conforama for sponsorship reasons, was a French association football tournament within Ligue 1. It was the 82nd season since its establishment. The season began on 9 August 2019 and ended abruptly on 28 April 2020.

      The 2020–21 Ligue 1 season, also known as Ligue 1 Uber Eats for sponsorship reasons, was a French association football tournament within Ligue 1. It was the 83rd season since its establishment. The season started on 21 August 2020 and ended on 23 May 2021. The league fixtures were announced on 9 July 2020.

      The 2020–21 Ligue 2 season, also known as Ligue 2 BKT for sponsorship reasons, was the 82nd season of second-division football in France, and the 19th season since the division was rebranded as Ligue 2 from Division 2. Due to the uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the announcement of the start and end dates for the season was delayed. There were suggestions that the season would feature just 18 teams, as opposed to the usual 20, after France's highest administrative court overturned the relegations of Amiens and Toulouse from Ligue 1; however, the relegations were reinstated by the General Assembly of the LFP with a vote on 23 June 2020. The league fixtures were announced on 9 July 2020 and the league season began on 22 August 2020 and ended on 15 May 2021.

      The 2020–21 Stade Malherbe Caen season was the 108th season and current season of the club since its creation in 1913. Caen participated in Ligue 2, the second division of French football, for the second year in a row after relegation from Ligue 1 in 2019, and also competed in the Coupe de France.

      The 2021–22 Stade Malherbe Caen season was the 109th season of the club since its creation in 1913. Caen participated in Ligue 2, the second division of French football, for the third year in a row after relegation from Ligue 1 in 2019, and also competed in the Coupe de France.

      References

      1. "Marseille arrests and match-fixing probe rock French football". France 24. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
      2. "Presidents of two French clubs arrested on match-fixing suspicions". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
      3. "Ligue 1 reduces relegation spots from three to two from next season". ESPN FC. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
      4. "Ligue 1 relegation places stay at three, uncertainty continues". ESPN FC. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
      5. "Le référé de la LFP rejeté". Le Figaro.fr (in French). 14 August 2015.
      6. "Ligue 1/Ligue 2 : il y aura bien trois rélégations/promotions". Le Parisien. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
      7. "Foot : la Ligue 2 à 18 clubs à partir de 2024-2025". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 9 December 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2022.