List of Category 3 Pacific hurricanes

Last updated
A mature hurricane, featuring a circular cloud mass with a small, well-defined eye in the center, approaches Mexico from the southwest.
Hurricane Jova of 2011, one of the most damaging Category 3 Pacific hurricanes, near peak intensity on October 10

Category 3 is the third-highest classification on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, and categorizes tropical cyclones with 1-minute maximum sustained winds between 96 knots (110  mph ; 178  km/h ; 49  m/s ) and 112 knots (129 mph; 207 km/h; 58 m/s). Tropical cyclones that attain such winds and move over land while maintaining those winds are capable of causing severe damage to human lives and infrastructure. From 1949 to 2018, a total of 82 recorded Pacific hurricanes have peaked at Category 3 strength within the Northeast Pacific tropical cyclone basin, which is denoted as the part of the Pacific Ocean north of the equator and east of the International Date Line. This does not include storms that also attained Category 4 or 5 status on the scale.

Contents

The development of Category 3 hurricanes in the Northeast Pacific basin is influenced by many factors. During the Northern Hemisphere winter and spring months of December to April, sea surface temperatures in the tropics are usually too low to support tropical cyclogenesis. Furthermore, from January to April, the North Pacific High and Aleutian Low induce strong vertical wind shear and unfavorable conditions that serve to prevent the development of hurricanes. These effects are reduced or even disappear during hurricane season from May to November, when sea surface temperatures are also high enough to support tropical cyclogenesis; the bulk of recorded Category 3 hurricanes developed during June to October. Global weather patterns may also influence hurricane development in the Northeast Pacific. El Niño events result in increased numbers of powerful hurricanes through weaker wind shear and higher sea surface temperatures within the basin, while La Niña events reduce the number of such hurricanes through the opposite.

Background

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5
Tracks of all known Category 3 Pacific hurricanes from 1970–2015 in the Northeast Pacific basin.
Tracks of all known Category 3 Pacific hurricanes from 1949–2015 in the Northeast Pacific basin

On the Saffir–Simpson scale, a hurricane reaches Category 3 status when it attains maximum sustained winds of between 96 knots (110  mph ; 178  km/h ; 49  m/s ) and 112 knots (129 mph; 207 km/h; 58 m/s). [1] The National Hurricane Center (NHC) takes sustained winds to be the average wind speed measured over the period of one minute at the height of 10 metres (33 ft) above the ground. [2] When a hurricane reaches Category 3 intensity, it is termed a "major hurricane" by the NHC, though this term is also used to describe hurricanes at Category 4 or 5 intensity. [3] Should a Category 3 hurricane make landfall, its strongest winds can cause very severe damage to human infrastructure, with debris carried by the winds capable of bringing injury or death to humans and animals. [1]

The Northeast Pacific tropical cyclone basin is defined as the region of the Pacific Ocean north of the equator and east of the International Date Line. The Northeast Pacific is further divided into two sub-basins, namely the east and central Pacific. The east Pacific runs east of the 140th meridian west, and tropical cyclones occurring there are warned upon by the National Hurricane Center, the current Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for that area. The central Pacific, running from the 140th meridian west to the International Date Line, currently has the Central Pacific Hurricane Center as its RSMC. [4] Tropical cyclones are generally much rarer in the central Pacific than in the east Pacific, with an average of just four to five storms forming or moving into the central Pacific compared to around 15 for the east Pacific. [5] [6] All tropical cyclones recorded by past and present RSMCs of the Northeast Pacific basin since 1949 are listed in the Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database (HURDAT), which is compiled and maintained by the National Hurricane Center. [7] [8]

Before 1970, tropical cyclones within the Northeast Pacific were classified into three categories: tropical depression, tropical storm, and hurricane; these were assigned intensities of 30 mph (45 km/h), 50 mph (85 km/h), and 85 mph (140 km/h) respectively. Exceptions to these rules would be storms that affected humans and as such humans were able to measure or estimate wind speeds or pressure data. [7] Due to this lack of specific intensity records, there has been only one confirmed Category 3 hurricane prior to 1970. [8]

Climatology

A small, intense hurricane in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
Hurricane Ekeka of 1992 near peak intensity on February 2. Ekeka is the only Category 3 Pacific hurricane to develop outside of the normal dates of the Pacific hurricane season.

Hurricane season in the Northeast Pacific tropical cyclone basin begins on May 15 in the east Pacific and June 1 in the central Pacific, and ends on November 30. [9] Since 1949, a total of 82 Category 3 hurricanes have developed in the Northeast Pacific basin. Only one has occurred in the off-season: Hurricane Ekeka of 1992, which peaked in February. Only one Category 3 hurricane has reached that intensity in May. A total of 7 have done so in June, 20 in July, 24 in August, 14 in September, and another 15 in October. None have done so in November. [8]

The formation and development of tropical cyclones, termed tropical cyclogenesis, requires high sea surface temperatures of at least 26.5  °C (79.7  °F ) and low vertical wind shear. When these conditions are met, a pre-existing tropical disturbance – usually a tropical wave  – can develop into a tropical cyclone, provided the disturbance is far enough from the Equator to experience a sufficiently strong Coriolis force which is responsible for the counterclockwise rotation of hurricanes in the Northern Hemisphere. [10] During the winter and spring months of December to April, sea surface temperatures in the tropics are usually too low to support development. Also, the presence of a semi-permanent high-pressure area known as the North Pacific High in the eastern Pacific greatly suppresses formation of tropical cyclones in the winter, as the North Pacific High results in vertical wind shear that causes environmental conditions to be unconducive to tropical cyclone formation. Another factor preventing tropical cyclones from forming during the winter is the presence of a semi-permanent low-pressure area called the Aleutian Low between January and April. Its effects in the central Pacific near the 160th meridian west cause tropical waves that form in the area to drift northward into the Gulf of Alaska and dissipate or become extratropical. Its retreat in late-April allows the warmth of the Pacific High to meander in, bringing its powerful clockwise wind circulation with it. The Intertropical Convergence Zone departs southward in mid-May permitting the formation of the earliest tropical waves, [11] coinciding with the start of the eastern Pacific hurricane season on May 15. [9] During summer and autumn, sea surface temperatures rise further to reach near 29 °C (84 °F) in July and August, well above the 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) threshold for tropical cyclogenesis. This allows for hurricanes developing during that time to strengthen significantly. [11]

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation also influences the frequency and intensity of hurricanes in the Northeast Pacific basin. During years with the existence of an El Niño event, sea surface temperatures increase in the Northeast Pacific and average vertical wind shear decreases, resulting in an increase in activity; the opposite happens in the Atlantic basin during El Niño, where increased wind shear creates an unfavorable environment for tropical cyclone formation. [12] Contrary to El Niño, La Niña increases wind shear and decreases sea surface temperatures over the eastern Pacific, while reducing wind shear and increasing sea surface temperatures over the Atlantic. [11]

Within the Northeast Pacific, tropical cyclones generally head west out into the open Pacific Ocean, steered by the westward trade winds. Closer to the end of the season, however, some storms are steered northwards or northeastwards around the subtropical ridge nearer the end of the season, and may bring impacts to the western coasts of Mexico and occasionally even Central America. In the central Pacific basin, the North Pacific High keeps tropical cyclones away from the Hawaiian Islands by forcing them southwards. [11] Combined with cooler waters around the Hawaiian Islands that tend to weaken approaching tropical cyclones, this makes direct impacts on the Hawaiian Islands by tropical cyclones rare. [13]

Systems

Key
NameDates as a
Category 3 hurricane [nb 2]
Duration
(hours)
Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDeathsDamage
(USD) [nb 3]
Refs
Olivia October 14, 19676125 mph (205 km/h)939 hPa (27.73 inHg) Baja California Sur #2N/A [8] [15]
Francene July 19–20, 197124115 mph (185 km/h)991 hPa (29.26 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [16]
Ilsa August 3, 197112115 mph (185 km/h)978 hPa (28.88 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [16]
Monica September 1–2, 197118115 mph (185 km/h)1,005 hPa (29.68 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [16]
Olivia [nb 4] September 25–26, 1971discontinuous duration12115 mph (185 km/h)948 hPa (27.99 inHg) Baja California Peninsula #, Southwestern United States N/A [8] [16] [17]
Priscilla October 10–11, 197124125 mph (205 km/h)951 hPa (28.08 inHg) Nayarit #N/A [8] [16] [18]
Fernanda August 24, 19726115 mph (185 km/h)948 hPa (27.99 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [19]
Gwen August 27–28, 197230125 mph (205 km/h)941 hPa (27.79 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [19]
Hyacinth August 31–September 1, 197230125 mph (205 km/h)962 hPa (28.41 inHg) not at peak intensity California N/AN/A [8] [19]
Connie June 14, 19746125 mph (205 km/h)942 hPa (27.82 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [20]
Ione August 25, 19746115 mph (185 km/h)954 hPa (28.17 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [21] [20]
Carlotta July 5–6, 197548125 mph (205 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Olivia October 25, 19756115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Sinaloa # (particularly Mazatlán), Nayarit, Durango, Jalisco 30 [8] [22]
Hyacinth August 10–11, 197630115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Daniel June 30–July 1, 197830115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Gilma July 16, 19786115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Dolores July 20–21, 1979discontinuous duration18120 mph (195 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Fefa August 23, 19796115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Agatha June 12, 19806115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Javier August 25, 198018115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Norma October 10–11, 198124125 mph (205 km/h)Unknown Sinaloa #, Texas, Oklahoma 6 [8] [23] [24]
Daniel July 11–12, 198224115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Hawaiian Islands N/AN/A [8]
Gilma July 29–30, 198224125 mph (205 km/h)Unknown Big Island N/AN/A [8]
John August 6–8, 198236115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Sergio October 17–18, 198248125 mph (205 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Lorena September 8, 198312115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Guerrero, Colima 7 [8] [25]
Manuel September 17, 198312115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Baja California, Southwestern United States N/AN/A [8]
Priscilla October 4, 198318115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Southwestern United States N/AN/A [8]
Genevieve July 10–11, 198412115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Baja California Peninsula #N/AN/A [8]
Keli August 20, 19846115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Johnston Atoll N/AN/A [8]
Polo October 1–2, 198424115 mph (185 km/h)Unknown Baja California Peninsula #N/AN/A [8]
Blanca June 13–14, 198530120 mph (195 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Dolores July 1, 198512115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Sandra September 8–9, 198518125 mph (205 km/h)972 hPa (28.70 inHg) not at peak intensityNo land areasN/AN/A [8] [26]
Terry September 20–21, 1985discontinuous duration12115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Xina October 29, 19856115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Hilary August 3–4, 198724120 mph (195 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Otis September 22–24, 1987discontinuous duration36115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [8]
Uleki August 31–September 3, 198872120 mph (195 km/h)Unknown Hawaii 2N/A [27]
Ismael August 19–20, 198918120 mph (195 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Guerrero, Colima 3N/A [28] [29]
Kiko August 26–27, 198918120 mph (195 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Baja California Sur #, Sonora N/AN/A [30]
Iselle July 24–26, 199054120 mph (195 km/h)958 hPa (28.29 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [31]
Julio August 21–22, 199024115 mph (185 km/h)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [32]
Carlos June 23–25, 199154120 mph (195 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [33]
Fefa August 2, 199118120 mph (195 km/h)959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Hawaii N/AN/A [34]
Linda October 5–6, 199118120 mph (195 km/h)957 hPa (28.26 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [35]
Ekeka February 2, 199212115 mph (185 km/h)UnknownNo land areasN/AN/A [36]
Darby July 6, 199218120 mph (195 km/h)968 hPa (28.59 inHg) Guerrero 3N/A [37]
Winifred October 9, 19926115 mph (185 km/h)960 hPa (28.35 inHg) Colima #, Michoacán, Guerrero 3 [38]
Eugene July 18–20, 199366125 mph (205 km/h)948 hPa (27.99 inHg) Hawaii 1N/A [39] [40]
Hilary August 21–22, 199324120 mph (195 km/h)957 hPa (28.26 inHg) Baja California Peninsula #, Sonora #, California, Iowa N/AN/A [41]
Fausto September 12, 199618120 mph (195 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Baja California Sur #, Sinaloa #, Texas 1 [42] [43]
Enrique July 14, 19976115 mph (185 km/h)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [44]
Darby July 25–28, 1998discontinuous duration48115 mph (185 km/h)958 hPa (28.29 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [45]
Georgette August 14, 199812115 mph (185 km/h)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [46]
Lester October 22, 199812115 mph (185 km/h)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras 2N/A [47] [48] [49]
Beatriz July 12–14, 199936120 mph (195 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [50]
Daniel July 25–28, 2000discontinuous duration60125 mph (205 km/h)954 hPa (28.17 inHg) Hawaii N/AN/A [51]
Alma May 30, 200212115 mph (185 km/h)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [52]
Ele August 29–30, 2002intensified further in another basin6125 mph (205 km/h)945 hPa (27.91 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [53]
Darby July 29, 200412120 mph (195 km/h)957 hPa (28.26 inHg) Hawaii N/AN/A [54]
Jova September 19–21, 200560125 mph (205 km/h)951 hPa (28.08 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [55]
Bud July 13, 200618125 mph (205 km/h)953 hPa (28.14 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [56]
Ileana August 23–24, 200618120 mph (195 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Baja California Sur 1N/A [57] [58]
Lane September 16, 200618125 mph (205 km/h)952 hPa (28.11 inHg) Guerrero, Michoacán, Colima, Jalisco, Sinaloa #, Texas 4 [59] [60] [61]
Hernan August 9–10, 200818120 mph (195 km/h)956 hPa (28.23 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [62]
Guillermo August 15, 200918125 mph (205 km/h)954 hPa (28.17 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [63]
Neki October 21–22, 200924125 mph (205 km/h)950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument N/AN/A [64]
Darby June 25–26, 201030120 mph (195 km/h)959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Chiapas N/AN/A [65]
Jova October 10–11, 201130125 mph (205 km/h)955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Colima, Jalisco #9 [66] [67] [68] [69]
Bud June 25, 20126115 mph (185 km/h)961 hPa (28.38 inHg) Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco N/AN/A [70]
Daniel July 8, 20126115 mph (185 km/h)961 hPa (28.38 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [71]
Miriam September 24–25, 201218120 mph (195 km/h)959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Baja California Sur, Texas N/AN/A [72]
Paul October 15–16, 201218120 mph (195 km/h)959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, Sinaloa, Revillagigedo Islands N/A [73]
Raymond October 21–22, 201318125 mph (205 km/h)951 hPa (28.08 inHg) Guerrero, Michoacán N/AN/A [74]
Genevieve August 7, 2014intensified further in another basin6115 mph (185 km/h)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [75]
Julio August 8, 201418120 mph (195 km/h)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [76]
Norbert September 6, 201412125 mph (205 km/h)950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Colima, Jalisco, Sinaloa, Baja California Peninsula, Southwestern United States 5 [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82]
Linda September 8–9, 201518125 mph (205 km/h)950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Sinaloa, Oaxaca, Zacatecas, Revillagigedo Islands, Southwestern United States 22 [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90]
Darby July 16–17, 201618120 mph (195 km/h)958 hPa (28.29 inHg) Hawaii #N/AN/A [91]
Eugene July 9, 20176115 mph (185 km/h)966 hPa (28.53 inHg) Southern California N/AN/A [92]
Otis September 18, 20176115 mph (185 km/h)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)No land areasN/AN/A [93]
Overall reference for name, dates, duration, winds and pressure: [8]

Landfalls

Landfalls by month [8]
MonthNumber of storms
July
2
August
4
September
4
October
8

Of the 82 Category 3 hurricanes in the east and central Pacific, a total of 14 made landfall while still a tropical cyclone, collectively resulting in 18 landfalls. [8] As tropical cyclones approach land, they tend to weaken due to land interaction, cooler waters, shallower waters due to shelving, increased vertical wind shear, or dry air. [94] As such, only four of these 14 hurricanes have made landfall while still at Category 3 intensity: Olivia of 1967, Olivia of 1975, Kiko of 1989, and Lane of 2006. Only three made more than one landfall during their lifespan: Hilary of 1993, which made three landfalls, as well as Olivia of 1967 and Fausto of 1996, which made two landfalls each. Only two years – 1971 and 1984 – saw more than one Category 3 hurricane make landfall, though in neither year any of those Category 3 hurricanes made landfall as hurricanes. [8] In the following table, dates where storms made landfall are listed next to the locations where the storms made landfall. [nb 2]

NameYearCategory 3Category 2Category 1Tropical stormTropical depressionRefs
Olivia 1967 Baja California Sur (October 14)   Baja California Sur (October 13)  [15]
Olivia 1971     Baja California Sur (September 30) [16]
Priscilla 1971    Nayarit (October 12)  [16]
Olivia 1975 Sinaloa (October 25)     [22]
Norma 1981  Sinaloa (October 12)    [23]
Genevieve 1984     Baja California Sur (July 14) [95]
Polo 1984     Baja California Sur (October 3) [95]
Kiko 1989 Baja California Sur (August 27)     [30]
Winifred 1992  Colima (October 9)    [38]
Hilary 1993    Baja California Sur (×2, both on August 25) Sonora (August 26) [41]
Fausto 1996   Baja California Sur (September 13), Sinaloa (September 14)   [42]
Lane 2006 Sinaloa (September 16)     [59]
Jova 2011  Jalisco (October 12)    [66]
Darby 2016    Big Island, Hawaii (July 24)  [91]
Overall reference for landfall intensity: [8]

See also

Notes

  1. Prior to 1988 for the Eastern Pacific and 2001 for the Central Pacific, pressure data was only able from direct measurements by reconnaissance aircraft that penetrated the storm or reports from ships and land-based weather stations, or estimates derived from satellite imagery. [14] Should any reading or estimate be available, the lowest is listed below.
  2. 1 2 Dates are given in Coordinated Universal Time.
  3. All damage values are in USD of their respective years.
  4. Hurricane Olivia was a continuation of Hurricane Irene from the North Atlantic basin after Irene crossed from the Atlantic to the Eastern Pacific while remaining a tropical cyclone. Statistics listed here only cover the Eastern Pacific portion of Hurricane Irene–Olivia's lifespan.

References

  1. 1 2 Schott, Timothy; Landsea, Christopher W; Hafale, Gene; Lorens, Jeffrey; Taylor, Arthur; Thurm, Harvey; Ward, Bill; Willis, Mark; Zaleski, Walt (February 1, 2012). "The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale" (PDF). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-13. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  2. Landsea, Christopher W (April 21, 2006). "TCFAQ D4) What does "maximum sustained wind" mean? How does it relate to gusts in tropical cyclones?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2014-10-09. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  3. Goldenberg, Stan (June 1, 2017). "TCFAQ A3) What is a super-typhoon? What is a major hurricane? What is an intense hurricane?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2014-04-26. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  4. Landsea, Christopher W (June 1, 2018). "TCFAQ F1) What regions around the globe have tropical cyclones and who is responsible for forecasting there?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2012-11-13. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  5. "CPHC Climatology". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 2012-09-22. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  6. "Background Information: East Pacific Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. May 27, 2015. Archived from the original on 2009-05-19. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  7. 1 2 Blake, Eric S; Gibney, Ethan J; Brown, Daniel P; Mainelli, Michelle; Franklin, James L; Kimberlain, Todd B; Hammer, Gregory R (2009). Tropical Cyclones of the Eastern North Pacific Basin, 1949-2006 (PDF). Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2017". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  9. 1 2 Dorst, Neal (June 2, 2016). "TCFAQ G1) When is hurricane season?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  10. Landsea, Christopher W (2014). "TCFAQ A15) How do tropical cyclones form?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on 2009-08-27. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Longshore, David (1998). Encyclopedia of hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones (1st ed.). Facts on File, Inc. pp. 333, 334. ISBN   978-0-8160-3398-0. Archived from the original on 2018-08-18. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
  12. Graham, Steve; Riebeek, Holli (November 1, 2006). "Hurricanes: The Greatest Storms on Earth: Feature Articles". Earth Observatory . United States: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original on 2017-05-06. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  13. Belles, Jonathan (August 3, 2018). "Hawaii Hurricanes: How Unusual Are They?". The Weather Channel . Archived from the original on 2018-08-20. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  14. Brown, Gail M; Leftwhich, Preston W Jr; National Hurricane Center (August 1982). A Compilation of Eastern and Central North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Data (PDF) (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 16). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  15. 1 2 Gustafson, Arthur F (January 1968). "Tropical Cyclones in the Eastern North Pacific, 1967". Climatological Data: National Summary. 18 (1): 69–73. Archived from the original on 2018-08-25. Retrieved 2018-08-25 via Google Books.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Denney, William J (April 1972). "Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1971" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 100 (4): 276–293. Bibcode:1972MWRv..100..276D. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.395.3350 . doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0276:EPHSO>2.3.CO;2. Archived from the original on 2018-09-15. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  17. Pinal County Public Works. "Summary of Historical Hazards Impacting Pinal County Communities" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2007. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  18. "Storm Damages Mexican Crops". The Corpus Christi Times. 62 (75). Corpus Christi, Texas. Associated Press. October 15, 1971. p. 1D. Archived from the original on 2018-08-18. Retrieved July 16, 2018 via Newspapers.com.
  19. 1 2 3 Baum, Robert A (April 1973). "Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1972" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 101 (4): 339–349. Bibcode:1973MWRv..101..339B. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1973)101<0339:ENPHSO>2.3.CO;2 . Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  20. 1 2 Baum, Robert A (April 1975). "Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclones, 1974: Part 1" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 103 (4): 301–304. Bibcode:1975MWRv..103..301B. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0301:ENPTCP>2.0.CO;2. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
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