Linear A

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Linear A
Linear A cup.png
Type
Undeciphered (presumed syllabic and ideographic)
Languages'Minoan' (unknown)
Time period
MM IB to LM IIIA 1800–1450 BC [1]
StatusExtinct
Child systems
Linear B, Cypro-Minoan syllabary [2]
Sister systems
Cretan hieroglyphs
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924 Lina, 400
Unicode alias
Linear A
U+10600–U+1077F
Final Accepted Script Proposal

Linear A is a writing system used by the Minoans (Cretans) from 1800 to 1450 BCE. It belongs to an independent group of scripts that is distinct from Egyptian and Mesopotamian systems. During the second millennium BCE, there were four major branches: Linear A, Linear B, Cypro-Minoan and Cretan hieroglyphic. [3] All but Linear B remain undeciphered. Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. It was succeeded by Linear B, which was used by the Mycenaean civilization.

Linear B Syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek

Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet by several centuries. The oldest Mycenaean writing dates to about 1450 BC. It is descended from the older Linear A, an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language, as is the later Cypriot syllabary, which also recorded Greek. Linear B, found mainly in the palace archives at Knossos, Cydonia, Pylos, Thebes and Mycenae, disappeared with the fall of Mycenaean civilization during the Late Bronze Age collapse. The succeeding period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, provides no evidence of the use of writing. It is also the only one of the Bronze Age Aegean scripts to have been deciphered, by English architect and self-taught linguist Michael Ventris.

Cretan hieroglyphs ancient writing system

Cretan hieroglyphs are a hieroglyphic writing system used in early Bronze Age Crete, during the Minoan era. They predate Linear A by about a century, but the two writing systems continued to be used in parallel for most of their history. As of 2019, they are undeciphered.

An undeciphered writing system is a written form of language that is not currently understood.

Contents

In the 1950s, Linear B was largely deciphered by Michael Ventris and found to encode an early form of Greek. Although the two systems share many symbols, this did not lead to a subsequent decipherment of Linear A. Using the values associated with Linear B in Linear A mainly produces unintelligible words. If Linear A uses the same or similar syllabic values as Linear B, then its associated language, dubbed "Minoan", appears unrelated to any known language.

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins. Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic metre and its stress patterns. Speech can usually be divided up into a whole number of syllables: for example, the word ignite is composed of two syllables: ig and nite.

In speech communication, intelligibility is a measure of how comprehensible speech is in given conditions. Intelligibility is affected by the level and quality of the speech signal, the type and level of background noise, reverberation, and, for speech over communication devices, the properties of the communication system. A common standard measurement for the quality of the intelligibility of speech is the Speech Transmission Index (STI). The concept of speech intelligibility is relevant to several fields, including phonetics, human factors, acoustical engineering, and audiometry.

Minoan language language of ancient Minoans written in Cretan hieroglyphs and Linear A syllabary

The Minoan language is the language of the ancient Minoan civilization of Crete written in the Cretan hieroglyphs and later in the Linear A syllabary. As the Cretan hieroglyphs are undeciphered and Linear A only partly deciphered, the Minoan language is unknown and unclassified: indeed, with the existing evidence, it seems impossible to be certain that the two scripts record the same language, or even that a single language is recorded in each. The Eteocretan language, attested in a few alphabetic inscriptions from Crete 1,000 years later, is possibly a descendant of Minoan, but it is itself unclassified.

All assumptions and hypotheses about Linear A and Minoan (their underlying language) are based primarily on comparison with the well-known Linear B, the famous child system developed by Linear A.

Script

Linear A has hundreds of signs, believed to represent syllabic, ideographic, and semantic values in a manner similar to Linear B. While many of those assumed to be syllabic signs are similar to ones in Linear B, approximately 80% of Linear A's logograms are unique; [4] [3] the difference in sound values between Linear A and Linear B signs ranges from 9% to 13%. [5] It primarily appears in the left-to-right direction, but occasionally appears as a right-to-left or boustrophedon script.

Logogram Grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme

In a written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. 漢字 are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms. The use of logograms in writing is called logography, and a writing system that is based on logograms is called a logographic system. In the alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts. These characters are called phonograms in linguistics. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not have word or phrase meanings singularly until the phonograms are combined with additional phonograms thus creating words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way, is called phonetic writing as well as orthographical writing.

Boustrophedon Form of writing

Boustrophedon is a type of bi-directional text, mostly seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions. Every other line of writing is flipped or reversed, with reversed letters. Rather than going left-to-right as in modern European languages, or right-to-left as in Arabic and Hebrew, alternate lines in boustrophedon must be read in opposite directions. Also, the individual characters are reversed, or mirrored. It was a common way of writing in stone in Ancient Greece.

Linear A may be divided into four categories: numerals and metrical signs, phonetic signs, ligatures and composite signs, and ideograms. Numbers follow a decimal system, units are represented by vertical dashes, tens by horizontal dashes, hundreds by circles, and thousands by circles with rays. Specific signs that coincide with numerals are regarded as fractions. [6]

An interesting feature is the recording of numbers in the script. The highest number that has been recorded is 3000, but there are special symbols to indicate fractions and weights.

Signary

Linear A: signary and numbering according to E. Bennett. Reading of signs is based on Linear B analogs.
*01-*20*21-*30*31-*53*54-*74*76-*122*123-*306
Linear A Sign A001.svg DA

*01

Linear A Sign A021.svg QI

*21

Linear A Sign A031.svg SA

*31

Linear A Sign A054.svg WA

*54

Linear A Sign A076.svg

*76

Linear A Sign A123.svg

*123

Linear A Sign A002.svg RO

*02

Linear A Sign A021f.svg

*21f

Linear A Sign A034.svg

*34

Linear A Sign A055.svg

*55

Linear A Sign A077.svg KA

*77

Linear A Sign A131a.svg

*131a

Linear A Sign A003.svg PA

*03

Linear A Sign A021m.svg

*21m

Linear A Sign A037.svg TI

*37

Linear A Sign A056.svg PA3

*56

Linear A Sign A078.svg QE

*78

Linear A Sign A131b.svg

*131b

Linear A Sign A004.svg TE

*04

Linear A Sign A022.svg MI?

*22

Linear A Sign A038.svg E

*38

Linear A Sign A057.svg JA

*57

Linear A Sign A079.svg WO2?

*79

Linear A Sign A131c.svg

*131c

Linear A Sign A005.svg

*05

Linear A Sign A022f.svg

*22f

Linear A Sign A039.svg PI

*39

Linear A Sign A058.svg SU

*58

Linear A Sign A080.svg MA

*80

Linear A Sign A164.svg

*164

Linear A Sign A006.svg NA

*06

Linear A Sign A022m.svg

*22m

Linear A Sign A040.svg WI

*40

Linear A Sign A059.svg TA

*59

Linear A Sign A081.svg KU

*81

Linear A Sign A171.svg

*171

Linear A Sign A007.svg DI

*07

Linear A Sign A023.svg MU

*23

Linear A Sign A041.svg SI

*41

Linear A Sign A060.svg RA

*60

Linear A Sign A082.svg

*82

Linear A Sign A180.svg

*180

Linear A Sign A008.svg A

*08

Linear A Sign A023m.svg

*23m

Linear A Sign A044.svg KE

*44

Linear A Sign A061.svg O

*61

Linear A Sign A085.svg

*85

Linear A Sign A188.svg

*188

Linear A Sign A009.svg S

*09

Linear A Sign A024.svg NE

*24

Linear A Sign A045.svg

*45

Linear A Sign A065.svg JU

*65

Linear A Sign A086.svg

*86

Linear A Sign A191.svg

*191

Linear A Sign A010.svg

*10

Linear A Sign A026.svg RU

*26

Linear A Sign A046.svg

*46

Linear A Sign A066.svg TA2

*66

Linear A Sign A087.svg TWE

*87

Linear A Sign A301.svg

*301

Linear A Sign A011.svg

*11

Linear A Sign A027.svg RE

*27

Linear A Sign A047.svg

*47

Linear A Sign A067.svg KI

*67

Linear A Sign A100.svg

*100/
*102

Linear A Sign A302.svg

*302

Linear A Sign A013.svg ME

*13

Linear A Sign A028.svg I

*28

Linear A Sign A049.svg

*49

Linear A Sign A069.svg TU

*69

Linear A Sign A118.svg

*118

Linear A Sign A303.svg

*303

Linear A Sign A016.svg QA2

*16

Linear A Sign A028b.svg

*28b

Linear A Sign A050.svg PU

*50

Linear A Sign A070.svg

*70

Linear A Sign A120.svg

*120

Linear A Sign A304.svg

*304

Linear A Sign A017.svg ZA

*17

Linear A Sign A029.svg

*29

Linear A Sign A051.svg DU

*51

Linear A Sign A073.svg MI

*73

Linear A Sign A120b.svg

*120b

Linear A Sign A305.svg

*305

Linear A Sign A020.svg ZO

*20

Linear A Sign A030.svg NI

*30

Linear A Sign A053.svg

*53

Linear A Sign A074.svg ZE

*74

Linear A Sign A122.svg

*122

Linear A Sign A306.svg

*306

Corpus

Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini. Linear A tablets filt.jpg
Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini.
Linear A tablet, Chania Archaeological Museum. 0726 La Canee musee lineaire A.JPG
Linear A tablet, Chania Archaeological Museum.
Linear A tablet from the palace of Zakros, Archeological Museum of Sitia. Sitia Museum Linear A 02.jpg
Linear A tablet from the palace of Zakros, Archeological Museum of Sitia.

Linear A has been unearthed chiefly on Crete, but also at other sites in Greece, as well as Turkey and Israel. The extant corpus, comprising some 1,427 specimens totalling 7,362 to 7,396 signs, if scaled to standard type, would fit easily on two sheets of paper. [7] Linear A has been written on various media, such as stone offering tables, gold and silver hairpins, and ceramics. [8] The earliest inscriptions of Linear A are found in Phaistos, in a layer dated at the end of the Minoan II, which provides us with c. 1700 BC as a term before it. Linear A can be found throughout the island of Crete and also on some Aegean islands (Kythera, Kea, Thera, Melos), in mainland Greece (Ayos Stephanos), on the west coast of Asia Minor (Miletos, Troy), and in the Levant (Tel Haror). [9]

Crete The largest and most populous of the Greek islands

Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. It bounds the southern border of the Aegean sea. Crete lies approximately 160 km (99 mi) south of the Greek mainland. It has an area of 8,336 km2 (3,219 sq mi) and a coastline of 1,046 km (650 mi).

Crete

The main discoveries of Linear A tablets have been at three sites on Crete: [10]

Discoveries have been made at the following locations on Crete: [11]

Outside Crete

Until 1973, only one Linear A tablet had been found outside Crete (on Kea). [12] Since then, other locations have yielded inscriptions.

Most—if not all—inscriptions found outside Crete appear to have been made locally, as indicated by the composition of the substrate and other indications. [12] Also, close analysis of the inscriptions found outside Crete indicates the use of a script that is somewhere between Linear A and Linear B, combining elements from both.

Other Greek islands

Mainland Greece

Chronology

Linear A became eminent during the Middle Minoan Period, specifically from 1625–1450 BC. It was a contemporary and possible child of Cretan hieroglyphs and the ancestor of Linear B. The sequence and the geographical spread of Cretan hieroglyphs, Linear A, and Linear B, the three overlapping but distinct writing systems on Bronze Age Crete and the Greek mainland, can be summarized as follows: [14]

Writing systemGeographical areaTime span [lower-alpha 1]
Cretan Hieroglyphic Crete c. 2100 – 1700 BC
Linear ACrete, Aegean islands (Kea, Kythera, Melos, Thera), and Greek mainland (Laconia)c. 1800 – 1450 BC
Linear B Crete (Knossos), and mainland (Pylos, Mycenae, Thebes, Tiryns)c. 1450 – 1200 BC

Discovery

Archaeologist Arthur Evans named the script "Linear" because its characters consisted simply of lines inscribed in clay, in contrast to the more pictographic characters in Cretan hieroglyphs that were used during the same period. [15]

Several tablets inscribed in signs similar to Linear A were found in the Troad in northwestern Anatolia. While their status is disputed, they may be imports, as there is no evidence of Minoan presence in the Troad. Classification of these signs as a unique Trojan script (proposed by contemporary Russian linguist Nikolai Kazansky) is not accepted by other linguists.

Egyptian evidence

Egyptian evidence related to the Keftiu (Cretan/Crete) language consists of a spell against Asian chickenpox and a writing name exercise called Keftiu. The spell, probably originated from the reign of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BC), evolves as follows: sntÈk|pwpyw| yÈymªntÈÈrk|k|r, or, in the vocal transliteration adopted by Wolfgang Helck: sa-n-ta-ka-pu-pi-wa-ya-’a-ya-ma-n-ta-ra-kú-ka-ra [9] .
Egyptian writing of Keftiu (Cretan/Crete) names such as mÈd|d|m, or, mi-da gives Egyptian evidence of Keftius' language essentially indicate that the words of the vocabulary are Semitic (see below).

Linear A and Linear B comparison

Minoan Inscriptions, Linear A script Minoan inscriptions, Linear A script, Phaistos, 1850-1450 BC, AMH, 144886.jpg
Minoan Inscriptions, Linear A script

In 1945, E. Pugliese Carratelli first introduced the classification of Linear A and Linear B parallels. However, in 1961 W.C. Brice modified the Carratelli system that was based on a wider range of Linear A sources, but Brice did not suggest Linear B equivalents to the Linear A signs. Louis Godart and Jean-Pierre Olivier introduced in the 1985 Recueil des inscriptions en linéaire A (GORILA), based on E.L Bennett's standard numeration of the signs of Linear B, introduced a joint numeration of the Linear A and B signs. [16] The Egyptian exercise in writing the names keftiu even informs us of another Minoan ethnic identity in the form of mÈd|d|m whose first element cannot be associated with the name Midas, since it was already labeled by a linearly inscribed Hagia Triada (or HT 41.4) dating to c. 1350 BC. This Egyptian evidence of Keftius' language essentially indicate that the words of the vocabulary are Semitic, but in the language predominantly of the Luwians. One might conclude from this that the Semitic in Minoan Crete is used as a lingua franca for a largely Luwian population.

Phonetic

The majority of signs in the Linear A script appear to have graphic equivalents in the Linear B syllabary. Comparing the Hagia Triada tablets HT 95 and HT 86 contain identical lists of words and some kind of phonetic alteration. Scholars that approached Linear A with the phonetic values of Linear B produced a series of identical words. The Linear B- Linear A parallels: ku-ku-da-ra, pa-i-to, ku-mi-na, di-de-ro →di-de-ru, qa-qa-ro→qa-qa-ru, a-ra-na-ro→a-ra-na-re. [16]

Theories regarding language

Linear A incised on a jug, also found in Akrotiri. Linear A vase filt.jpg
Linear A incised on a jug, also found in Akrotiri.

It is difficult to evaluate a given analysis of Linear A as there is little point of reference for reading its inscriptions. The simplest approach to decipherment may be to presume that the values of Linear A match more or less the values given to the deciphered Linear B script, used for Mycenaean Greek. [17]

A characteristic of Minoan consonance is the lack of distinction between voice and voiceless in the velar and labial series. The distinction t / d reflected in the Linear A, Linear B and Cypriot is an example of speech stops. [12]

Greek

In 1957, Bulgarian scholar Vladimir I. Georgiev published his Le déchiffrement des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The decipherment of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A") stating that Linear A contains Greek linguistic elements. [18] Georgiev then published another work in 1963, titled Les deux langues des inscriptions crétoises en linéaire A ("The two languages of Cretan inscriptions in Linear A"), suggesting that the language of the Hagia Triada tablets was Greek but that the rest of the Linear A corpus was in Hittite-Luwian. [18] [19] In December 1963, Gregory Nagy of Harvard University developed a list of Linear A and Linear B terms based on the assumption "that signs of identical or similar shape in the two scripts will represent similar or identical phonetic values"; Nagy concluded that the language of Linear A bears "Greek-like" and Indo-European elements. [20] Michael Ventris decipherment in 1952 suggests an old form of Greek: it is derived from the Linear A. Therefore, we can assume that the signs related to the linear A express the same value as the Linear B. In all Linear B values for related words give a large number of identical forms or identical root forms, but alternate with the final vowel, or almost identical forms among linear texts, mainly those of Hagia Triada.

Extracting conclusions or arguments from a simple morphology can hardly be considered methodologically satisfactory. Yves Duhoux in the "Linear A as Greek" discussion at AEGEANET in March 1998 [16] :

I would like to remind you of some basic facts related to the Greekness of Linear A's language: (1) The word for "total" is different in Linear A and in Linear B: LB to - so(- de); LA > B ku-ro. (2) The Linear B language is significantly less "prefixing" than Linear A. (3) Votive Linear A texts, where we are pretty sure to have variant forms of the same "word", show morphological (I mean: grammatical) features totally different from Linear B. The conclusion must be that even if one can find some casual resemblances between words in both languages (remember this MUST statistically happen: e.g. English and Persian use the same word "bad" to express the meaning of BAD, although it is proven that both words have no genetic relation at all), they are probably structurally different.

Anatolian languages

Since the late 1950s, some scholars have suggested that the Linear A language could be an Anatolian language. [21]

Luwian

Palmer (1958) put forward a theory, based on Linear B phonetic values, suggesting that Linear A language could be related closely to Luwian. [21] The theory, however, failed to gain universal support for the following reasons:

  • There is no remarkable resemblance between Minoan and Hitto-Luwian morphology.
  • Luwian Hieroglyphs Luwian Hieroglyphs from Karatepe.svg
    Luwian Hieroglyphs
    None of the existing theories of the origin of Hitto-Luwian peoples and their migration to Anatolia (either from the Balkans or from the Caucasus) are related to Crete.
  • There was a lack of direct contact between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete; the latter was never mentioned in Hitto-Luwian inscriptions. Small states located along the western coast of ancient Asia Minor were natural barriers between Hitto-Luwians and Minoan Crete.
  • Obvious[ how? ] anthropological differences between Hitto-Luwians and the Minoans may be considered as another indirect testimony against this hypothesis.[ citation needed ]

There are recent works focused on the Luwian connection, not in terms of the Minoan language being Anatolian, but rather in terms of possible borrowings from Luwian, including the origin of the writing system itself. [22]

Lycian

In an article from 2001, Professor of Classics (Emerita) at Tel Aviv University, Margalit Finkelberg, demonstrated a "high degree of correspondence between the phonological and morphological system of Minoan and that of Lycian" and proposed that "the language of Linear A is either the direct ancestor of Lycian or a closely related idiom." [23]

Semitic languages

Cyrus H. Gordon first proposed in 1966-69 that the texts contained Semitic vocabulary that was based on the lexical items such as kull -. meaning 'all' (Akkadian kalu, kullatu, Hebrew kol). [24] [3] Gordon uses morphological evidence to suggest that u- serves as a prefix in Linear A like Semitic copula u-. However, Gordon's copula u- is based on an incomplete word, and even if some of Gordon's identifications were true, a complete case for a Semitic language has not yet been built. [3]

Phoenician

In 2001, the journal Ugarit-Forschungen published the article "The First Inscription in Punic — Vowel Differences in Linear A and B" by Jan Best, claiming to demonstrate how and why Linear A notates an archaic form of Phoenician. [25] This was a continuation of attempts by Cyrus Gordon in finding connections between Minoan and West Semitic languages.

Indo-Iranian

Another recent interpretation, based on the frequencies of the syllabic signs and on complete palaeographic comparative studies, suggests that the Minoan Linear A language belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages. Studies by Hubert La Marle include a presentation of the morphology of the language, avoid the complete identification of phonetic values between Linear A and B, and also avoid comparing Linear A with Cretan Hieroglyphs. [26] La Marle uses the frequency counts to identify the type of syllables written in Linear A, and takes into account the problem of loanwords in the vocabulary. [26] However, the La Marle interpretation of Linear A has been rejected by John Younger of Kansas University showing that La Marle has invented erroneous and arbitrary new transcriptions based on resemblances with many different script systems at will (as Phoenician, Hieroglyphic Egyptian, Hieroglyphic Hittite, Ethiopian, Cypro-Minoan, etc.), ignoring established evidence and internal analysis, while for some words he proposes religious meanings inventing names of gods and rites. [27] La Marle rebutted in "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A" in 2010. [28]

Tyrrhenian

Italian scholar Giulio M. Facchetti attempted to link Linear A to the Tyrrhenian language family comprising Etruscan, Rhaetic, and Lemnian. This family is reasoned to be a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substratum of the 2nd millennium BC, sometimes referred to as Pre-Greek. Facchetti proposed some possible similarities between the Etruscan language and ancient Lemnian, and other Aegean languages like Minoan. [29] Michael Ventris who, along with John Chadwick, successfully deciphered Linear B, also believed in a link between Minoan and Etruscan. [30] The same perspective is supported by S. Yatsemirsky in Russia. [31]

A distinct, otherwise unknown branch of Indo-European

According to Gareth Alun Owens, Linear A represents the Minoan language, which Owens classifies as a distinct branch of Indo-European potentially related to Greek, Sanskrit, Hittite, Latin, etc. [32] [33] At "The Cretan Literature Centre", Owens stated:

Beginning our research with inscriptions in Linear A carved on offering tables found in the many peak sanctuaries on the mountains of Crete, we recognise a clear relationship between Linear A and Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. There is also a connection to Hittite and Armenian. This relationship allows us to place the Minoan language among the so-called Indo-European languages, a vast family that includes modern Greek and the Latin of Ancient Rome. The Minoan and Greek languages are considered to be different branches of Indo-European. The Minoans probably moved from Anatolia to the island of Crete about 10,000 years ago. There were similar population movements to Greece. The relative isolation of the population which settled in Crete resulted in the development of its own language, Minoan, which is considered different to Mycenaean. In the Minoan language (Linear A), there are no purely Greek words, as is the case in Mycenaean Linear B; it contains only words also found in Greek, Sanskrit and Latin, i.e. sharing the same Indo-European origin. [34]

Attempts at decipherment of single words

Some researchers suggest that a few words or word elements may be recognized, without (yet) enabling any conclusion about relationship with other languages. In general, they use analogy with Linear B in order to propose phonetic values of the syllabic sounds. John Younger, in particular, thinks that place names usually appear in certain positions in the texts, and notes that the proposed phonetic values often correspond to known place names as given in Linear B texts (and sometimes to modern Greek names). For example, he proposes that three syllables, read as KE-NI-SO, might be the indigenous form of Knossos. [35] Likewise, in Linear A, MA+RU is suggested to mean wool, and to correspond both to a Linear B pictogram with this meaning, and to the classical Greek word μαλλός with the same meaning (in that case a loan word from Minoan). [4]

Unicode

The Linear A alphabet (U+10600–U+1077F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

Linear A [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+1060x𐘀𐘁𐘂𐘃𐘄𐘅𐘆𐘇𐘈𐘉𐘊𐘋𐘌𐘍𐘎𐘏
U+1061x𐘐𐘑𐘒𐘓𐘔𐘕𐘖𐘗𐘘𐘙𐘚𐘛𐘜𐘝𐘞𐘟
U+1062x𐘠𐘡𐘢𐘣𐘤𐘥𐘦𐘧𐘨𐘩𐘪𐘫𐘬𐘭𐘮𐘯
U+1063x𐘰𐘱𐘲𐘳𐘴𐘵𐘶𐘷𐘸𐘹𐘺𐘻𐘼𐘽𐘾𐘿
U+1064x𐙀𐙁𐙂𐙃𐙄𐙅𐙆𐙇𐙈𐙉𐙊𐙋𐙌𐙍𐙎𐙏
U+1065x𐙐𐙑𐙒𐙓𐙔𐙕𐙖𐙗𐙘𐙙𐙚𐙛𐙜𐙝𐙞𐙟
U+1066x𐙠𐙡𐙢𐙣𐙤𐙥𐙦𐙧𐙨𐙩𐙪𐙫𐙬𐙭𐙮𐙯
U+1067x𐙰𐙱𐙲𐙳𐙴𐙵𐙶𐙷𐙸𐙹𐙺𐙻𐙼𐙽𐙾𐙿
U+1068x𐚀𐚁𐚂𐚃𐚄𐚅𐚆𐚇𐚈𐚉𐚊𐚋𐚌𐚍𐚎𐚏
U+1069x𐚐𐚑𐚒𐚓𐚔𐚕𐚖𐚗𐚘𐚙𐚚𐚛𐚜𐚝𐚞𐚟
U+106Ax𐚠𐚡𐚢𐚣𐚤𐚥𐚦𐚧𐚨𐚩𐚪𐚫𐚬𐚭𐚮𐚯
U+106Bx𐚰𐚱𐚲𐚳𐚴𐚵𐚶𐚷𐚸𐚹𐚺𐚻𐚼𐚽𐚾𐚿
U+106Cx𐛀𐛁𐛂𐛃𐛄𐛅𐛆𐛇𐛈𐛉𐛊𐛋𐛌𐛍𐛎𐛏
U+106Dx𐛐𐛑𐛒𐛓𐛔𐛕𐛖𐛗𐛘𐛙𐛚𐛛𐛜𐛝𐛞𐛟
U+106Ex𐛠𐛡𐛢𐛣𐛤𐛥𐛦𐛧𐛨𐛩𐛪𐛫𐛬𐛭𐛮𐛯
U+106Fx𐛰𐛱𐛲𐛳𐛴𐛵𐛶𐛷𐛸𐛹𐛺𐛻𐛼𐛽𐛾𐛿
U+1070x𐜀𐜁𐜂𐜃𐜄𐜅𐜆𐜇𐜈𐜉𐜊𐜋𐜌𐜍𐜎𐜏
U+1071x𐜐𐜑𐜒𐜓𐜔𐜕𐜖𐜗𐜘𐜙𐜚𐜛𐜜𐜝𐜞𐜟
U+1072x𐜠𐜡𐜢𐜣𐜤𐜥𐜦𐜧𐜨𐜩𐜪𐜫𐜬𐜭𐜮𐜯
U+1073x𐜰𐜱𐜲𐜳𐜴𐜵𐜶
U+1074x𐝀𐝁𐝂𐝃𐝄𐝅𐝆𐝇𐝈𐝉𐝊𐝋𐝌𐝍𐝎𐝏
U+1075x𐝐𐝑𐝒𐝓𐝔𐝕
U+1076x𐝠𐝡𐝢𐝣𐝤𐝥𐝦𐝧
U+1077x
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

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References

Notes

  1. Beginning date refers to first attestations, the assumed origins of all scripts lie further back in the past.

Citations

  1. Daniels & Bright 1996, pp. 132.
  2. Palaima 1997, pp. 121–188.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Packard 1974 , Chapter 1: Introduction.
  4. 1 2 Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 7b. The Script". University of Kansas.
  5. Owens 1999, pp. 23–24 (David Packard, in 1974, calculated a sound-value difference of 10.80% ± 1.80%; Yves Duhoux, in 1989, calculated a sound-value difference of 14.34% ± 1.80% and Gareth Owens, in 1996, calculated a sound-value difference of 9–13%).
  6. Packard, David W. (1974). Minoan Linear A. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN   978-0-520-02580-6.
  7. Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 5. Basic Statistics". University of Kansas. Younger: "if there are 4002 characters (font Times, pitch 12, no spaces) on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper with 1 inch margins, all extant Linear A would take up 1.84 pages." (14.34 pages for Linear B).
  8. Winterstein, Gregoire; Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono; Petrolito, Ruggero; Petrolito, Tommaso. "Minoan linguistic resources: The Linear A Digital Corpus". Proceedings of the 9th SIGHUM Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities (LaTeCH).
  9. 1 2 Woudhuizen, Fred C. (Frederik Christiaan), 1959- (2016). Documents in Minoan Luwian, Semitic, and Pelasgian. Nederlands Archeologisch Historisch Genootschap. Amsterdam. ISBN   9789072067197. OCLC   1027956786.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Schoep 1999, pp. 201–221.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Cacciafoco, Francesco Perono (January 2014). "Linear A and Minoan. The Riddle of Unknown Origins": 3–4. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  12. 1 2 3 Finkelberg 1998 , pp. 265–272.
  13. Book review by Daniel J. Pullen (Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009) of W. D. Taylour, R. Janko, Ayios Stephanos: Excavations at a Bronze Age and Medieval Settlement in Southern Laconia. British School at Athens, 2008. "Its location on the Laconian coast, easily accessible from Kythera, undoubtedly encouraged early contacts with Crete whether directly or indirectly (see the Linear A sign catalogued in chapter 11)."
  14. Olivier 1986 , pp. 377f.
  15. Robinson 2009, p. 54.
  16. 1 2 3 Finkelberg, Margalit (March 2000). "Greater Anatolia and the Indo-Hittite Language Family". Indo-European Series Monograph Studies. No. 38: 83 via Academia.edu.
  17. Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription". University of Kansas. See "1. List of Linked Files" for a comprehensive list of known texts written in Linear A.
  18. 1 2 Nagy 1963 , p. 210 (Footnote #24).
  19. Georgiev 1963, pp. 1–104.
  20. Nagy 1963, pp. 181–211.
  21. 1 2 Palmer 1958, pp. 75–100.
  22. Marangozis, John (2006). An introduction to Minoan Linear A. LINCOM Europa.
  23. Finkelberg, Margalit, "The Language of Linear A: Greek, Semitic, or Anatolian?", in: Drews, Robert (ed.), Greater Anatolia dnt eh Ind-Hittite Language Family, Journal of Indo-European Studies, Monograph 38, Washington, DC, 2001.
  24. Rendsburg, Gary A. (2001). "Cyrus H. Gordon (1908-2001): A Giant among Scholars". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 92 (1/2): 137–143. ISSN   0021-6682. JSTOR   1455617.
  25. Dietrich & Loretz 2001.
  26. 1 2 La Marle, Hubert. Linéaire A, la première écriture syllabique de Crète. Paris: Geuthner, 4 Volumes, 1997–1999, 2006; Introduction au linéaire A. Geuthner, Paris, 2002; L'aventure de l'alphabet: les écritures cursives et linéaires du Proche-Orient et de l'Europe du sud-est à l'Âge du Bronze. Paris: Geuthner, 2002; Les racines du crétois ancien et leur morphologie: communication à l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 2007.
  27. Younger, John (2009). "Linear A: Critique of Decipherments by Hubert La Marle and Kjell Aartun". University of Kansas. According to Younger, La Marle "assigns phonetic values to Linear signs based on superficial resemblances to signs in other scripts (the choice of scripts being already prejudiced to include only those from the eastern Mediterranean and northeast Africa), as if 'C looks like O so it must be O.'"
  28. La Marle, Hubert (September 2010). "An answer to John G. Younger's remarks on Linear A". Academia.edu.
  29. Facchetti & Negri 2003.
  30. Yatsemirsky 2011.
  31. Owens 2007, pp. 3–4: "Η έρευνα απέδειξε ότι η μινωική γλώσσα σχετίζεται με την ελληνική περισσότερο από κάθε άλλη ινδοευρωπαϊκή γλώσσα, χωρίς να αποτελεί μια άλλη ελληνική διάλεκτο αλλά ένα χωριστό παρακλάδι της ινδοευρωπαϊκής οικογένειας...υπάρχουν λέξεις που εντοπίζονται και στην ελληνική γλώσσα αλλά και σε άλλες, όπως τη σανσκριτική και τη χεττιτική, τη λατινική, της ίδιας οικογένειας.".
  32. Owens 1999, pp. 15–56.
  33. "The Language of the Minoans". Crete Gazette. 2006.
  34. Younger, John (2000). "Linear A Texts in Phonetic Transcription: 10c. Place Names". University of Kansas.

Sources

Further reading