Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset

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The Duke of Dorset

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Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset (1719)
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office
15 December 1750 2 April 1755
Monarch George II
Preceded by The Earl of Harrington
Succeeded by Marquess of Hartington
In office
23 June 1730 9 April 1737
Monarch George II
Preceded by The Lord Carteret
Succeeded by The Duke of Devonshire
Lord President of the Council
In office
3 January 1745 17 June 1751
Monarch George II
Prime Minister Henry Pelham
Preceded by The Earl of Harrington
Succeeded by The Earl Granville
Personal details
Born(1688-01-18)18 January 1688
Dorset, United Kingdom
Died10 October 1765(1765-10-10) (aged 77)
Knole, United Kingdom
Coat of arms of Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, KG, PC Coat of arms of Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, KG, PC.png
Coat of arms of Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, KG, PC

Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset KG PC (18 January 1688 10 October 1765) was an English political leader and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, commonly known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or simply the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 till the Partition of Ireland in 1922

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the title of the chief governor of Ireland from the Williamite Wars of 1690 until the Partition of Ireland in 1922. This spanned the Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922). The office, under its various names, was often more generally known as the viceroy, and his wife was known as the vicereine. The government of Ireland in practice was usually in the hands of the Lord Deputy up to the 17th century, and later of the Chief Secretary for Ireland. Although in the Middle Ages some Lords Deputy were Irish noblemen, only men from Great Britain, usually peers, were appointed to the office of Lord Lieutenant.

Contents

Life

He was the son of the 6th Earl of Dorset and 1st Earl of Middlesex, and the former Lady Mary Compton, younger daughter of the 3rd Earl of Northampton. Styled Lord Buckhurst from birth, he succeeded his father as 7th Earl of Dorset and 2nd Earl of Middlesex in 1706, and was created Duke of Dorset in 1720.

Charles Sackville, 6th Earl of Dorset English noble and politician

Charles Sackville, 6th Earl of Dorset and 1st Earl of Middlesex, KG was an English poet and courtier.

James Compton, 3rd Earl of Northampton English politician

James Compton, 3rd Earl of Northampton FRS, known as Lord Compton from 1630 to 1643, was an English peer, soldier, and politician.

Perhaps because he had been on a previous diplomatic mission to Hanover, he was chosen to inform George I of his accession to the Crown in August 1714. George I initially favoured him and numerous offices and honours were given to him: Privy Councillor, Knight of the Garter, Groom of the Stole, Lord Steward, Governor of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports. At George I's coronation he carried the sceptre: at the coronation of George II he was Lord High Steward and carried St Edward's Crown. He quarreled with the King in 1717 and was told his services were no longer required, but he was made a Duke three years later.

Hanover City in Lower Saxony, Germany

Hanover or Hannover is the capital of and largest city in the state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city in Germany as well as the third-largest city in Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen. The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, and is the largest city in the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen and Bremen.

Lord Steward position

The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer. Until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office was one of considerable political importance and carried Cabinet rank.

Dover Castle medieval castle in Dover, Kent, England

Dover Castle is a medieval castle in Dover, Kent, England. It was founded in the 11th century and has been described as the "Key to England" due to its defensive significance throughout history. It is the largest castle in England.

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

Dorset served twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, from 1731 to 1737 and again from 1751 to 1755. In 1739, at the foundation of the Foundling Hospital, he was one of that charity's original governors. His first term as Lord Lieutenant was uneventful. His second took place at a time of acute political tension between the two main factions in the Irish Government, one led by Henry Boyle, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, the other by George Stone, the Anglican Archbishop of Armagh. Dorset, now heavily influenced by his son George Sackville, made the mistake of openly backing the Archbishop. He was unable to oust Boyle from power, and was accused of being the Archbishop's tool. He became extremely unpopular, leading to his eventual recall.

Foundling Hospital hospital

The Foundling Hospital in London, England, was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. It was a children's home established for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The word "hospital" was used in a more general sense than it is today, simply indicating the institution's "hospitality" to those less fortunate. Nevertheless, one of the top priorities of the committee at the Foundling Hospital was children's health, as they combated smallpox, fevers, consumption, dysentery and even infections from everyday activities like teething that drove up mortality rates and risked epidemics. With their energies focused on maintaining a disinfected environment, providing simple clothing and fare, the committee paid less attention to and spent less on developing children's education. As a result, financial problems would hound the institution for years to come, despite the growing "fashionableness" of charities like the hospital.

Henry Boyle, 1st Earl of Shannon Irish politician

Henry Boyle, 1st Earl of Shannon, PC (Ire) was a prominent Irish politician.

Irish House of Commons lower house of the irish parliament (until 1800)

The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800. The upper house was the House of Lords. The membership of the House of Commons was directly elected, but on a highly restrictive franchise, similar to the Unreformed House of Commons in contemporary England and Great Britain. In counties, forty-shilling freeholders were enfranchised whilst in most boroughs it was either only the members of self-electing corporations or a highly-restricted body of freemen that were able to vote for the borough's representatives. Most notably, Catholics were disqualified from sitting in the Irish parliament from 1691, even though they comprised the vast majority of the Irish population. From 1728 until 1793 they were also disfranchised. Most of the population of all religions had no vote. The vast majority of parliamentary boroughs were pocket boroughs, the private property of an aristocratic patron. When these boroughs were disfranchised under the Act of Union, the patron was awarded £15,000 compensation for each.

Last Years

His last years were uneventful, apart from a riot in 1757 caused by the passage of the Militia Act to raise an army for the Seven Years' War, in which he narrowly escaped injury. He died at Knole on 9 October 1765 and was buried at Withyham in Sussex.

Seven Years War Global conflict between 1756 and 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global war fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved all five European great powers of the time plus many of the middle powers and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and a few other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, including the Electorate of Saxony and most of the smaller German states, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and Sweden. The Dutch Republic, Denmark-Norway, the Italian States, and the Ottoman Empire did not participate. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.

Knole Historic English country house

KnoleNT is a country house situated within Knole Park, a 1,000-acre (400-hectare) park located immediately to the south-east of Sevenoaks in west Kent. The house apparently ranks in the top five of England's largest houses, under any measure used, occupying a total of four acres. Vita Sackville-West, who grew up there, recounts a legend that it is a calendar house: 'its seven courtyards correspond to the days of the week, its fifty-two staircases to the weeks of the year, its three hundred and sixty-five rooms to the days of the year, but 'I do not know that anyone has ever troubled to verify it.' The meticulous planning of a calendar house certainly does not fit well with the organic growth and reconstruction of the house over more than 500 years.

Withyham village and large civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England

Withyham is a village and large civil parish in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England. The village is situated 7 miles south west of Royal Tunbridge Wells and 3.5 miles (5.6 km) from Crowborough; the parish covers approximately 7,500 acres (30 km2).

Character

Horace Walpole gave this sketch of his character : "with the greatest dignity in his appearance, he was in private the greatest lover of buffoonery and low company.. he was never thought to have wanted a tendency to power, in whosever hands it was". Jonathan Swift thought him one of the most agreeable and well- informed men, and best conversationalists, he had ever met. Even harsh critics admitted his dignity and perfect decorum, a last legacy of the manners of the Court of Queen Anne.

Horace Walpole 18th-century English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician

Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, also known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.

Jonathan Swift 17th/18th-century Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, and poet

Jonathan Swift was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, hence his common sobriquet, "Dean Swift".

Anne, Queen of Great Britain Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland

Anne was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714.

Family

He married Elizabeth Colyear, the daughter of Lieutenant-General Walter Colyear (brother of the David Colyear, 1st Earl of Portmore), in January 1709. She later became a Lady of the Bedchamber (1714–1737) and Mistress of the Robes (1723–1731) to Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II.

Lionel and Elizabeth's sons were:

They also had two daughters:

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References

Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Duke of Cumberland
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1708–1712
Succeeded by
The Duke of Ormonde
Preceded by
The 1st Earl of Rockingham
Custos Rotulorum of Kent
1724–1765
Succeeded by
The Duke of Dorset
Vice-Admiral of Kent
1725–1765
Vacant
Title next held by
The Earl Camden
Preceded by
The Earl of Leicester
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1727–1765
Succeeded by
The Earl of Holdernesse
Preceded by
The 3rd Earl of Rockingham
Lord Lieutenant of Kent
1746–1765
Succeeded by
The Duke of Dorset
Preceded by
Sir Paul Methuen
Senior Privy Counsellor
1757–1765
Succeeded by
The Duke of Newcastle
Court offices
Preceded by
The Duchess of Somerset
Groom of the Stole
1714–1719
Succeeded by
The Earl of Sunderland
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Argyll
Lord Steward
1725–1730
Succeeded by
The Earl of Chesterfield
Preceded by
The Lord King
Lord High Steward
1727
Succeeded by
The Lord Hardwicke
Preceded by
The Lord Carteret
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1730–1737
Succeeded by
The Duke of Devonshire
Preceded by
The Duke of Devonshire
Lord Steward
1737–1744
Succeeded by
The Duke of Devonshire
Preceded by
The Earl of Harrington
Lord President of the Council
1745–1751
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Preceded by
The Earl of Harrington
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1750–1755
Succeeded by
Marquess of Hartington
Preceded by
Marquess of Hartington
Master of the Horse
1755–1757
Succeeded by
The Earl Gower
Peerage of England
New creation Duke of Dorset
1720–1765
Succeeded by
Charles Sackville
Preceded by
Charles Sackville
Earl of Dorset
1706–1765