Lillian Board

Last updated

Lillian Board
Lillian Board.jpg
Lillian Board at the 1968 Olympics
Personal information
Full nameLillian Barbara Board
NationalityBritish
Born13 December 1948
Durban, South Africa
Died26 December 1970(1970-12-26) (aged 22)
Munich, Germany
Height5 ft 6 in (1.68 m)
Sport
Country Great Britain
Sport Track and field
Event(s) 400 metres, 800 metres
ClubLondon Olympiades

Lillian Barbara Board, MBE (13 December 1948 – 26 December 1970) was a British athlete. She won the silver medal in the 400 metres at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, and two gold medals at the 1969 European Championships in Athletics in Athens. Her career was cut short in 1970 when she developed the colorectal cancer that within months would claim her life.

400 metres sprint running event

The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.

The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, from October 12th to the 27th.

Mexico City Capital City in Mexico, Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Contents

Early life

Board was born in Durban on 13 December 1948. Her parents, George and Frances Board, had emigrated from Manchester, England, to South Africa in April 1947, along with their son George Alfred. Growing homesick shortly after the birth of Lillian and her fraternal twin sister, Irene, the family moved back to Manchester in February 1950. [1]

Durban Place in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Durban is the third most populous city in South Africa—after Johannesburg and Cape Town—and the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Located on the east coast of South Africa, Durban is famous for being the busiest port in the country. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches. Durban forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which includes neighboring towns and has a population of about 3.44 million, making the combined municipality one of the biggest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. It is also the second most important manufacturing hub in South Africa after Johannesburg. In 2015, Durban was recognised as one of the New7Wonders Cities. The city was heavily hit by flooding over 4 days from 18 April 2019, leading to 70 deaths and R650 000 000 in damage.

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 in 2017; the Greater Manchester Built-up Area is the United Kingdom's second-most populous, with a population of 2.55 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

South Africa Republic in the southernmost part of Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.

In 1956, the family moved to Ealing, west London, where Lillian and Irene, then aged 7, started studying at Drayton Green School. [2]

Ealing suburb of London, England

Ealing is a district of west London, England, located 7.9 miles (12.7 km) west of Charing Cross. It is the administrative centre of the London Borough of Ealing, and identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan.

Developing athletics career

In 1960, at the age of 11, Lillian and her sister moved to Grange Secondary Modern Girls' School, also in Ealing and now part of The Ellen Wilkinson School for Girls. It was here in 1961 that Physical Education teacher Sue Gibson (a Middlesex county discus champion) spotted that Lillian, now aged 12, had a special talent for running. She took her to join London Olympiades, the leading all-female athletics club, which had a training base at Alperton, north-west London. Here she competed in relays and 100 and 150 yard sprints. [3]

The Ellen Wilkinson School for Girls is a comprehensive, foundation secondary school for 1400 girls aged 11–19 years, located in the London borough of Ealing. The reviews are currently 3.5–4 stars. Ofsted rates them as 'good'

Middlesex historic county of England

Middlesex is an historic county in southeast England. It is now almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London. Its area is now also mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, and existed as an official unit until 1965. The county includes the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, is the second smallest by area of England's historic counties, after Rutland.

Alperton district

Alperton is an area of northwest London, England, in the London Borough of Brent. It is centred 7.5 miles (12 km) west north-west of Charing Cross. It includes a handful of high-rise and many mid-rise buildings as well as streets of low-rise houses with gardens. As with all of west London it is in the historic county of Middlesex. Adjoining the Grand Union Canal's Paddington Arm fed by the Brent Reservoir it forms the southern part of Wembley.

The following year, 1962, she began competing in the long jump and after training through that winter, improved markedly as both a sprinter and long jumper. [4]

Long jump track and field event

The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps". This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.

In 1963, aged 14, she won the junior long jump title at the All-England Schools Championships (now known as The English Schools Championships) with a leap of 17 ft 3 in (5.26 m), and then finished 2nd (17 ft 5 34 in or 5.328 m) in the long jump at the Women's Amateur Athletic Association's national junior championships. She ended the season with victory in the long jump at the Southern Inter-Counties meeting, her leap of 17 ft 8 12 in (5.398 m) the best by a British junior girl that year. [5]

Trained by her father George and inspired by an illustrious club-mate, international long jumper and pentathlete Mary Rand, she concentrated on the sprints from the 1964 season with an emphasis on strength work and with a view to eventually moving up from the short sprints to the 440 and 880 yards, where George felt sure her future lay. She made her debut over both 220 yds and 880 yds in 1964, winning both events in times of 26.2 and 2:30.8, respectively. [6]

In 1965, aged 16, Board was a member of the London Olympiades squad that won the 4 × 100 m relay title at the Women's AAA junior championships. Later that year, she showed her versatility with a career best leap of 5.80 m in the Long Jump and indoor wins over 60 yards (7.2) and 300 yards (42.0). She also lowered her 100 y best time to 10.9 and her 220 y best to 24.7. [7]

Due to age rules, Board was unable to make her debut at the 440 yds until April 1966 when, aged 17 and now a senior, she finished a close 2nd in an inter-club meeting at Southall, London, in 58.1 seconds. She then ran 57.3 in the Southern Counties Championships, before taking fourth place in the Women's AAA senior 440 yds final in a time of 54.6, the fastest ever recorded by a 17-year-old in Europe. [8] Meanwhile, she took a secretarial course at Chiswick Polytechnic after leaving school, and worked between training sessions as a typist. [9]

International success

1966 season

Board's performances at 400 m in the 1966 season earned her a place in the England team for the Commonwealth Games held in Kingston, Jamaica, that August. Here, after winning her 400 m heat (54.7), Lillian finished 5th in the final in a time of 54.7 seconds, just outside her personal best. It was a very creditable effort for a 17-year-old. Disappointingly, she was not then chosen for the Great Britain team at the European Championships in Budapest, which were held from 30 August – 4 September. However, such disappointment was short-lived as later in September, she made her Great Britain debut, achieving 4th in the 400 m (55.9) in a match against France in Lille. [10]

1967 season

Board firmly announced her arrival onto the international scene when, still aged only 18, she won the 400 m race in a Commonwealth v USA match in Los Angeles, California on 9 July 1967. She came from last to first with a stunning late surge and won in a time of 52.8 seconds, the second fastest ever recorded by a European woman. The race was broadcast live on British television and made her into a household name. Winning in such style at the biggest meeting of year was clearly a turning point in her career. [11]

She followed this momentous triumph with a run of four wins at 400 m in five international events, most notably securing the only victory for Britain's women (in a time of 53.7) in the 1967 European Cup, final in Kiev on 15 September. That season she also lowered her 200 m personal best to 24.6 and her 880 y best to 2.08.7. Recognition of a highly successful season came when she was chosen as Athlete of the Year by the Athletic Writers' Association. [12]

1968 season and Olympic Games

Board began the 1968 season by winning the 440 yard race at an inter-club meeting in Brighton, her time of 54.8 comfortably inside the Olympic qualifying standard. She then leapt to the top of the world rankings after winning over 400 m (53.5) at an international meeting in Moscow. [13] However, at the Women's AAA championships in July, she spurned the chance of an almost certain victory in the 400 m and instead decided to contest the 800 metres. After winning her heat (2.05.7), she showed her huge potential in this event by running a superb 2:02.0 (the second fastest ever by a British woman), to finish 2nd to the reigning European 800 m champion, Vera Nikolic of Yugoslavia, whose time of 2:00.5 was a new world record. [11]

She continued her preparations for Mexico with a personal best of 23.5 when winning the 200 m in a match against West Germany in August and taking the 400 m (53.0) against Poland in September. She also anchored a British relay team to a new 4 × 110 y world record (45.0) later that month. [14]

After that excellent build-up, she went into the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City as favourite to win the 400 m gold medal. After finishing a comfortable second in her 400 m heat (53.00), she won her semi-final in a personal best 52.56. In the final itself on 16 October, she only took the lead about 100 m from the finish and maintained her advantage well down the home straight. She looked certain to win but was caught just before the line by Colette Besson of France and beaten into second place by a mere 0.09 seconds. Setting a new UK record of 52.12 had not quite been enough to win gold. Nevertheless, it was an excellent effort by a 19-year-old competing in her first Olympics. [15]

1969 season and European Championships

In 1969, Board began the season with a personal best 11.9 for 100 metres and a 52.9 contribution to a 4 × 400 metres world record (3:37.6), but in early July she strained ligaments in her back, forcing her to miss five weeks of the season. She returned in August with a 52.5 anchor leg in the 4 × 400 m relay to help Great Britain defeat the USA in an international match at London's White City; and then gained a modicum of 'revenge' on her Olympic nemesis, Colette Besson, when taking the 400 m (53.7) in a match against France in Middlesbrough. [16]

However, her back was still painful, more so when she ran shorter distances, so she decided to go for the 800 metres at the 1969 European Athletics Championships in Athens that September. Still inexperienced at the longer event and ranked only 8th in Europe on her performances that season, she was not strongly fancied for 800 m gold. She won her heat comfortably (2:04.2) and then, two days later, produced a superb performance in the final on 18 September sprinting away from her rivals on the final bend and winning by eight metres in a personal best time of 2:01.4, a new championship record. [17] She was the first British woman to win this European title, the second being Lynsey Sharp in 2012. [18]

Just two days later, 20 September, Board lined up for Great Britain in the 4 × 400 m relay. Running the last leg, she came from ten metres down entering the home straight to beat her old rival Besson, who was anchoring the French squad, in a dramatic photo finish, not only winning gold for Britain but also helping to set a new world record of 3:30.8. Having claimed two gold medals, it was no surprise that she was named as 'Best Woman Athlete in the Games'. [19] The relay team, featuring Board, Rosemary Stirling, Pat Lowe and Janet Simpson, was the first British team to win that title at the competition.

A further accolade came when she was appointed as a Member of the Order of the British Empire, for services to sport, in the 1970 New Year Honours. [20] Known as the Golden Girl of British athletics for her blonde good looks and medal success, Board had become a very popular public figure, earning herself another nickname: 'Britain's favourite girl'. [11] In December 1969, she was the 'mystery runner' at the Nos Galan (New Year's Eve) festival, held annually in the Welsh village of Mountain Ash to commemorate the legendary Welsh runner, Guto Nyth Bran.

1970 season

Board ran two mile races early in the 1970 campaign, partly to build up stamina for the 800 m and partly with the aim of becoming the first athlete to represent Britain at all distances, the 1500 m being the only one missing from her collection. After running a solid 4:55.7 on her miling debut, she was selected for an international mile race in Rome on 16 May. Here she improved her personal best to 4:44.6, finishing second to a former mile world record holder, Paola Pigni of Italy. Her time moved her to No 2 in the UK all-time lists for the women's mile, behind only another former world record holder at the distance, Anne Smith. [21]

Cancer and early death

Initial health problems

Soon after the mile race in Rome, she began to suffer from stomach upsets. These were diagnosed as a virus and she was prescribed pills. She continued to feel unwell but still managed to contribute a 2:07.0 leg to a 4 × 800 m world record on 13 June in Edinburgh. She ran 2:06.8 six days later when winning her 800 m heat at the Women's AAA championships at Crystal Palace, London, despite being doubled up in pain before the race. [22] Pale and underweight, she then finished a tired third (2:05.1) in the 800 m final on 20 June. [11]

Diagnosis and treatment

That 800 m final proved to be her last race. X-rays revealed inflammation of the bladder and her condition was initially diagnosed as Crohn's disease, forcing her to halt training and ruling her out of July's Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. However, after further X-rays, tests and two biopsies she was correctly diagnosed with terminal colorectal cancer (or bowel cancer) in September 1970. An exploratory operation at St Mark's Hospital, London, on 8 October, revealed that the cancer had spread to her stomach and she was given two months to live. [23]

Seeking a cure, she travelled in November 1970 to the village of Rottach-Egern, in the Bavarian Alps near Munich, West Germany, to be treated by the controversial physician, Dr Josef Issels, at his Ringberg Cancer Clinic. Adhering to his belief in non-mainstream treatments, she was placed on a strict diet of healthy food and with spring water and herbal tea as her only drinks. She then had her tonsils and two front teeth removed as Issels believed they helped spread infection. [24]

Her condition worsened and she was moved to an intensive care unit at the clinic on 11 December. The following day, she underwent an operation to drain water from her abdomen. [25]

Early death

She was transferred to Munich University Clinic on 21 December 1970, with suspected peritonitis. She was found not to have peritonitis but still needed to undergo an operation to remove a stomach blockage. This was done on 23 December. [26] She recovered from the after-effects of the operation, but on 24 December she lapsed into a coma from which she would not emerge. She died in Munich two days later, aged 22. [27] She was cremated at Putney Vale Crematorium on 1 January 1971.

A memorial service was held for her at St Paul's Cathedral, London, on 21 January 1971, and she is commemorated in Munich with an avenue bearing her name that leads to the Munich Olympic Stadium. [28] A biography entitled simply Lillian was published by her fiancé, David Emery, in 1971. [9]

Honours and awards

Achievements

YearCompetitionVenuePositionEventNotes
1967 European Cup Kiev, Soviet Union1st400 m53.7
1968 Summer Olympics Mexico City, Mexico2nd400 mUK record (52.12)
1969 European Championships Athens, Greece1st800 metresChampionship record (2:01.4)
1st4 × 400 metresWorld record (3:30.8)

National titles and records

Personal bests

EventMarkYear
100 metres 11.91969
200 metres 23.421968
400 metres 52.121968
800 metres 2:01.41969
Mile run 4:44.61970
Long jump 5.80 m1965

She only competed twice in the mile run and ceased competing in the long jump in 1967.

Personal life

Board was engaged to sports journalist David Emery at the time of her death. Emery was at her side throughout her illness. He subsequently married her twin sister Irene. [30]

A talented dressmaker and designer, Board often made her own clothes, including a pink coat she wore to receive the MBE from Queen Elizabeth II in January 1970.

She was the only female panellist on the first nationwide edition of BBC TV's quiz show A Question of Sport , broadcast on 5 January 1970. The other panellists were footballers George Best and Tom Finney and cricketer Ray Illingworth. (The team captains were boxer Henry Cooper and rugby player Cliff Morgan, and the presenter was David Vine.) The recording of this historic edition of one of television's most popular and durable programmes (now in its 48th year) is missing from the BBC archives.

Related Research Articles

Colette Besson French sprinter

Colette Besson was a French athlete, the surprise winner of the 400 m at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City.

Kelly Sotherton Welsh athletics (sport) competitor

Kelly Jade Sotherton is an English former heptathlete. In the heptathlon she was the bronze medallist at the 2004 Summer Olympics and, following the disqualification of two other athletes, also at the 2008 Summer Olympics, as well as being part of the bronze medal winning team in the Women's 4x400m relay at the 2008 Summer Olympics. As such she is one of only five women to win multiple medals in Olympic heptathlon.

Irena Szewińska Polish sprinter and sports official

Irena Szewińska, née Kirszenstein was a Polish sprinter who was one of the world's foremost athletes for nearly two decades, in multiple events. She is the only athlete in history, male or female, to have held the world record in the 100m, the 200m and the 400m.

Tamsyn Manou Australian middle-distance runner

Tamsyn Carolyn Manou is an Australian athlete and middle-distance runner, who has won a total of eighteen Australian Championships at 400 metres, 800 metres and 400m hurdles.

Kathryn Jane Cook is one of the most successful female sprinters in British athletics history. She is three-times an Olympic bronze medallist, including at 400 metres in Los Angeles 1984. Her other individual achievements include winning the 200m at the 1981 Universiade, finishing second in the 100m at the 1981 World Cup, and winning a bronze medal in the 200m at the 1983 World Championships. She is also three-times a winner of the British Athletics Writers' Association Female Athlete of the Year Award (1980–82).

Nicola Sanders British track and field athlete

Nicola Clare Sanders is a British former track and field sprinter. She began her career as a 400 metres hurdles specialist before concentrating on the 400 metres from 2006 onwards. Her 400 metres personal best is 49.65 seconds. She holds the British indoor record with 50.02 seconds, which ranks her as the fifth fastest woman of all-time indoors.

Christine Ohuruogu British female 400m Olympic sprinter

Christine Ijeoma Ohuruogu, MBE is a British track and field athlete who specialises in the 400 metres, the event for which she is a former Olympic, World and Commonwealth champion. The Olympic champion in 2008, and silver medalist in 2012, she is a double World Champion, having won the 400 m at the 2007 and 2013 World Championships. She has also won six World championship medals in the women's 4 x 400m relay as part of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland team and bronze Olympic medals with the women's 4 x 400m relay at the 2008 Beijing Games and the 2016 Rio Games, her final Olympics. Ohuruogu shares with Merlene Ottey and Usain Bolt the record for medalling in most successive global championships - 9 between the 2005 World Championships in Athletics and the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Janet Mary Simpson was a British athlete who competed in sprint events and the 400 metres.

Vera Ivanovna Popkova was a Soviet track and field athlete who competed in the sprints. She had personal bests of 11.3 seconds for the 100 metres and 23.0 seconds for the 200 metres. Over her career, she won eight individual national titles in the sprints.

Andrew William Carter is a British retired track and field athlete who participated in the men's 800 metres at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany. Carter finished sixth in a time of 1:46.55.

Marilyn Neufville Jamaican sprinter

Marilyn Fay Neufville is a retired sprint runner who was active between 1967 and 1971. Neufville broke the world record in the 400 m and won four gold medals and one bronze in various regional championships. Born in Jamaica, she emigrated at eight years old to Great Britain.

Linda Staines is a former British track and field athlete who competed mainly in the 400 metres. She represented Great Britain at the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul in both the 400 metres and 4 x 400 metres relay, and won a bronze medal in the 4 × 400 m relay at the 1993 World Championships. She also won four medals at the Commonwealth Games, including a silver medal in the 400 metres in 1990.

Svetla Stefanova Zlateva is a retired Bulgarian sprinter and middle-distance runner who specialized in the 400 and 800 metres. She is a former world record holder in the latter event.

Lilyana Tomova-Todorova, born 9 August 1946) is a retired Bulgarian sprinter and middle-distance runner who specialized in the 400, 800 and 1500 metres.

Eilidh Doyle Scottish track and field athlete

Eilidh Doyle is a British track and field athlete who specialises in the 400 metres hurdles and the 4 x 400 metres relay. She represented Great Britain at the 2012 Olympic Games in London, and won an Olympic bronze medal in the 4 x 400 metres relay at the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro.

Sheila Carey British middle-distance runner

Sheila Janet Carey MBE, is a retired British middle-distance runner who represented the United Kingdom at the 1968 and 1972 Summer Olympics. In 1968, she placed fourth in the 800 metres, while in 1972, she finishing fifth in the 1500 metres, setting a new British record. She represented England at the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1974. She was also part of the British 4×800 metres relay team that twice broke the world record in 1970.

Rosemary Olivia Wright is a former British sprinter and middle-distance runner. She won a gold medal in the 4 × 400 m relay at the 1969 European Championships, and a gold medal in the 800m at the 1970 Commonwealth Games. Her 800m best of 2:00.15, stood as the Scottish record for 30 years (1972-2002).

Nicole Duclos is a French former track and field athlete who competed in the 400 metres. She broke the world record for the event in 1969, running 51.77 seconds to become European champion in 1969. She also shared in a world record in the 4×400 metres relay. She represented France at the 1972 Summer Olympics and was a three-time national champion.

Yvonne Saunders-Mondesire is a Jamaican-Canadian former track and field athlete. A versatile athlete, she competed in women's pentathlon, long jump, high jump, 400 metres and 800 metres. She competed internationally for Canada, Jamaica, and England during her career.

Martina Steuk German athletics competitor

Martina Steuk is a German former track and field athlete who represented East Germany. She competed in the 800 metres and occasionally the 400 metres.

References

  1. Emery, pp. 15–16
  2. Emery, p. 16
  3. Emery, 17–18
  4. Emery, pp. 20–21
  5. Emery, pp. 21–22
  6. Emery, pp. 24–28
  7. Emery, pp. 32–34
  8. Emery, pp. 37–39
  9. 1 2 Rachel Cutler, ‘Board, Lillian Barbara (1948–1970)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2010 accessed 13 Dec 2011
  10. Emery, 41–42
  11. 1 2 3 4 Watman, p. 104
  12. Emery, pp. 55–56, 63
  13. Emery, pp. 67–69
  14. Emery, pp. 70–71
  15. History and Heroes from every Olympic Games since 1896; Sunday Times Great British Olympians
  16. Emery, pp. 90–91
  17. Watman, p. 105
  18. British Medallists in European Championships
  19. Emery, pp. 94–95
  20. "No. 44999". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1969. p. 13.
  21. Emery, pp. 107–108
  22. Emery, 108–109
  23. Emery, pp. 110–121
  24. Emery, pp. 149–150
  25. Emery, pp. 163–165
  26. Emery, pp. 171–73
  27. BBC ON THIS DAY: 26 December 1970: "'Golden girl' of British athletics dies"
  28. She is also commemorated in Greenford in London by a street called Lilian [sic] Board Way. Note incorrect spelling of first name. Lillian Board memorials
  29. Emery, pp. 189–190
  30. "2015 Hall of Fame inductees announced". England Athletics. 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2016.

Notes