Limousin

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Limousin

Lemosin  (Occitan)
Limousin flag.svg
Flag
BlasonLimousin.svg
Coat of arms
Limousin in France.svg
Coordinates: 45°41′17″N1°37′14″E / 45.68795°N 1.620483°E / 45.68795; 1.620483 Coordinates: 45°41′17″N1°37′14″E / 45.68795°N 1.620483°E / 45.68795; 1.620483
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Dissolved2016-01-01
Prefecture Limoges
Departments
Government
   President Gérard Vandenbroucke (PS)
Area
INSEE
  Total16,942 km2 (6,541 sq mi)
Population
 (2010-01-01) [1]
  Total742,770
  Density44/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-L
GDP  (2012) [2] Ranked 21st
Total€17.3 billion (US$24.2 bn)
Per capita€24,354 (US$34,076)
NUTS Region FR6
Website(in French) cr-limousin.fr

Limousin (French:  [limuzɛ̃] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Lemosin [lemuˈzi] ) is a former administrative region of southwest-central France. On 1 January 2016, it became part of the new administrative region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. [3] It comprised three departments: Corrèze, Creuse, and Haute-Vienne.

Contents

Situated mostly in the west side of south-central French Massif Central, Limousin had (in 2010) 742,770 inhabitants [1] spread out on nearly 17,000 km2 (6,600 square miles), making it the least populated region of metropolitan France.

Forming part of the southwest of the country, Limousin is bordered by the regions of Centre-Val de Loire to the north, Auvergne to the east, Midi-Pyrénées to the south, Aquitaine to the southwest, and Poitou-Charentes to the west. Limousin is also part of the larger historical Occitania region.

Formation

The modern region of Limousin is essentially composed of two historical French provinces:

Beside these two main provinces, Limousin is also composed of small parts of other former provinces:

Today the province of Limousin is the most populous part of the Limousin region. Limoges, the historical capital and largest city of the province of Limousin, is the capital of the Limousin administrative region.

Population

With a slowly rising population of just under 750,000, Limousin is the second-least populous region in Metropolitan France after Corsica.[ citation needed ]

The population of Limousin is aging and, until 1999, was declining. The department of Creuse has the oldest population of any in France. Between 1999 and 2004 the population of Limousin increased slightly, reversing a decline for the first time in decades. [4]

Major communities

Limoges, half-timbered house by the bridge Saint Martial Limoges half-timbered house.JPG
Limoges, half-timbered house by the bridge Saint Martial

Economy

Limousin is an essentially rural region. Famed for some of the best beef farming in the world, herds of Limousin cattle—a distinctive chestnut red—are a common sight in the region. The region is also a major timber producing area.

Due to its rural locality, it is also famed for its groves of French Oak, so prized for its distinct characters and flavors in wine fermentation that vintner Rémy Martin has exclusive rights to its oak groves. It is a partnership that is over 100 years old.

The regional capital, Limoges, was once an industrial power base, world-renowned for its porcelain and still a leader and innovator in electric equipment factories (which originally used porcelain as an insulator). However, large factories are now few in number. Limousin is the poorest region in Metropolitan France; only the overseas collectivities have a lower GDP per capita.

Geography and climate

Bodies of water

Some of the rivers belonging to the Loire basin run through the north, west and east of the region, waterways belonging to that of the Dordogne through the south. The region is crossed by three major rivers: the Vienne, the Dordogne and the Charente (which has its source in Haute-Vienne). The region is well known for the high quality of its water and for offering first-rate fishing.

Small river in Creuse, Limousin Ruisseau du Langladure au Moulin.jpg
Small river in Creuse, Limousin

Topography

The Limousin region is almost entirely an upland area. The lowest land is in the northwest of the region (approximately 250 m or 800 feet above sea level) and the highest land is roughly in the southeast (approximately 1,000 m or 3,300 feet above sea level). However, the greater part of the region is above 350 m or 1,150 feet.

History

Coat of Arms of Limousin BlasonLimousin.svg
Coat of Arms of Limousin

Limousin is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its name derives from that of a Celtic tribe, the Lemovices, who had their capital at Saint-Denis-des-Murs and whose main sanctuary was recently[ when? ] found in Tintignac, a site which became a major site for Celtic studies thanks to unique objects which were found - such as the carnyces, unique in the whole Celtic world. [5]

Viscount Aimar V of Limoges (c. 1135c. 1199) was a notable ruler of the region.

Culture

Flag of the Limousin region in France. Flag of Limousin.svg
Flag of the Limousin region in France.

Language

Until the 1970s, Occitan was the primary language of rural areas. There remain several different Occitan dialects in use in Limousin, although their use is rapidly declining. These are:

Cuisine

Pâté aux pommes de terre is one of the specialties of Limousin, as well as of the neighbouring department of Allier. Clafoutis is a local dessert.

Music

Perhaps due to its rural character, Limousin has maintained a strong tradition of traditional music, with ancient instruments such as the bagpipe (called chabrette, Chabreta in occitan) and hurdy-gurdy remaining popular.

Transportation

Notable residents

From Corrèze

From Creuse

From Haute-Vienne

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 INSEE, 2010 census results
  2. INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012" . Retrieved 2014-03-04.
  3. Loi n° 2015-29 du 16 janvier 2015 relative à la délimitation des régions, aux élections régionales et départementales et modifiant le calendrier électoral (in French)
  4. Yann Leurs, Recensement : rebond démographique confirmé, INSEE, 2006, see online
  5. http://tintignac.wix.com/tintignac-naves#!english/c11e3 Official website of Tintignac-Naves

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History of Limousin

The history of Limousin, one of the traditional provinces of France, reaches back to Celtic and Roman times. The region surrounds the city of Limoges. Limousin in the foothills of the western edge of the Massif Central, with cold weather in the winter. Its name is derived from the name of a Celtic tribe, the Lemovices whose main sanctuary was recently found in Tintignac and became a major site for Celtic study which were found such as the carnyces in the whole Celtic world During the 10th century, Limousin was divided into many seigneuries; the most important of them, located in the southern part of the region, were the vicomtés of Limoges, Comborn, Ventadour, and Turenne. The northernmost part of Limousin belonged to the County of La Marche, while the bishops of Limoges controlled most of present-day Haute-Vienne. Such political fragmentation led to the construction of many castles, whose ruins still evoke memories of that historical period.

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