Linköping

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Linköping
Motto(s): 
Linköping – where ideas come to life
Linkoping with Roxen by Sentinel-2.jpg
Linköping with Lake Roxen from space
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Linköping
Linköping with Lake Roxen from space
Sweden location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Linköping
Linköping (Sweden)
Coordinates: 58°24′57″N15°37′31″E / 58.41583°N 15.62528°E / 58.41583; 15.62528 Coordinates: 58°24′57″N15°37′31″E / 58.41583°N 15.62528°E / 58.41583; 15.62528
Country Sweden
Province Östergötland
County Östergötland County
Municipality Linköping Municipality
Founded12th century
Area
[1]
  City42.16 km2 (16.28 sq mi)
Elevation
45 m (148 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2010) [1]
  City104,232
  Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
   Metro
158,841
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
58x xx
Area code(s) (+46) 13
Website www.linkoping.se

Linköping (Swedish:  [ˈlɪ̂nːˌɕøːpɪŋ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in southern Sweden, with 161,499 inhabitants as of 2019. [2] It is the 5th largest city in Sweden. It is the seat of Linköping Municipality and the capital of Östergötland County. Linköping is also the episcopal see of the Diocese of Linköping (Church of Sweden) and is well known for its cathedral. Linköping is the center of an old cultural region and celebrated its 700th anniversary in 1987. Dominating the city's skyline from afar is the steeple of the cathedral, Domkyrka.

Contents

Nowadays, Linköping is known for its university and its high-technology industry. Linköping wants to create a sustainable development of the city and therefore plans to become a carbon-neutral community by 2025. Located on the Östergötland Plain, Linköping is closely linked to Norrköping, roughly 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the east, near the sea.

History

The Linkoping Cathedral seen from East. Lkpgdomkyrka-ne.jpg
The Linköping Cathedral seen from East.
Linkoping seen from West, in the Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna. Suecia 3-004 ; Linkoping.jpg
Linköping seen from West, in the Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna .
Hunnebergsgatan: an old street with preserved older buildings. Hunnebergsgatan i Linkoping.JPG
Hunnebergsgatan: an old street with preserved older buildings.

The city is possibly named after the Lionga ting assembly which according to Medieval Scandinavian laws was the most important thing in Östergötland. Exact location of the Lionga ting is not known, but it was along the Eriksgata. The term "-köping" means there was a market there.

Historically, Linköping is famed for being an early diocese, second in Sweden (within its pre-1658 boundaries) only to Skara. The diocese is first mentioned in 1104 in the so-called "List of Florence" (Lionga. Kaupinga). The monastery of Vreta Kloster near Roxen north of Linköping was established in 1128, and the oldest parts of the cathedral are also from the 12th century (although it has been changed many times since then, the eye-catching tower with copper roofing being a 19th-century product). On several occasions attempts to achieve a separate Swedish archdiocese were based in Linköping, although, when they finally were successful in 1164, Uppsala was chosen instead.

Religious centers tend to become educational centers, and Linköping was no exception. A cathedral school can be traced from 1266. In 1627 the current Linköping cathedral school was established, making it the third oldest gymnasium in Sweden.

Also, Linköping was the site for the final settlement of the dispute between king Sigismund III Vasa and his uncle Duke Charles, the latter prevailing in the battle of Stångebro (today a sports field near central Linköping) on 25 September 1598. This ultimately led to the rise to the throne of Charles (de facto at the 1600 Riksdag of the Estates meeting in Linköping and formally four years later) and the end of the short-lived Swedish-Polish personal union, as well as the execution of five of Charles's political opponents on the main square of Linköping on 20 March 1600.

Linköping was a small town until 1937, when the Saab aircraft industry was formed, starting a period of rapid expansion. Linköping University was established in the 1960s. Today the city is a center of high-technology and software industry.

Climate

Linköping has a humid continental climate (Dfb), though with maritime influences, retaining the large differences between seasons but being comparatively mild when measured against other areas of the world on similar latitudes. Linköping tends to be slightly cooler in summer than nearby areas in the Mälar valley, but still is the weather station in Sweden among the officially listed for monthly statistics, that has come the closest to a subtropical month, with July 1914 having a mean temperature of 21.8 °C (71.2 °F), with the subtropical border being at 22 °C (72 °F) for the warmest month. [3] Normally summer highs average in the low 20s and winter temperatures commonly hover just above the freezing point during the day, then falls below it at night.

Climate data for Linköping-Malmslätt (5 km (3 mi) west of city centre) 2002–2015; extremes since 1901; rain 1961–1990
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)11.7
(53.1)
14.3
(57.7)
18.7
(65.7)
26.9
(80.4)
30.5
(86.9)
34.5
(94.1)
34.3
(93.7)
34.6
(94.3)
28.2
(82.8)
21.6
(70.9)
15.0
(59.0)
12.5
(54.5)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F)0.5
(32.9)
0.7
(33.3)
5.2
(41.4)
11.8
(53.2)
16.4
(61.5)
20.0
(68.0)
22.6
(72.7)
21.3
(70.3)
16.9
(62.4)
10.3
(50.5)
5.5
(41.9)
2.2
(36.0)
11.1
(52.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.0
(33.8)
6.2
(43.2)
10.8
(51.4)
14.3
(57.7)
17.3
(63.1)
16.3
(61.3)
12.2
(54.0)
6.7
(44.1)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
6.9
(44.4)
Average low °C (°F)−4.9
(23.2)
−5.1
(22.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
0.6
(33.1)
5.2
(41.4)
8.7
(47.7)
12.0
(53.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.5
(45.5)
3.1
(37.6)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.6
(36.7)
Record low °C (°F)−32.0
(−25.6)
−30.4
(−22.7)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−16.0
(3.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.0
(37.4)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.3
(24.3)
−11.1
(12.0)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−32.0
(−25.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)35.4
(1.39)
23.8
(0.94)
28.5
(1.12)
31.0
(1.22)
37.5
(1.48)
44.5
(1.75)
65.7
(2.59)
61.1
(2.41)
58.8
(2.31)
44.3
(1.74)
46.0
(1.81)
39.3
(1.55)
515.9
(20.31)
Source 1: SMHI [4]
Source 2: SMHI Monthly Data 2002–2015 [5]

Demography

Top 5 largest immigrant communities:

1. Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq – 3800

2. Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia - 2345

3. Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea - 1129

4. Flag of Iran.svg Iran - 988

5. Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina - 667[ citation needed ]

Culture

The headquarters of regional utilities company, Tekniska Verken, at Stangebro Linkoping-tekniska verken.jpg
The headquarters of regional utilities company, Tekniska Verken, at Stångebro

Linköping offers a wealth of leisure activities to people of all ages. Residents and visitors are able to enjoy art, theatre, history, concerts, markets, festivals and sporting events.

Special sights of interests are: the locks of Berg on the Göta Canal, the locks of the Kinda Canal, Gamla Linköping, Valla skogen and Valla fritidsområde (Old Linköping, Valla Wood, and the Valla recreational area), Flygvapen museum (the Air Force Museum), Linköping's domkyrka (the Cathedral), Slotts- och domkyrkomuseet (the Castle and Cathedral Museum) and Östergötlands Länsmuseum (the Östergötland County Museum). Konsthallen Passagen is an art gallery located in the main square.

Tornby, to the north of the city centre, is a vast shopping area with huge retail outlets and immense parking lots.

The city and its environs offer all sorts of green landscapes to see and experience. Two examples are a park named after the group responsible for it, Trädgårdsföreningen (The Garden Society), and the Tinnerö area with its oak woodland. Local bodies of water include the lakes Roxen, Rängen and Järnlunden, the River Stångån/Kinda Canal and the Göta Canal with the Berg locks. These areas can be accessed by foot, bicycle, or boat.

Linköping is the home of the Linköping Symphony Orchestra. The city is one of the sites of the Östergötland Music Days each summer, and the host of the Student Orchestra Festival in May every other year. One of the most notable choirs in Linköping is the Linköping University Male Voice Choir.

Linköping is also the home of theatrical heavy metal band Ghost and rock band the Pusjkins (sv).

The area around the main square was re-planned in the 1960s, and many old houses were destroyed. Some, however, were moved to Gamla Linköping (Old Linköping), in the city's western part, neighbouring the university's main campus. It is a living museum environment and a popular site with both residents and tourists.

NärCon, the largest anime and gaming convention in the Nordic countries, is held in Linköping.

Panorama linkoeping-ebv m beller.jpg
A panorama view of Linköping, with Domkyrka church as the highest building of the whole city

Sport

Teams from Linköping are prominent in floorball, volleyball (Linköpings VC) and ice hockey (Linköpings HC (see above), or "Cluben" as some fans refer to it). The hockey team allied itself with Linköping's women's football team and created Linköpings FC, which plays in the highest division. The team won the Swedish Cup in 2006 and 2014. The world's largest floorball club Linköping Innebandy resides in the indoor sports arena in the city centre. The city continues to lack a first-class men's team in football with several teams competing in the lower leagues.

SAAB Arena (formerly Cloetta Center), LHC's home stadium Cloetta Center, Linkoping, juli 2005.jpg
SAAB Arena (formerly Cloetta Center), LHC's home stadium

Other sports clubs include:

Orienteering

Linköping hosted the 1968 World Orienteering Championships. [6]

Politics and government

General elections were held in Sweden on 14 September 2014 to elect the Riksdag, all 21 county councils and 290 municipal assemblies.

Linköping votes as of 14 September 2014 [7] [8]
PartyRiksdag PercentageMunicipality Percentage
Left Party 4,7%5,8%
Social Democrats 29,1%33,9%
Green Party 8,2%8,2%
Centre Party 6,1%5,6%
Moderate Party 24,2%23,3%
Christian Democrats 5,8%6,4%
Liberal People's Party 7,0%7,7%
Sweden Democrats 11,2%7,7%
other minor parties3,8%1,5%
Total100%100%

The local Social Democrats (S; Social Demokraterna), Green Party (MP; Miljöpartiet) and the Liberal People's Party (L; Liberalerna, formerly FP; Folk Partiet) formed a coalition majority named "coalition for Linköping" with 40 out of 79 mandates, while the minority opposition in Linköping consist each separate by: the Moderate Party(M ; Moderaterna), Centre Party(C; Center Partiet), Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna), Left Party (V; Vänsterpartiet) and the Sweden Democrats (SD; Sverige Demokraterna). [9]

The Swedish Air Force Museum is located near the town.

Economy

One of the biggest employers in Linköping is Saab which among other products manufactures the SAAB Gripen fighter jet and where the SAAB 340 twin-engine commuter turboprop was produced. [ citation needed ] The city also has a strong presence in information technology with the headquarters of IFS AB, Sectra AB and Cambio Healthcare Systems AB, as well as the presence of Motorola, Ericsson, Infor, and many others. Toyota Industries Sweden AB has a presence in Linköping, as one of its subsidiaries, BT Industries, is located in nearby Mjölby.

Transport

The city is situated south of lake Roxen (which is part of the historically important water paths Motala ström and the Göta Canal) where the E4, Sweden's highway backbone, crosses the river Stångån (and Kinda kanal). It is situated on the main southern railway line connecting Stockholm with Malmö and Danish capital Copenhagen. Linköping/Saab Airport offers daily connections to Amsterdam.

autonomous bus experiment around Linkoping university Autonomous bus Linkoping 2019.jpg
autonomous bus experiment around Linköping university

In 2019, the city started experimenting with two autonomous buses that run along a 2 km route around the university campus. [10]

Education

The city is home to Linköping University and its associated hospital Linköping University Hospital. The Katedralskolan (English: Cathedral School) is the third oldest gymnasium in the country.

Notable residents

Neighbourhoods

See also

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Stångån river

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Hackefors is a district in southeastern Linköping in Östergötland. It is located east of Stångån in Landeryd parish. Hackefors consists largely of residential buildings. There are also jogging tracks in Hackefors, Åbysäcken, of 2 km, 2.9 km, 5 km and 6.4 km. The Hackefors area was originally a place separate from Linköping, where over the years many renowned companies have been located, such as Malte Månson, Data-Saab and Ericsson. Hackefors had around 300 inhabitants in 1965. Since 1970 Hackefors has grown together with Linköping.

Kallerstad

Kallerstad is a district in Linköping, Sweden, with mostly industrial, commercial and office areas. The district includes Kallerstad, Mörtlösa and Torvinge industrial areas. In 2009, fewer than a hundred people lived in the area. The district is east of Tornby, on the north side of the rail line, and crossed by Kallerstad trail, which is part of the city's outer ring road. About 60 companies have offices in the area. These include Tekniska Verken, Schenker, Urban Partners, Veolia Transport AB and CLM Environmental Engineering.

Tannefors

Tannefors is a district in Linköping, Sweden. It lies just east of the city center, opposite Stångån. The district's eastern parts are dominated by Saab AB, surrounding industries and Linköping Airport. In Tannefors there is a hold point for trains on the Tjust line and Stångådal line. There is a local football team called Tannefors IF. The schools Kungsbergsskolan and Tanneforsskolan are located here.

Tornby industrial area in Linköping, Sweden

Tornby is an industrial area in the north of Linköping, where one of Sweden's largest shopping malls is located. Tornby is limited to the south by the railway, in the north by the E4 motorway, to the west by Skäggetorp and Bergsvägen, which is the middle of the three freeway exits and in the east of Stångån. East of Stångån the industrial area Kallerstad is located.

References

  1. 1 2 "Localities 2010, area, population and density in localities 2005 and 2010 and change in area and population". Statistics Sweden. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012.
  2. "Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 31 mars 2019 och befolkningsförändringar 1 januari – 31 mars 2019". www.scb.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  3. "July 2014 Air Temperature & Wind (all-time stats)" (PDF). SMHI. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  4. "Precipitation Normals 1961–1990". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (code 8524). Archived from the original on 2018-09-28. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  5. "SMHI Monthly Data 2002–2015". SMHI. 2 April 2016.
  6. "World Orienteering Championships 1968". International Orienteering Federation . Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  7. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-05-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-13. Retrieved 2016-05-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-01. Retrieved 2016-05-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. "Take a bus ride into the future". liu.se. Retrieved 2019-12-31.