Linfen

Last updated
Linfen

临汾市
J82023 Linfen 20140706-185139.07 Gulou.jpg
Drum Tower of Linfen
Location of Linfen Prefecture within Shanxi (China).png
Location of Linfen City jurisdiction in Shanxi
China Shanxi adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Linfen
Location of the city centre in Shanxi
Coordinates(Linfen municipal government): 36°05′17″N111°31′08″E / 36.088°N 111.519°E / 36.088; 111.519 Coordinates: 36°05′17″N111°31′08″E / 36.088°N 111.519°E / 36.088; 111.519
Country People's Republic of China
Province Shanxi
County-level divisions 17
Municipal seat Yaodu District
Government
  Type Prefecture-level city
   CPC Linfen SecretaryYue Puyu (岳普煜)
  MayorLiu Yuqiang (刘予强)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 20,275 km2 (7,828 sq mi)
  Urban
[1]
60.00 km2 (23.17 sq mi)
   Districts [1] 1,307.0 km2 (504.6 sq mi)
Elevation
452 m (1,483 ft)
Highest elevation
2,346.8 m (7,699.5 ft)
Lowest elevation
385.1 m (1,263.5 ft)
Population
 (2010 census) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 4,316,612
  Density210/km2 (550/sq mi)
   Urban
[1]
617,000
  Districts [1]
950,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
041000
Area code(s) 0357
ISO 3166 code CN-SX-10
Licence plates L
Administrative division code 141000
Website linfen.gov.cn
Linfen
Traditional Chinese 臨汾
Simplified Chinese 临汾
Jin Prefecture
Jinzhou
Traditional Chinese 晉州
Simplified Chinese 晋州
Pingyang Commandery
Pingyang
Traditional Chinese 平陽
Simplified Chinese 平阳

Linfen is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Shaanxi province to the west. It is situated along the banks of the Fen River. It has an area of 20,275 square kilometres (7,828 sq mi) [3] and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 4,316,612 inhabitants of which 944,050 live in the built-up (or metro) area made up of Yaodu urban district. [4] The GDP of Linfen ranked second in Shanxi Province. It was known as Pingyang (平陽) during the Spring and Autumn period. In 2006, the American Blacksmith Institute listed Linfen as one of the ten most polluted cities in the world. [5]

Contents

Prior to 1978, Linfen was famous for its spring water, greenery and rich agriculture and therefore nicknamed "The Modern Fruit and Flower Town". Since then it has been developing into a main industrial center for coal mining, which has significantly damaged the city's environment, air quality, farming, health and its previous status as a green village.

Name

Map including Linfen (labeled as Lin Fen (Ping Yang ) LIN-FEN (P'ING-YANG)) (AMS, 1955) Txu-oclc-10552568-nj49-15.jpg
Map including Linfen (labeled as 臨汾(平陽) LIN-FEN (P'ING-YANG)) (AMS, 1955)

Linfen is named for the Fen River. Its former names include Jin, Jinzhou, and Pingyang (平阳).

History

Linfen during the Second Sino-Japanese War, 1938 IJA cavalry, city of Linfen, China, February 1938.jpg
Linfen during the Second Sino-Japanese War, 1938

Chinese archeologists have claimed that Yao's capital was located in Linfen, [6] a confirmation of local legend responsible for the name of the city's Yaodu District. So, Linfen city is the earliest capital of China.

The area was the center of the marchland and duchy of Jin, named for the Jin River ( ). The duchy collapsed in the 4th century BC but gave its name to a Chinese princely title used as the dynastic name of the Sima clan. Jin Prefecture was centered on the town, which took its name as Jin and Jinzhou. Later, it was renamed Pingyang Commandery , which was also adapted as the name for its chief town. [7] The Xiongnu Chanyu Liu Cong made Pingyang his residence in the fourth century. "He kept court at Pingyang in [Shanxi] and ruled over central and southern [Shanxi], over [Shaanxi] (except for the Han basin), northern [Henan] (except for Kaifeng), southern [Hebei], and northern [Shandong]." [8] In the 10th century, the city's walls were considered "fortified beyond approach". [9]

In the 1980s, Linfen was nicknamed "The Modern Fruit and Flower Town".[ citation needed ]

Geography

Linfen is located in the southwestern part of Shanxi, on the lower reaches of the Fen River, bounded by Changzhi and Jincheng to the east, the Yellow River to the west (which also forms the border with Shaanxi), Jinzhong and Lüliang to the north, and Yuncheng to the south. The prefecture ranges in latitude from 35° 23′ N to 36° 37′ N, spanning 170 kilometres (110 mi), and in longitude from 110° 22′ E to 112° 34′ E, spanning 200 km (120 mi). In all, the city's administrative area, at 20,275 square kilometres (7,828 sq mi), covers 13% of the province's area. [3]

Within its borders Linfen City has a variety of topographical features. It is characterised as having a "U" shape, with its mountains, covering 29.2% of the prefectural area, on all four cardinal directions, a basin, the Linfen Basin (临汾盆地), covering 19.4%, in the middle, and intervening hills, covering 51.4%, in between. [3] In the east, from north to south, are Mount Huo (霍山) and the Zhongtiao Mountains; in the west are the Lüliang Mountains, with elevations mostly above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The highest point in the prefecture is the main peak of Mount Huo, at 2,347 metres (7,700 ft), and the lowest is in Xiangning County, at 385 metres (1,263 ft). Important rivers in the area include the Yellow, Fen, Xinshui (昕水河), Qin (沁河), Hui (浍河), E (鄂河), and Qingshui Rivers (清水河).

The whole prefecture-level city features a great variety of terrain. The city itself sits in a basin, which aggravates the pollution.

Climate

Linfen has a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with moderately cold, but dry winters, and hot, somewhat humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −2.7 °C (27.1 °F) in January to 26.1 °C (79.0 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F). The annual precipitation stands at 470 millimetres (18.5 in), with close to 70% of this total falling from June to September. The frost-free period lasts on average 190 days per year. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −22.5 °C (−8.5 °F) to 40.5 °C (104.9 °F).

Climate data for Linfen (1971−2000)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)13.8
(56.8)
21.5
(70.7)
28.8
(83.8)
35.0
(95.0)
38.4
(101.1)
39.7
(103.5)
40.5
(104.9)
39.2
(102.6)
38.4
(101.1)
32.5
(90.5)
25.0
(77.0)
15.5
(59.9)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
7.8
(46.0)
13.8
(56.8)
21.4
(70.5)
26.9
(80.4)
31.3
(88.3)
32.0
(89.6)
30.6
(87.1)
25.8
(78.4)
19.7
(67.5)
11.8
(53.2)
5.3
(41.5)
19.2
(66.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.7
(27.1)
1.0
(33.8)
7.0
(44.6)
14.3
(57.7)
19.7
(67.5)
24.4
(75.9)
26.1
(79.0)
24.8
(76.6)
19.4
(66.9)
12.8
(55.0)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
12.6
(54.6)
Average low °C (°F)−8.2
(17.2)
−4.5
(23.9)
1.2
(34.2)
7.7
(45.9)
12.7
(54.9)
17.9
(64.2)
21.2
(70.2)
20.2
(68.4)
14.3
(57.7)
7.3
(45.1)
−0.3
(31.5)
−6.1
(21.0)
7.0
(44.5)
Record low °C (°F)−22.5
(−8.5)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−10.0
(14.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
1.3
(34.3)
8.5
(47.3)
14.7
(58.5)
10.7
(51.3)
2.3
(36.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−12.8
(9.0)
−17.6
(0.3)
−23.1
(−9.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)3.3
(0.13)
5.4
(0.21)
16.8
(0.66)
26.2
(1.03)
37.2
(1.46)
55.2
(2.17)
119.2
(4.69)
91.1
(3.59)
57.0
(2.24)
36.8
(1.45)
15.6
(0.61)
4.7
(0.19)
468.5
(18.43)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.22.84.65.66.48.812.010.08.66.43.82.073.2
Source: Weather China

Pollution

China's rapid industrialization and urbanization beginning in the 1990s led to increased energy demand causing a dramatic increase in the price of coal. This led to a rapid expansion of loosely regulated private mines. Mining, cooking, smelting and other heavy industries which developed around the city have led to catastrophic environmental damage. [10]

In 2006, the Blacksmith Institute included Linfen in its annual "10 worst" report, calling the city the most polluted city in China. [11] It has also been listed as one of the world's ten dirtiest cities by the Popular Science website. [12] The city has ranked at the bottom of the World Bank's air quality rankings. [13]

From its low point, in 2004, with only fifteen days out of the year with an acceptable level of air pollution, the environmental situation has improved. [14] After a series of negative reports on the extreme level of pollution in the city, efforts were made to clean up Linfen. Substandard mines were closed. [10] Coal trucks were kept from entering the city, resulting in much less coal dust. The city has also switched much of its heating source from coal to gas. 197 large coal-fired boilers and more than 600 smaller boilers were decommissioned. As of 2007, 85% of population used natural gas rather than coal for their heating. The State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) has forced many of the less-efficient smaller factories to close and enforced stricter standards for larger factories including mandating the installation of sulfur scrubbers. [14]

Since 2006, the government has taken a series of measures to modify industrial structure and economic development mode. Relevant policies was issued such as emission thresholds of industrial pollution. Over the last few years the Ministry of Environmental Protection has been closely monitoring Linfen's environment conditions. While the China Youth Daily reported in 2014 that Linfen experiencing the great change from the "most polluted city" to "model city of environmental protection", [15] other sources suggest that little progress has been made in combatting pollution. In 2018, the Chinese government openly criticized the city's failure to meet pollution targets, and a 2019 report by the Chinese Ministry of Ecology and Environment found that the city's air pollution was the worst among the 168 cities the ministry monitored. [16] Following the report, the city's government ordered further pollution controls for the city's industry. [16]

Administrative divisions

The prefecture-level city of Linfen is divided in one district, two cities and fourteen counties. The information here presented uses the metric system and data from 2010 Census.

Map
#English NameSimplifiedTraditionalPinyinAreaPopulationDensity
1 Yaodu District 尧都区堯都區Yáodū Qū1,316944,050717
2 Houma City 侯马市侯馬市Hóumǎ Shì274240,005876
3 Huozhou City 霍州市Huòzhōu Shì765282,907370
4 Quwo County 曲沃县曲沃縣Qǔwò Xiàn438237,033541
5 Yicheng County 翼城县翼城縣Yìchéng Xiàn1,163311,471268
6 Xiangfen County 襄汾县襄汾縣Xiāngfén Xiàn1,304442,614339
7 Hongtong County 洪洞县洪洞縣Hóngtóng Xiàn1,563733,421469
8 Gu County 古县古縣Gǔ Xiàn1,19391,79877
9 Anze County 安泽县安澤縣Ānzé Xiàn1,96582,01242
10 Fushan County 浮山县浮山縣Fúshān Xiàn946127,831135
11 Ji County 吉县吉縣Jí Xiàn1,777106,40760
12 Xiangning County 乡宁县鄉寧縣Xiāngníng Xiàn2,029233,162115
13 Pu County 蒲县蒲縣Pú Xiàn1,508107,33971
14 Daning County 大宁县大寧縣Dàníng Xiàn96764,50167
15 Yonghe County 永和县永和縣Yǒnghé Xiàn1,21963,64952
16 Xi County 隰县隰縣Xí Xiàn1,415103,61773
17 Fenxi County 汾西县汾西縣Fénxī Xiàn880144,795165

Tourism

The Hukou Waterfall Hukou Waterfall.jpg
The Hukou Waterfall

Linfen prefecture is home to several notable tourist attractions including the Hukou Waterfall which is the largest waterfall on the Yellow River and the second largest in China. Hukou Waterfall is located 150 km (93 mi) west of Linfen city in Jinshan Gorge. [17]

Other attractions are mostly located in Hongtong county. Most notable among these is Guangsheng Temple, built in 147 CE. Located in the upper Guangsheng temple is the Feihong Pagoda, the largest and best preserved glazed Chinese pagoda. [18] [19] Also in Hongdong county is the Su San Prison (苏三监狱), a restored Ming dynasty prison made famous by the Peking opera titled Yu Tang Chun (玉堂春). It is China's oldest surviving prison. [20] Dahuaishu Ancestor Memorial Garden is a shown for the mandatory population migration in early Ming Dynasty.

Demographics

Linfen recorded a population of approximately 4,508,400 people as of 2019, an increase of 80,100 from 2018. [21] The city reported 2,414,700 urban residents, and 2,093,700 rural residents, giving the city a 53.56% urbanization rate. [21] There are 28 ethnic minorities in Linfen with a population exceeding 10,000 people: the Hui, the Manchu, the Tujia, Mongols, the Miao, the Zhuang, Koreans, the Yi, the Buyi, the Bai, Uyghurs, the Mulao, the She, Tibetans, the Li, the Dong, the Yao, Tajiks, the Gelao, the Daur, the Lahu, the Wa, the Hani, the Tu, the Xibo, the Lisu, the Qiang, and the Jingpo. [21]

Economy

As of 2019, the city reported a GDP of 145.26 billion Renminbi. [22] Linfen's primary sector makes up 7.1% of the city's GDP, the secondary sector contributes 43.3% of the city's GDP, and the tertiary sector makes up 49.6% of the city's GDP. [22]

Industry

Linfen has rich mineral resources including coal, iron ore, copper, and lead. Hedong Coal Field, Huoxi Coal Field and Qinshui Coal Field together comprise 62.9 billion tons of coal reserves. Iron ore reserves exceed 420 million tons. Coal mining and dressing, coking, metallurgy, non-ferrous metal smelting, and chemicals are the principle industries. [23]

After a World Bank report in 2006 called Linfen "the most polluted city in the world", the local government began closing a number of mines and factories, costing the city's economy $300 million in 2007 alone. [24] A number of industries also refitted their facilities to track and reduce pollution. [24] The city's economy stagnated in the following years. [25]

Transportation

Linfen Museum Lin Fen Bo Wu Guan Da Men .JPG
Linfen Museum

Air

Linfen Qiaoli Airport, in Yaodu district, was built in 1958 and closed in 1965. The airport has been under renovation since September 2010 and started operation in January 2016. On May 21, 2020, Linfen Qiaoli Airport was officially renamed "Linfen Yaodu Airport" (临汾尧都机场).

Railway

Linfen railway station, in Yaodu district, was built in 1935 on the important southern Tongpu railway.

Linfen West railway station, in Yaodu district, was built in 2014. It is on the Datong–Xi'an high-speed railway. From this station, passengers can go to Beijing, Xi'an, Taiyuan and Shijiazhuang directly.

Road

Education

Related Research Articles

Taiyuan Prefecture-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.

Datong Prefecture-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China. It is located in the Datong Basin at an elevation of 1,040 metres (3,410 ft) and borders Inner Mongolia to the north and west and Hebei to the east. It had a population of 3,318,057 during the 2010 census, of whom 1,629,035 lived in the built-up area made of the three urban districts of Chengqu, Kuangqu and Nanjiao.

Huozhou County-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Huozhou, formerly Huo County or Huoxian, is a county-level city in Linfen, in southern Shanxi Province, China. The city spans an area or 765 square kilometers, and has a population of 155,000 as of 2017.

Fen River

The Fen River drains the center of Shanxi Province, China. It originates in the Guancen Mountains of Ningwu County in northeast Shanxi, flows southeast into the basin of Taiyuan, and then south through the central valley of Shanxi before turning west to join the Yellow River west of Hejin. The Fen and the Wei Rivers are the two largest tributaries of the Yellow River. The river is 694 kilometers (431 mi) long and drains an area of 39,417 km2 (15,219 sq mi), 25.3% of Shanxi's area. The Fen River is the longest in Shanxi. It is also the second-longest tributary of the Yellow River. Within Taiyuan, the Fen runs from north to south; the prefecture includes one-seventh of the river's course.

Jincheng Prefecture-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Jincheng is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi province, China, bordering Henan province to the south and southeast. It is an industrial city in an area where coal mining is an important industry. The entire city has a population of 2.2 million.

Jiaozuo Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Jiaozuo is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north. Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city along the Shanxi–Henan border area.

Hongtong County County in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Hongtong County is a county in the southwest of Shanxi Province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Linfen. The county spans an area of 1,494 square kilometers, and has a population of approximately 766,579 as of 2019.

Lüliang Prefecture-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Lüliang or Lyuliang is a prefecture-level city in the west of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Shaanxi province across the Yellow River to the west, Jinzhong and the provincial capital of Taiyuan to the east, Linfen to the south, and Xinzhou to the north. It has a total area of 21,143 square kilometres (8,163 sq mi) and total population of 3,727,057. The metro area of Lüliang has a population of 320,142 at the 2010 census.

Houma, Shanxi County-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Houma is a county-level city in the southwest of the Shanxi province of the People's Republic of China, on the Fen River - the tributary of Yellow River; it is under the administration of Linfen City. Houma has an area of 220.1 km2 (85.0 sq mi) and has a population of 251,000 as of 2017.

Fenyang County-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Fenyang, formerly as Fenyang County (汾阳县) before 1996, is a county-level city under the administration of Lüliang prefecture-level city, in Shanxi Province, China.

Hedong Commandery was a historical region in the Qin and Han dynasties of ancient China. Hedong was located to the east of the Yellow River in Shanxi.

Gujiao County-level city in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Gujiao is a county-level city of Shanxi Province, North China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Taiyuan. The estimated population of Gujiao in 2017 is about 222,000.

Fushan County County in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Fushan County is a county in prefecture-level city of Linfen, in southern Shanxi Province, China. The county spans an area of 940.6 square kilometers, and has a population of 127,831 as of 2010.

Yaodu District District in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Yaodu District (simplified Chinese: 尧都区; traditional Chinese: 堯都區; pinyin: Yáodū Qū is the sole district of the city of Linfen, Shanxi Province, China. Yaodu spans 1,307 square kilometers in area, and has a population of 944,050 as of 2010. The district serves at the administrative center for Linfen.

Gu County County in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Gu County or Guxian is a county in the south of Shanxi Province, China, under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Linfen. The county spans an area of 1,196 square kilometers, and has a population of 91,798 as of 2010.

Ji County, Shanxi County in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Ji County, also known by it Chinese name Jixian, is a county in the west of the prefecture-level city of Linfen, in southwestern Shanxi Province, China. The county spans an area of approximately 1,780 square kilometers, and has a population of approximately 110,000 people as of 2013.

Pu County County in Shanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Pu County, also known by its Chinese name Puxian, is a rural county in the southwest of Shanxi province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Linfen; bordering county-level divisions are Yaodu District to the southeast, Ji County to the southwest, Daning County to the west, Xi County to the north, Fenxi County to the northeast, and Hongtong County to the east.

Mount Longmen (Shanxi)

Lóngmén Shān, Mount Longmen or Longmen Mountain is a mountain in Shanxi province, China. In March–April 2010, the Wangjialing coal mine flood occurred here.

Linfen Qiaoli Airport

Linfen Qiaoli Airport is an airport serving the city of Linfen in Shanxi Province, China. It is located near the town of Qiaoli in Yaodu District, 15 kilometers from the city center. The airport was first built in 1958 and opened on 1 January 1960, but ceased operations in fall 1965. Construction started again in September 2010 to expand and reopen the airport with an investment of 446 million yuan, and it was originally projected to open in late 2011.

Jin Prefecture, also known by its Chinese name Jinzhou, was a prefecture of imperial China. Its seat—also known as Jinzhou—was at Pingyang.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. 2010年临汾市第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报 [Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of China . Retrieved 30 August 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  3. 1 2 3 "Geography of Linfen" (in Chinese). Lifen People's Government. Retrieved 2008-09-09.[ dead link ]
  4. (in Chinese) Compilation by Lianxin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Choi, Charles Q. (October 18, 2006). "World's 10 Most Polluted Places". Livescience.com. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  6. Xinhua. April 2015.[ citation needed ]
  7. p. 46.
  8. Grousset, Rene (1970), The Empire of the Steppes, Rutgers University Press, pp.  56–7, ISBN   0-8135-1304-9 .
  9. p. 407.
  10. 1 2 "China's 'most polluted city' breathes cleaner air". China Daily. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  11. "Top 10 Most Polluted Places" (Adobe Portable Document Format). Blacksmith Institute. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  12. The World's 10 Dirtiest Cities
  13. Johnathan Watts; Randeep Ramesh (March 26, 2007). "Fighting for air: frontline of war on global warming". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  14. 1 2 FUnk, McKenzie (July 7, 2007). "China's Green Evolution". Popular Science Magazine. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  15. China Youth Daily Feb 23, 2014
  16. 1 2 "China coal hub Linfen to extend anti-pollution curbs to third quarter: draft plan". Reuters. 2019-04-15. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
  17. David Leffman; Simon Lewis; Jeremy Atiyah (2003). The Rough Guide to China. p. 263.
  18. "Feihong Pagoda in Hongtong County of Shanxi Province". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  19. Zhang, Zixuan. "Land of fairy tales". China Daily Asia Pacific. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  20. David Leffman; Simon Lewis; Jeremy Atiyah (2003). The Rough Guide to China. p. 262.
  21. 1 2 3 人口状况-市情概况-临汾市人民政府门户网站 (in Chinese). Linfen People's Government. 2020-03-10. Archived from the original on 2020-05-16. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
  22. 1 2 2019年临汾市GDP同比增长6%-统计信息-临汾市人民政府门户网站 (in Chinese). Linfen People's Government. Archived from the original on 2020-05-16. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
  23. "Linfen (Shanxi) City Information". September 11, 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  24. 1 2 Chang, Emily (2009-12-15). "Choking in China's polluted city - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 2020-05-16. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
  25. 中国 国内生产总值 : 地级市. www.ceicdata.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-05-16.