Lilian Thuram

Last updated

Lilian Thuram
Lilian Thuram - Fevrier 2013.jpg
Thuram in 2013
Personal information
Full nameRuddy Lilian Thuram-Ulien [1]
Date of birth (1972-01-01) 1 January 1972 (age 48) [2]
Place of birth Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe
Height 1.82 m (6 ft 0 in) [3]
Playing position(s) Defender
Youth career
Portugais de Fontainebleau
RC Fontainebleau
Entente 77
RC Fontainebleau
1990–1991 Monaco
Senior career*
1991–1996 Monaco 155 (8)
1996–2001 Parma 163 (1)
2001–2006 Juventus 144 (1)
2006–2008 Barcelona 41 (0)
National team
1994–2008 France 142 (2)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only

Ruddy Lilian Thuram-Ulien (French pronunciation:  [li.ljɑ̃ ty.ʁam] ; [4] born 1 January 1972) is a French retired professional football defender and the most capped player in the history of the France national team with 142 appearances between 1994 and 2008.


Thuram played at the top flight in France, Italy and Spain for over 15 seasons, including ten in Serie A with both Parma and Juventus. With France, Thuram was a key player for the team that won the 1998 FIFA World Cup, his side also won UEFA Euro 2000, and was in the runner-up squad for the 2006 World Cup. A quick, powerful and versatile player, he was capable of playing both as a centre-back or as a right-back, and was competent both offensively and defensively. Despite his physical and aggressive playing style, Thuram has been described as a "studious" figure off the pitch; [5] in 2010, he became a UNICEF ambassador, and has stood out for his initiatives to fight against racism. [6]

Early life

Thuram was born in Guadeloupe in the French West Indies. His family relocated to mainland France in 1981. [7]

Club career

Thuram's football career began with Monaco in Ligue 1 in 1991. He then transferred to Parma (1996–2001) and then to Juventus (2001–2006) for £25 million, and eventually to Barcelona in 2006.


Thuram started his professional career with Monaco in 1991. He only made one appearance that season, but was officially promoted to the first team the following season, when he would go on to make 19 appearances. He was inserted into the starting XI by the end of 1992 and would go on to make 155 league appearances for the Ligue 1 outfit, before transferring to Parma in the summer of 1996. He made his national team debut in 1994, while at Monaco. With Monaco, he most notably won the Coupe de France in 1991, also reaching the final of the 1991–92 European Cup Winners' Cup.


In July 1996, Thuram made a high-profile transfer to Italy to join Serie A club Parma. In his first season, he made over 40 appearances for the club in all competitions, scoring one goal, as Parma finished second in the 1996–97 Serie A to Juventus. He maintained a starting position in defence throughout his time with Parma, making 163 Serie A appearances and scoring one league goal. In all, he made over 200 appearances for the club, really making a name for himself, also earning caps for France. Following another overly impressive season in 2000–01, where Parma reached the Coppa Italia final, and finishing the Serie A season in fourth place, Thuram, [8] along with teammate Gianluigi Buffon, transferred to Juventus. His transfer cost the club 80 billion Italian lire (€41,316,552). [9] While at Parma, along with eventual Juventus teammates Buffon and Fabio Cannavaro, Thuram won both the UEFA Cup and the Coppa Italia during the 1998–99 season, immediately followed by the 1999 Supercoppa Italiana.


In the summer of 2001. Thuram made a transfer to Juventus, along with goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon. Thuram formed defensive partnerships with the likes of Ciro Ferrara, Paolo Montero, Gianluca Pessotto, Mark Iuliano, Alessandro Birindelli, Igor Tudor, Gianluca Zambrotta, Nicola Legrottaglie, Fabio Cannavaro, Giorgio Chiellini, Federico Balzaretti and Jonathan Zebina during his five-year tenure with the club. In his first season with the club, as a right back under Marcello Lippi, Thuram won the 2001–02 Serie A title, also reaching the final of the 2001–02 Coppa Italia. Juventus started the following season by winning the 2002 Supercoppa Italiana, and defended their Serie A title, also reaching the UEFA Champions League final, where they were defeated by rivals Milan on penalties.

Juventus won the 2003 Supercoppa Italiana the following season, reaching another Coppa Italia final, but finished in a disappointing 3rd place in Serie A, and failed to progress past the second round in the Champions League. During the 2004–05 and 2005–06 seasons under coach Fabio Capello, Thuram, along with Fabio Cannavaro in the centre of defence, with Gianluigi Buffon in goal, Gianluca Zambrotta at left back,[ citation needed ] and Jonathan Zebina at right back[ citation needed ] formed one of the most expensive, but also most feared, defences in Europe and Italy. During these next two seasons with the club, Thuram won the Scudetto two more times with Juventus, although these consecutive league titles were later revoked due to Juventus' involvement in the 2006 Italian football scandal (calciopoli). After five years with Juve, Thuram transferred to Barcelona in the Spanish La Liga, in the wake of the calciopoli scandal. He managed over 200 total appearances for the club, with two goals.


Thuram with Barcelona in 2008 Lilian Thuram - 001.jpg
Thuram with Barcelona in 2008

On 24 July 2006, Thuram signed with Barcelona for €5 million after Juventus were relegated to Serie B due to the calciopoli scandal. [10] [11]

In Thuram's last season (2007–08), he was the third- or fourth-choice centre-back after Carles Puyol, Gabriel Milito and Rafael Márquez. [12] On 26 June 2008, he was reported as having signed a one-year contract with an option for another year with Paris Saint-Germain. [13] The deal, however, was cancelled shortly after because he was diagnosed with a heart defect that had caused the death of his brother. [14] On 2 August, he announced his final retirement from professional football due to his condition. [15]

International career

Thuram (left) alongside Zinedine Zidane, playing for France in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final. Italy vs France - FIFA World Cup 2006 final - Lilian Thuram and Zinedine Zidane.jpg
Thuram (left) alongside Zinedine Zidane, playing for France in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.

After becoming world champion in 1998, Thuram was an integral part of France's triumph at UEFA Euro 2000, which led to the team being ranked by FIFA as number one from 2001–2002. He also played in the 2002 World Cup, 2006 World Cup, Euro 1996, Euro 2004 and Euro 2008, in addition to winning the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup.

1998 World Cup

Thuram scored both his international goals in France's 2-1 World Cup semi final win over Croatia. This saw France through to the final where the team defeated Brazil 3–0 to win their first World Cup. Thuram was awarded the Bronze Ball as the third most valuable player in the tournament. He, Bixente Lizarazu, Laurent Blanc and Marcel Desailly comprised the backbone of the French defence that conceded only two goals in seven matches. [16]

2006 World Cup

After a brief international retirement, France coach Raymond Domenech convinced Thuram to return to the French team on 17 August 2005, along with fellow "Golden Generation" teammates Zinedine Zidane and Claude Makélélé, as Les Bleus struggled to qualify for the 2006 World Cup. Thuram's centre back partnership with William Gallas was to be the foundation for France's progression to the final. Thuram earned his 116th cap for France in the group stage match against South Korea in Leipzig on 18 June 2006. In that game he equalled Desailly's record number of caps, which he broke in the final group stage match, a 2–0 win over Togo in Cologne on 23 June 2006, winning his 117th cap. He was named the man of the match in France's semi-final 1–0 victory against Portugal, coincidentally the same distinction he had earned eight years earlier at the semi-finals of the 1998 World Cup.

Euro 2008

On 9 June 2008, Thuram took the field against Romania in a group match, and became the first player to make 15 UEFA European Championship finals appearances. The former record of 14 appearances was held by Zinedine Zidane, Luís Figo and Karel Poborský. [17] He played one more game during the tournament, raising the number of his appearances to 16, which record was then equaled a few days later by Edwin van der Sar from the Netherlands in the quarter-finals. Thuram was the captain of France in the tournament. He, along with Claude Makélélé, announced his retirement from international football on 17 June 2008, after France's 2–0 loss to Italy. [18] He finished his career with the national team as France's most capped player with 142 appearances.

Style of play

Thuram's signed Barca shirt, on display at the World Museum in Liverpool, 2008 Only a game Lilian Thuram (2956628278).jpg
Thuram's signed Barça shirt, on display at the World Museum in Liverpool, 2008

Thuram was an extremely dominant, consistent, athletic and attentive footballer, who was considered by pundits to be one of the best defenders in the world in his prime. [19] [20] As a defender, he was known for his strength, pace, stamina and his outstanding physical, tactical, and technical attributes, as well as his elegance, intelligence, ability to read the game, his heavy marking of opponents, and his aggressive tackling, which made him difficult to beat in one on one situations; he also excelled in the air. As a full-back, he was known for his ability to make attacking runs up the flank and contribute to his team's offensive play after winning back the ball. [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] A large, powerful and versatile player, who was equally competent offensively as he was defensively, he could play on either flank or in the centre, due to his ability with either foot, often alternating between playing as a centre-back or as a right-back, and was even deployed in midfield on occasion. [5] [22] In spite of his physical and tenacious playing style, he was also known to be a fair player. [26]

Personal life

Thuram's cousin is Amiens player Yohann Thuram-Ulien. [27] He has two sons with his first wife Sandra, Marcus (born 6 August 1997) and Khéphren (born January 2001), and both became professional footballers. [28]

Thuram is separated from Karine Le Marchand, a French TV host, who registered and then withdrew a complaint of domestic violence against him. [29]


Thuram was sponsored by sportswear company Nike and appeared in Nike commercials. In a global Nike advertising campaign in the run-up to the 2002 World Cup in Korea and Japan, he starred in a "Secret Tournament" commercial (branded "Scorpion KO") directed by Terry Gilliam, appearing alongside football players such as Thierry Henry, Ronaldo, Edgar Davids, Fabio Cannavaro, Francesco Totti, Ronaldinho, Luís Figo and Hidetoshi Nakata, with former player Eric Cantona the tournament "referee". [30] [31]

Political engagement

Thuram on a 2013 march through Paris by supporters of same-sex marriage in France. Manif pro mariage LGBT 27012013 15.jpg
Thuram on a 2013 march through Paris by supporters of same-sex marriage in France.

Beyond his football career, Thuram has always shown political engagement, and has frequently spoken out against racism. [6] In such, during the French riots in November 2005, Thuram took a position against Nicolas Sarkozy, the head of the conservative political party (and future president) UMP and then Minister of the Interior. Thuram was opposed to the verbal attacks against young people that the then-Minister made when he talked about the "scum", and he said that Nicolas Sarkozy never lived in a "banlieue", areas of low-income housing surrounding French cities. [32]

On 6 September 2006, Thuram sparked controversy when he invited 80 people, who were expelled by French Minister of the Interior Nicolas Sarkozy from a flat where they lived illegally, to the football match between France and Italy. [33] [34] He has also engaged in campaigns that favour the Catalan language in Northern Catalonia. [35]

In November 2011, Thuram curated an exhibition at the Musée du quai Branly entitled "Human Zoos: The Invention of the Savage". It examined the human zoos that traced the practice of using colonial subjects as exhibits in zoos and freak shows. [36] The material in the exhibition runs from the parade of Brazil's Tupinamba "savages" for the royal entrance of King Henry II of France in 1550 in Rouen, to the last "living spectacle" of Congo villagers exhibited in Brussels in 1958. [37]

In January 2013, Thuram took part in a march through Paris by supporters of the Ayrault government's plan to legalise same-sex marriage. [38] He had previously explained that he supported same-sex marriage in the name of equal rights (comparing the denial of equality for homosexuals to the denial of equal rights for women and for black people in earlier periods of history), and in the name of France's secular principles ( laïcité ), rejecting religious arguments against civil marriage. He also expressed support for the right of same-sex couples to adopt children. [39]

Career statistics

Thuram (back; third from right) in the line-up for Barcelona, 2007 FC Barcelona 2007 cropped.jpg
Thuram (back; third from right) in the line-up for Barcelona, 2007


Source: [40] [41] [42]
Monaco 1990–91 Division 1 10000010
1991–92 1904040270
1992–93 3702040430
1993–94 2513181363
1994–95 3722031423
1995–96 365303020445
Parma 1996–97 Serie A 3411020371
1997–98 3206080460
1998–99 34080110530
1999–2000 34 1 02010100470
2000–01 3008070450
Juventus 2001–02 Serie A 3003080410
2002–03 2710010150431
2003–04 230400050320
2004–05 37010110490
2005–06 270400080390
Barcelona 2006–07 La Liga 230201040300
2007–08 1804060280
Career total5041057191113168313

1Includes one Champions League Serie A play-off match (2000).


Thuram (left) with compatriot Youri Djorkaeff in 2009. Both featured in the France squads at the FIFA World Cups of 1998 and 2002, and UEFA European Championships in 1996 and 2000. Thuram et Djorkaeff lors du jubile Pauleta.jpg
Thuram (left) with compatriot Youri Djorkaeff in 2009. Both featured in the France squads at the FIFA World Cups of 1998 and 2002, and UEFA European Championships in 1996 and 2000.
Source: [43]

International goals

1.8 July 1998 Stade de France, Saint-DenisFlag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 1–12–1 1998 FIFA World Cup


Monaco [44]

Parma [44]

Juventus [44]

Barcelona [44]

France [44]



Related Research Articles

David Trezeguet French footballer

David Sergio Trezeguet is a French former footballer who played as a striker.

Gianluigi Buffon Italian footballer

Gianluigi "Gigi" Buffon, is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Serie A club Juventus. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest goalkeepers of all time, and, by some, as the greatest ever. Buffon holds the record for the longest streak without conceding a goal in Serie A history of over 12 league matches; he went unbeaten for 974 consecutive minutes during the 2015–16 season, achieving the most consecutive clean sheets (10) during that run. Buffon also holds the record for the most clean sheets and most appearances in Serie A, and with the Italy national team. He is one of the few recorded players to have made over 1,000 professional career appearances.

Alessandro Nesta Italian footballer

Alessandro Nesta is an Italian professional football manager and former player who currently manages Serie B club Frosinone. Widely considered to be one of the best centre backs of his time and also as one of the greatest defenders ever, he was best known for his pace, artistic tackles, elegance on the ball, distribution and tight marking of opponents.

Igor Tudor Croatian football player and coach

Igor Tudor is a Croatian professional football coach and former player who is the assistant coach of Serie A club Juventus.

Fabio Cannavaro Italian footballer

Fabio Cannavaro is an Italian former professional footballer and current manager of Chinese club Guangzhou Evergrande. A centre-back, he spent the majority of his career in Italy. He started his career at Napoli before spending seven years at Parma, with whom he won two Coppa Italia titles, the 1999 Supercoppa Italiana, and the 1999 UEFA Cup. After spells at Internazionale and Juventus, he transferred from Juventus to Real Madrid in 2006, with whom he won consecutive La Liga titles in 2007 and 2008. After returning to Juventus for one season in 2009–10, he joined Al-Ahli in Dubai, where he retired from football in 2011 after an injury-troubled season.

Francesco Toldo Italian footballer

Francesco Toldo is an Italian retired footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He is regarded by pundits as one of the greatest goalkeepers of his generation.

Gianluca Zambrotta Italian footballer

Gianluca Zambrotta is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a full-back or as a wide midfielder, on both the left and right wings.

Andrea Pirlo Italian football player and coach

Andrea Pirlo is an Italian professional football coach and former player who is the head coach of Serie A club Juventus. Considered to be one of the greatest deep-lying playmakers of all time, Pirlo was renowned for his vision, ball control, technique, creativity, passing, and free-kick ability.

Paolo Montero Uruguayan footballer and manager

Rónald Paolo Montero Iglesias is a Uruguayan football manager and former player, who played as a central defender or left-back. He has been the head coach of Colón de Santa Fe and Rosario Central, and most recently served as the head coach of Italian Serie C club Sambenedettese.

Ciro Ferrara Italian former footballer and manager

Ciro Ferrara is an Italian former footballer and manager. His most recent position was as manager of Wuhan Zall. He had also previously coached Juventus and the Italy national under-21 team. As an assistant coach to Marcello Lippi, he won the 2006 FIFA World Cup with Italy senior team.

Gianluca Pessotto Italian footballer

Gianluca Pessotto is a retired footballer who played as a defender or midfielder. A former Italian international, he spent the majority of his club career with Juventus, where he won several domestic and international trophies, and is now head of its youth system. He represented his country at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, and at UEFA Euro 2000, reaching the final of the latter tournament.

Andrea Barzagli Italian footballer

Andrea Barzagli is an Italian former professional footballer who played as a centre-back. A four-time member of the Serie A Team of the Year, Barzagli is regarded as one of the best and most consistent defenders of his generation.

Fabio Grosso Italian footballer

Fabio Grosso is an Italian former professional football player and manager of Sion.

Giorgio Chiellini Italian footballer

Giorgio Chiellini is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a defender and captains both Serie A club Juventus and the Italy national team. A physically strong, aggressive, and versatile defender, although he is usually deployed as a centre-back, he is also capable of playing as a left-back, both in a three or four-man defence.

Alain Boghossian is a French former professional footballer, who played as a midfielder. He serves as an assistant coach for the French national team.

Fabián Carini Uruguayan footballer

Héctor Fabián Carini Hernández is a retired Uruguayan football goalkeeper.

The 2001–02 season was Juventus Football Club's 104th in existence and 100th consecutive season in the top flight of Italian football. Juventus ended a three-year drought of league titles, following a remarkable turnaround in fortunes during the final days of the season, when Inter suffered from a collapse of nerves in the closing stages. On the final day of the league season, Juventus won 2–0 away from home against Udinese, while Inter fell at Lazio 4–2, despite leading twice. That handed Juventus its 26th Serie A title, and made up for the disappointing exit from the second group stage in the UEFA Champions League.

Marcus Lilian Thuram-Ulien is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward for Bundesliga side Borussia Mönchengladbach. He is the son of World Cup winner Lilian Thuram.


  1. 1 2 "Décret du 24 juillet 1998 portant nomination à titre exceptionnel" [Decree of 24 July 1998 appointing on an exceptional basis]. Journal Officiel de la République Française (in French). 1998 (170): 11376. 25 July 1998. PREX9801916D. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  2. "2006 FIFA World Cup Germany: List of players: France" (PDF). FIFA. 21 March 2014. p. 11. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  3. "Lilian Thuram". FC Barcelona. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  4. Lilian Thuram (2012). Lilian Thuram, Vidéo de soutien pour l'égalité des droits (YouTube) (in French). Projet Entourage. Event occurs at 0:01. Retrieved 28 January 2012. Bonjour, je m'appelle Lilian Thuram.
  5. 1 2 "Euro 2000 Profile: Lilian Thuram". BBC. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  6. 1 2 "Il campione Lilian Thuram a Treviso contro il razzismo" (in Italian). Treviso 24. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  7. "No thrills, No attitude, Just Thuram". French Football Weekly. 6 September 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  8. "Juve snatch Thuram". BBC Sport. 18 June 2001. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
  9. Parma AC SpA Report and Accounts on 30 June 2001 (in Italian)
  10. "Thuram Signs Contract". 24 July 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2012
  11. "Agreements with the Spanish club FC Barcelona" (PDF). Juventus F.C. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  12. "Thuram move ended by heart defect". BBC Sport. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  13. Paul Fisher (26 June 2008). "Thuram Signs With PSG". Bleacher Report . Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  14. "Thuram move ended by heart defect". BBC Sport. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  15. "Thuram retires due to heart condition". UEFA. 2 August 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  16. Wilson, Jonathan (21 March 2020). "Ranked! The 10 best players of France 98". FourFourTwo. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  17. "Thuram sets EURO appearance record". UEFA. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  18. "France duo call it quits". Sky Sports . 18 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  19. 1 2 Stefano Bedeschi. "Gli eroi in bianconero: Lilian Thuram" (in Italian). Tutto Juve. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  20. 1 2 "MasterCard All-Star Team of the 1998 World Cup". FIFA. 10 July 1998. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  21. 1 2 CHRISTOPHER CLAREY (9 July 1998). "WORLD CUP '98; From Right to Left, Thuram Sparkles". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  22. EMANUELE GAMBA (15 May 2003). "Thuram e Zambrotta perfetti Davids non si ferma mai". La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  23. "Buffon da record, superato Casillas" (in Italian). 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  24. "I migliori difensori nell'uno contro uno (2000-2020)" (in Italian). 29 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  25. Gianni Mura (14 April 1997). "CHOC JUVENTUS, IL PARMA SOGNA". La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  26. "Transfer window: Charlton sign Yohann Thuram-Ulien". BBC Sport. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  27. "Monaco: la Juve suivrait Khéphren, le 2e fils de Lilian Thuram". 18 November 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  28. "The Times of India: Latest News India, World & Business News, Cricket & Sports, Bollywood". The Times Of India.
  29. "A lighter shoe, cooler kits, a faster ball, a Secret Tournament – every touch counts". NikeBiz. Nike. Archived from the original on 2 June 2002. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  30. Cozens, Claire (3 April 2002). "Cantona hosts World Cup with a difference". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  31. Bremner, Charles; Sage, Adam (10 November 2005). "Soccer heroes blame social injustice". The Times . Retrieved 2 December 2006.
  32. Bremner, Charles (7 September 2006). "Footballer plays political host". The Times. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
  33. "If you can keep a cool head". The Guardian . Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  34. "Oleguer and Thuram to present a manifesto supporting Catalan in Northern Catalonia". Avui (in Catalan). 10 March 2007. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
  35. Chrisafis, Angelique (29 November 2011). "Paris show unveils life in human zoo". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  36. "Current exhibitions: Human zoos". Musée du quai Branly. 22 November 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  37. "Mariage pour tous : entre 125 000 et 400 000 personnes ont défilé à Paris", Agence France-Presse, 27 January 2013
  38. "Mariage gay – Lilian Thuram : "Il faut préserver cette société laïque, qui pense l'égalité pour tous", Jeune Afrique , 25 January 2013
  39. "Lilian Thuram career statistics". Football Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  40. "Lilian Thuram Serie A stats". Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  41. "Lilian Ulien Thuram – Matches in European Cups". RSSSF. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  42. "Lilian Thuram – Century of International Appearances". RSSSF . Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 "L. Thuram". Soccerway. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  44. "France – Footballer of the Year". RSSSF. 8 January 2010. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  45. "Italy – Footballer of the Year". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  46. José Luis Pierrend (9 June 1999). "FIFA Awards - World Cup 1998 "Golden Ball"". RSSSF. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  47. Karel Stokkermans (14 March 2007). "ESM XI". RSSSF. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  48. "UEFA Euro 2000 team of the tournament". UEFA. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  49. "Pele's list of the greatest". BBC Sport. 4 March 2004. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  50. "FIFPro World XI 2005/2006". FIFPro. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  51. "Eden Hazard meilleur joueur de Ligue 1" [Eden Hazard best Ligue 1 player] (in French). LFP. 22 May 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  52. "Décret du 29 mars 2013 portant promotion et nomination" [Decree of 29 March 2013 on promotion and appointment]. Journal Officiel de la République Française (in French). 2013 (0077): 5480. 31 March 2013. PREX1307219D. Retrieved 24 August 2019.