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The Italian peninsula in 1796
Devastated blazon because of the proclamation of the Ligurian Republic, 1797; Taggia, Italy
|Status||Sister republic of France|
|Common languages||Italian, Ligurian|
|Girolamo Luigi Durazzo|
|Council of Seniors|
|Council of Sixty|
|Historical era||Napoleonic Wars|
|14 June 1797|
|4 June 1805|
The Ligurian Republic (Italian : Repubblica Ligure) was a French client republic formed by Napoleon on 14 June 1797. It consisted of the old Republic of Genoa which covered most of the Ligurian region of Northwest Italy, and the small Imperial fiefs owned by the House of Savoy inside its territory. Its first Constitution was promulgated on 22 December 1797, establishing a Directorial republic. The directory was deposed on 7 December 1799 and the executive was temporarily replaced by a commission. In 1800 a doge was nominated for 5 years. In 1802 he was nominated for life.
The Republic was briefly occupied by the Austrian forces in 1800, but Napoleon soon returned with his army. A new Constitution was published in 1801, establishing institutions more similar to those of the previous Genoan Republic, with a Doge who was president of a Senate. The Ligurian Republic used the traditional Genoese flag, a red cross on a white background.
In June 1805, Genoa was annexed by the French.
After conflict sparked in May 1797 between Genoese inhabitants regarding their wealthy rulers, Napoleon took Genoa and established his own order. The French engaged in a mass robbery of Genoa, leaving the people and their land in a ruinous state. Napoleon announced the existence of the Ligurian republic on 6 June 1797. The people's cooperation under Napoleon's domain was undoubtedly brought on in part by Archbishop Giovanni Lercari, who showed his support of the French only three days later. A Ligurian constitution was crafted, which was unprogressive and meant only as a temporary document. That December, the constitution's replacement emerged. A large majority approved the constitution by plebiscite.
In June 1798, the rulers of the Ligurian Republic led the people into war against Piedmont after exiles attempted to form an uprising. The French eventually intervened in the war, resulting in the French occupation of Piedmont.
In 1800, the Ligurian Republic was surrounded by the Austrian army and British fleet. An estimated 30,000 casualties resulted from the conflicts, and the French army had to be relied on for economic restoration. Eventually, the Ligurian leaders placed themselves at the feet of Napoleon, asking that he take direct control. He accepted.
In June 1805, the area was directly annexed by France as the départements of the Apennins, Gênes and Montenotte. After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, the republic was briefly restored between 28 April and 28 July. Following the Congress of Vienna it was awarded to the Kingdom of Sardinia and annexed on 3 January 1815.
Liguria is a region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa. Its territory is crossed by the Alps and the Apennines mountains chains. Liguria is bordered by France to the west, Piedmont to the north, and Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east. It lies on the Ligurian Sea. The region is part of the Alps-Mediterranean Euroregion.
The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801. The signatory parties were the French Republic and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. The latter was negotiating both on his own behalf as ruler of the hereditary domains of the Habsburg Monarchy and on behalf of other rulers who controlled territories in the Holy Roman Empire. The signatories were Joseph Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl, the Austrian foreign minister.
André Masséna, 1st Duke of Rivoli, 1st Prince of Essling was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon, with the nickname l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire.
The Cisalpine Republic was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by most of the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden, though Prussia did not join this coalition and Spain supported France.
The Doge of Genoa was the ruler of the Republic of Genoa, a communal republic, from 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797. Originally elected for life, after 1528 the Doges were elected for terms of two years. In actuality, the Republic was an oligarchy ruled by a small group of merchant families, from whom the doges were selected.
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February. The Roman Republic was one of the Italian "sister republics" of Revolutionary France. It was placed under the French Directory and was composed of territory conquered from the Papal States. Pope Pius VI was exiled to France and died there in 1799. It immediately took control of the other two former-papal revolutionary administrations, the Tiberina Republic and the Anconine Republic. The Roman Republic was short-lived, as the Papal States were restored in October 1799.
Following the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, France renounced its claims on the Imperial fiefs in northern Italy and on the Spanish viceroyalties of the Mezzogiorno. The Imperial fiefs were ruled by the Doria in Genoa, the Medici in Tuscany, the Spanish Habsurgs in Milan, the Farnese in Parma, the Este in Modena, and the House of Savoy in Piedmont. The southern kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia were under direct rule of Habsburg Spain. The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs and therefore much of Italy was, directly or indirectly, under Habsburg influence. The Papal States and the Republic of Venice remained, legally and practically, independent.
Gênes[ʒɛn] was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy. It was named after the city of Genoa. It was formed in 1805, when the Ligurian Republic was annexed directly to France. Its capital was Genoa.
A sister republic was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars. These republics, though nominally independent, relied heavily on France for protection, and aid when push came to shove, which made the republics more of autonomous states, rather than an independent republic, which was shown after the declaration of the First French Empire, when several states were annexed, and the remaining turned into puppet monarchies.
The Republic of Lucca was a historic state of Italy, which lasted from 1160 to 1805 on the central Italian peninsula.
The Subalpine Republic was a short-lived republic that existed between 1800 and 1802 on the territory of Piedmont during its military rule by Napoleonic France.
Novi Ligure is a city and comune north of Genoa, in the Piedmont region of the province of Alessandria of northwest Italy.
Genoa, Italy, has historically been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean.
The Ligurian Independentist Movement was a regional political party in Italy.
Lodovico di Campofregoso (1415–1489) was an Italian nobleman who was three times doge of Genoa.
The Genoese Navy, also known as the Genoese Fleet, was the naval contingent of the Republic of Genoa's military. From the 11th century onward the Genoese navy protected the interests of the republic and projected its power throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The navy declined in power after the 16th century, periodically coming under the control of foreign powers, and was finally disbanded following the annexation of Genoa by the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1815.
The Second Battle of Novi or Battle of Bosco saw a Republican French corps under General of Division Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr face a division of Habsburg Austrian soldiers led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Andreas Karaczay. For several hours the Austrians defended themselves stoutly, relying on their superior cavalry and artillery. By the end of the day the French and allied Poles routed the Austrians from their positions in this War of the Second Coalition action. Novi Ligure is south of Alessandria, Italy.
The Convention of Alessandria was a treaty signed on 15 June 1800 between the French First Republic led by Napoleon and Austria during the War of the Second Coalition. Following the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Marengo, they agreed to evacuate Italy as far as the Mincio and abandon strongholds in Piedmont and Milan. Great Britain and Austria were allies and hoped to negotiate a peace treaty with France, but Napoleon insisted on separate treaties with each nation. The negotiations failed, and fighting resumed on 22 November 1800.
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