This is a List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes. A total of 34 recorded tropical cyclones have reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricanes of such intensity occur once every three years in this region on average.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".
An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel). It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles.
Only in six seasons—1932, 1933, 1961, 2005, 2007, and 2017—has more than one Category 5 hurricane formed. Only in 2005 have more than two Category 5 hurricanes formed, and only in 2007 and 2017 did more than one make landfall at Category 5 strength.
The 1932 Atlantic hurricane season was the period during 1932 in which tropical cyclones formed in the Atlantic Basin. It was a relatively active season, with fifteen known storms, six hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. Two storms attained Category 5 intensity, the first known occurrence in which multiple Category 5 hurricanes formed in the same year. The season began with the formation of Tropical Storm One on May 5, and ended with the dissipation of Hurricane Fourteen, also known as the 1932 Cuba hurricane, on November 14. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period are often not reliable. The Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project discovered four new tropical cyclones, all of which were tropical storms, that occurred during the year. These storms were later added to the HURDAT database.
The 1933 Atlantic hurricane season was the second-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, behind only the 2005 season, with 20 storms forming in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, breaking the record set by 1887. The season also produced highest Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) on record in the Atlantic basin, with a total of 259. The season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1933, with activity as early as May and as late as November. A tropical cyclone was active for all but 13 days from June 28 to October 7. The year was surpassed in total number of tropical cyclones by the 2005 season, which broke the record with 28 storms. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period are often not reliable. Compensating for the lack of comprehensive observation, one hurricane researcher estimates the season could have produced 24 tropical cyclones.
The 1961 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of major hurricanes – Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale – until being tied by 2005. The season officially began on June 15, and lasted until November 15. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was an above average season in terms of tropical storms, with a total of 11 named storms. The first system, Hurricane Anna, developed in the eastern Caribbean Sea near the Windward Islands on July 20. It brought minor damage to the islands, as well as wind and flood impacts to Central America after striking Belize as a hurricane. Anna caused one death and about $300,000 (1961 USD) in damage. Activity went dormant for nearly a month and a half, until Hurricane Betsy developed on September 2. Betsy peaked as a Category 4 hurricane, but remained at sea and caused no impact.
A Category 5 Atlantic hurricane is one that is considered by the United States National Hurricane Center (NHC), to have had sustained wind speeds greater than 136 knots (157 mph; 252 km/h; 70 m/s) on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The NHC considers sustained wind speeds to be those that occur over a one-minute period at 10 metres (32.8 ft) above ground. These wind speeds are estimated by using a blend of data from a variety of sources, which include observations from nearby ships, reconnaissance aircraft, or automatic weather stations and pictures from various satellites.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.
The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones – that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.
Officially, from 1924 to 2018, 34 Category 5 hurricanes have been recorded. No Category 5 hurricanes were observed officially before 1924. It can be presumed that earlier storms reached Category 5 strength over open waters, but the strongest winds were not measured. The anemometer, a device used for measuring wind speed, was invented in 1846. However, during major hurricane strikes, the instruments as a whole were often blown away, leaving the hurricane's peak intensity unrecorded. For example, as the Great Beaufort Hurricane of 1879 struck North Carolina, the anemometer cups were blown away when indicating 138 mph (222 km/h).
The 1924 Atlantic hurricane season featured the earliest known Category 5 hurricane – a tropical cyclone with maximum sustained winds exceeding 155 mph (250 km/h). The first system, Tropical Storm One, was first detected in the northwestern Caribbean Sea on June 18. The final system, an unnumbered tropical depression, dissipated on November 24. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Of the 13 tropical cyclones of the season, six existed simultaneously. The season was average with 11 tropical storms, three of which strengthened into hurricanes. Further, two of those three intensified into major hurricanes, which are Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.
The 2018 Atlantic hurricane season was the third in a consecutive series of above-average and damaging Atlantic hurricane seasons, featuring 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, which caused a total of over $50.205 billion in damages. The season officially began on June 1, 2018, and ended on November 30, 2018. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. The formation of Tropical Storm Alberto on May 25, marked the fourth consecutive year in which a storm developed before the official start of the season. The next storm, Beryl, became the first hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic during the month of July since Bertha in 2008. Chris, upgraded to a hurricane on July 10, became the earliest second hurricane in a season since 2005. No hurricanes formed in the North Atlantic during the month of August, marking the first season since 2013, and the eighth season on record, to do so. On September 5, Florence became the first major hurricane of the season. On September 12, Joyce formed, making 2018 the first season since 2008 to feature four named storms active simultaneously. On October 9, Michael became the second major hurricane of the season, and a day later, it became the first Category 5 hurricane to make landfall in the continental United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. With the formation of Oscar on October 26, the season is the first on record to see seven storms that were subtropical at some point in their lifetimes.
An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed, and is also a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed instrument used in meteorology. The first known description of an anemometer was given by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450.
As of May 2018 [update] , a reanalysis of weather data was ongoing by researchers who may upgrade or downgrade other Atlantic hurricanes currently listed at Categories 4 and 5. For example, the 1825 Santa Ana hurricane is suspected to have reached Category 5 strength. Furthermore, paleotempestological research aims to identify past major hurricanes by comparing sedimentary evidence of recent and past hurricane strikes. For example, a "giant hurricane" significantly more powerful than Hurricane Hattie (Category 5) has been identified in Belizean sediment, having struck the region sometime before 1500.
Paleotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records. The term was coined by Kerry Emanuel.
Hurricane Hattie was the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclone of the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season, reaching a peak intensity equivalent to that of a Category 5 hurricane. The ninth tropical storm and seventh hurricane and major hurricane of the season, Hattie originated from an area of low pressure that strengthened into a tropical storm over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 27. Moving generally northward, the storm quickly became a hurricane and later major hurricane the following day. Hattie then turned westward west of Jamaica and strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h). It weakened to Category 4 before making landfall south of Belize City on October 31. The storm turned southwestward and weakened rapidly over the mountainous terrain of Central America, dissipating on November 1.
Belize is an independent and sovereign country located on the north eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by Guatemala. It has an area of 22,970 square kilometres (8,867 sq mi) and a population of 387,879 (2017). Its mainland is about 180 mi (290 km) long and 68 mi (110 km) wide. It has the lowest population and population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year (2015) is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.
Officially, the decade with the most Category 5 hurricanes is 2000–2009, with eight Category 5 hurricanes having occurred: Isabel (2003), Ivan (2004), Emily (2005), Katrina (2005), Rita (2005), Wilma (2005), Dean (2007), and Felix (2007). The previous decades with the most Category 5 hurricanes were the 1930s and 1960s, with six occurring between 1930 and 1939 (before naming began).
Nine Atlantic hurricanes—Camille, Allen, Andrew, Isabel, Ivan, Dean, Felix, Irma and Maria—reached Category 5 intensity on more than one occasion; that is, by reaching Category 5 intensity, weakening to a Category 4 status or lower, and then becoming a Category 5 hurricane again. Such hurricanes have their dates shown together. Camille, Andrew, Dean, Felix, Irma, and Maria each attained Category 5 status twice during their lifespans. Allen, Isabel, and Ivan reached Category 5 intensity on three separate occasions. However, no Atlantic hurricane has reached Category 5 intensity more than three times during its lifespan. The 1932 Cuba hurricane holds the record for the most time spent as a Category 5 hurricane (although it took place before satellite or aircraft reconnaissance, so this record may be somewhat suspect). Irma holds the record for the longest continuous span as a Category 5 storm in the satellite era.
Thirty-four Category 5 hurricanes have been recorded in the Atlantic basin since 1851, when records began. Only one Category 5 has been recorded in July, eight in August, nineteen in September, six in October, and one in November. There have been no officially recorded June or off-season Category 5 hurricanes.
The July and August Category 5 hurricanes reached their high intensities in both the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. These are the areas most favorable for tropical cyclone development in those months.
September sees the most Category 5 hurricanes. This coincides with the climatological peak of the Atlantic hurricane season, which occurs in early September. September Category 5s reached their strengths in any of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and open Atlantic. These places are where September tropical cyclones are likely to form. Many of these hurricanes are either Cape Verde-type storms, which develop their strength by having a great deal of open water; or so-called Bahama busters, which intensify over the warm Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico.
Six of the seven Category 5 hurricanes in October and November reached their intensities in the western Caribbean, a region that Atlantic hurricanes strongly gravitate toward late in the season. This is due to the climatology of the area, which sometimes has a high-altitude anticyclone that promotes rapid intensification late in the season, as well as warm waters.
|Name||Dates as a|
|"Cuba"||October 19, 1924||12||165 mph (270 km/h)||910 hPa (26.87 inHg)||Central America, Mexico, Cuba|
Florida, The Bahamas
| "San Felipe II|
|September 13–14, 1928||12||160 mph (260 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, The Bahamas|
United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada
|"Bahamas"||September 5–6, 1932||24||160 mph (260 km/h)||921 hPa (27.20 inHg)||The Bahamas, Northeastern United States||16|
|"Cuba"||November 5–8, 1932||78||175 mph (280 km/h)||915 hPa (27.02 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Jamaica, Cayman Islands|
Cuba, The Bahamas, Bermuda
|"Cuba–Brownsville"||August 30, 1933||12||160 mph (260 km/h)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||The Bahamas, Cuba, Florida|
|"Tampico"||September 21, 1933||12||160 mph (260 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||Jamaica, Yucatán Peninsula||184||$5 million|
|"Labor Day"||September 3, 1935||18||185 mph (295 km/h)||892 hPa (26.34 inHg)||The Bahamas, Florida, Georgia, The Carolinas, Virginia||408|
|"New England"||September 19–20, 1938||18||160 mph (260 km/h)||940 hPa (27.76 inHg)||Southeastern United States, Northeastern United States, Southwestern Quebec||682||$306 million|
|Carol||September 3, 1953||12||160 mph (260 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||Bermuda, New England, Atlantic Canada||5||$2 million|
|Janet||September 27–28, 1955||18||175 mph (280 km/h)||914 hPa (26.99 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Central America||1,023||$65.8 million|
|Carla||September 11, 1961||18||175 mph (280 km/h)||931 hPa (27.49 inHg)||Texas, Louisiana, Midwestern United States||43||$326 million|
|Hattie||October 30–31, 1961||18||160 mph (260 km/h)||920 hPa (27.17 inHg)||Central America||319||$60.3 million|
|Beulah||September 20, 1967||18||160 mph (260 km/h)||923 hPa (27.26 inHg)||The Caribbean, Mexico, Texas||688||$208 million|
|Camille||August 16–18, 1969 †||30||175 mph (280 km/h)||900 hPa (26.58 inHg)||Cuba, United States Gulf Coast||259||$1.42 billion|
|Edith||September 9, 1971||6||160 mph (260 km/h)||943 hPa (27.85 inHg)||The Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, United States Gulf Coast||37||$25.4 million|
|Anita||September 2, 1977||12||175 mph (280 km/h)||926 hPa (27.34 inHg)||Mexico||11||Extensive|
|David||August 30–31, 1979||42||175 mph (280 km/h)||924 hPa (27.29 inHg)||The Caribbean, United States East coast||2,068||$1.54 billion|
|Allen||August 5–9, 1980 †||72||190 mph (305 km/h)||899 hPa (26.55 inHg)||The Caribbean, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, South Texas||269||$1.24 billion|
|Gilbert||September 13–14, 1988||24||185 mph (295 km/h)||888 hPa (26.22 inHg)||Jamaica, Venezuela, Central America, Hispaniola, Mexico||318||$7.1 billion|
|Hugo||September 15, 1989||6||160 mph (260 km/h)||918 hPa (27.11 inHg)||The Caribbean, United States East Coast||107||$10 billion|
|Andrew||August 23–24, 1992 †||16||175 mph (280 km/h)||922 hPa (27.23 inHg)||The Bahamas, Florida, United States Gulf Coast||65||$26.5 billion|
|Mitch||October 26–28, 1998||42||180 mph (285 km/h)||905 hPa (26.72 inHg)||Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, South Florida||19,325||$6.2 billion|
|Isabel||September 11–14, 2003 †||42||165 mph (270 km/h)||915 hPa (27.02 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Bahamas, Eastern United States, Ontario||51||$5.37 billion|
|Ivan||September 9–14, 2004 †||60||165 mph (270 km/h)||910 hPa (26.87 inHg)||The Caribbean, Venezuela, United States Gulf Coast||124||$23.3 billion|
|Emily||July 16, 2005||6||160 mph (260 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||Windward Islands, Jamaica, Mexico, Texas||17||$1.01 billion|
|Katrina||August 28–29, 2005||18||175 mph (280 km/h)||902 hPa (26.64 inHg)||Bahamas, United States Gulf Coast||1,836||$125 billion|
|Rita||September 21–22, 2005||24||180 mph (285 km/h)||895 hPa (26.43 inHg)||Cuba, United States Gulf Coast||125||$12 billion|
|Wilma||October 19, 2005||18||185 mph (295 km/h)||882 hPa (26.05 inHg)||Greater Antilles, Central America, Florida||87||$29.4 billion|
|Dean||August 18–21, 2007†||24||175 mph (280 km/h)||905 hPa (26.72 inHg)||The Caribbean, Central America||45||$1.76 billion|
|Felix||September 3–4, 2007†||24||175 mph (280 km/h)||929 hPa (27.43 inHg)||Nicaragua, Honduras||133||$720 million|
|Matthew||October 1, 2016||12||165 mph (270 km/h)||934 hPa (27.58 inHg)||Antilles, Venezuela, Colombia|
United States East Coast, Atlantic Canada
|Irma||September 5–9, 2017†||72||180 mph (285 km/h)||914 hPa (26.99 inHg)||Cape Verde, The Caribbean, British Virgin Islands|
U.S. Virgin Islands, Cuba, Florida
|Maria||September 18–20, 2017 †||28.25||175 mph (280 km/h)||908 hPa (26.81 inHg)||Lesser Antilles, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Turks and Caicos Islands||3,057||$91.6 billion|
|Michael||October 10, 2018||0.5||160 mph (260 km/h)||919 hPa (27.14 inHg)||Central America, United States Gulf Coast (especially Florida Panhandle)||74||$25.1 billion|
|Overall reference for Name, dates, duration, winds and pressure: |
†Discontinuous duration (weakened below Category 5 then restrengthened to that classification at least once)
All Atlantic Category 5 hurricanes have made landfall at some location at hurricane strength, and all but two made landfall at some location at major hurricane strength. Most Category 5 hurricanes in the Atlantic make landfall because of their proximity to land in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, where the usual synoptic weather patterns carry them towards land, as opposed to the westward, oceanic mean track of Eastern Pacific hurricanes. Seventeen of the storms made landfall at least once while at Category 5 intensity; 2007 and 2017 are the only years in which two storms made landfall at this intensity.
Many of these systems made landfall shortly after weakening from a Category 5 hurricane. This weakening can be caused by dry air near land, shallower waters due to shelving, interaction with land, replacement of its eyewalls, or cooler waters near shore. [ citation needed ] In southern Florida, the return period for a Category 5 hurricane is roughly once every 50 years.
The following table lists these hurricanes by landfall intensity.
|"Okeechobee"||1928||Puerto Rico||Guadeloupe, Turks and Caicos Islands, The Bahamas, & Florida||South Carolina|
|"Cuba"||1932||Little Cayman & Cuba||The Bahamas||Martinique|
|"Cuba–Brownsville"||1933||The Bahamas||Cuba & Texas|
|"Tampico"||1933||Yucatán Peninsula||Mainland Mexico|
|"Labor Day"||1935||Florida Keys||Northwest Florida||The Bahamas|
|"New England"||1938||New York & Connecticut|
|Janet||1955||Yucatán Peninsula||Mainland Mexico|
|Edith||1971||Nicaragua||Louisiana||Belize & Mexico|
|David||1979||Dominican Republic||Dominica||Florida||Cuba, The Bahamas, & Georgia|
|Gilbert||1988||Quintana Roo||Jamaica & Tamaulipas|
|Hugo||1989||Guadeloupe, Saint Croix, & South Carolina||Puerto Rico|
|Andrew||1992||Eleuthera & Florida||Berry Islands||Louisiana|
|Mitch||1998||Guanaja||Honduras||Campeche & Florida|
|Katrina||2005||Louisiana & Mississippi||Florida|
|Wilma||2005||Cozumel & Quintana Roo||Florida|
|Matthew||2016||Haiti, Cuba & Grand Bahama||South Carolina|
|Irma||2017||Barbuda, Saint Martin, British Virgin Islands & Cuba||Little Inagua & Florida Keys||Southwest Florida|
The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season to include both male and female names, as well as the common six-year rotating lists of tropical cyclone names. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. It was slightly below average, with nine systems reaching tropical storm intensity. The first system, an unnumbered tropical depression, developed north of Puerto Rico on June 9. Two days later, Tropical Depression One formed and produced severe flooding in Jamaica, with 40 deaths and about $27 million (1979 USD) in damage. Tropical Storm Ana caused minimal impact in the Lesser Antilles. Hurricane Bob spawned tornadoes and produced minor wind damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, primarily in Louisiana, while the remnants caused flooding, especially in Indiana. Tropical Storm Claudette caused extensive flooding, due to torrential rainfall. There were two deaths and damaged totaled $750 million.
The 1957 Atlantic hurricane season featured the one of longest travelling tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin, Hurricane Carrie. Nevertheless, the season was generally inactive with eight tropical storms – two of which went unnamed – and three hurricanes, two of which intensified further to attain major hurricane intensity. The season officially began on June 15 and ended on November 15, though the year's first tropical cyclone developed prior to the start of the season on June 8. The final storm dissipated on October 27, well before the official end of the season. The strongest hurricane of the year was Carrie, which reached the equivalent of a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on two separate occasions in the open Atlantic; Carrie later caused the sinking of the German ship Pamir southwest of the Azores, resulting in 80 deaths.
The 1926 Atlantic hurricane season featured the highest number of major hurricanes at the time. At least eleven tropical cyclones developed during the season, all of which intensified into a tropical storm and eight further strengthened into hurricanes. Six hurricanes deepened into a major hurricane, which is Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. The first system, the Nassau hurricane, developed near the Lesser Antilles on July 22. Moving west-northwest for much of its duration, the storm struck or brush several islands of the Lesser and Greater Antilles. However, the Bahamas later received greater impact. At least 287 deaths and $7.85 million (1926 USD) in damage was attributed to this hurricane. The next cyclone primarily affected mariners in and around the Maritimes of Canada, with boating accidents and drownings resulting in between 55 and 58 fatalities. In late August, the third hurricane brought widespread impact to the Gulf Coast of the United States, especially Louisiana. Crops and buildings suffered $6 million (1926 USD) in damage and there were 25 people killed. The next three storms left relatively little to no damage on land.
The 1911 Atlantic hurricane season was relatively inactive, with only six known tropical cyclones forming in the Atlantic during the summer and fall. There were three suspected tropical depressions, including one that began the season in February and one that ended the season when it dissipated in December. Three storms intensified into hurricanes, two of which attained Category 2 status on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Storm data is largely based on the Atlantic hurricane database, which underwent a thorough revision for the period between 1911 and 1914 in 2005.
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.
The 1888 Atlantic hurricane season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1888. In the 1888 Atlantic season there were two tropical storms, four hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. However, in the absence of modern satellite and other remote-sensing technologies, only storms that affected populated land areas or encountered ships at sea are known, so the actual total could be higher. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated.
Hurricane Tico is one of four major hurricanes to strike Mazatlan. The origins of Hurricane Tico were from a weak tropical disturbance that crossed Costa Rica into the Pacific Ocean on October 7, 1983. Over warm waters, the system was sufficiently organized to be declared Tropical Depression Twenty-One on October 11, about 575 mi (930 km) south of Acapulco. On October 12 it turned sharply northward; the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Tico on October 13. Tropical Storm Tico continued to intensify. Two days after becoming a tropical storm, Tico strengthened further to attain hurricane status. Early on October 19, it reached peak winds of 130 mph (215 km/h). It weakened slightly as it approached the coast, and at about 1500 UTC that day Tico made landfall near Mazatlán with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h). The remains were tracked into the Mid-Atlantic States for five more days.
Hurricane Anna impacted Central America and the Windward Islands in July 1961. The first tropical cyclone and first hurricane of the hurricane season, Anna developed on July 20 from an easterly wave located in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the Windward Islands. Initially a tropical storm, it moved westward across the Caribbean Sea. Favorable environmental conditions allowed Anna to reach hurricane intensity late on July 20. Early on the following day, the storm strengthened into a Category 2 hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Intensification continued, and later on July 21, Anna became a major hurricane, upon reaching Category 3 intensity. After attaining peak intensity on July 22, the hurricane slightly weakened while brushing the northern coast of Honduras. Further weakening occurred; when Anna made landfall in landfall in Belize on July 24, winds decreased to 80 mph (130 km/h). Anna rapidly weakened over land and dissipated later that day.
Hurricane Bridget of June 1971 was one of the worst hurricanes to strike the Mexican city of Acapulco. It formed on June 14 as a tropical depression, which is a minimal tropical cyclone with winds less than gale force. However, it was soon upgraded to a tropical storm, and Bridget steadily intensified to become a hurricane on June 15. After peaking at Category 2 intensity, it weakened to a tropical storm on June 17, then made landfall in Mexico. Hours later, however, it turned offshore as a tropical depression. Bridget dissipated on June 20 after leaving heavy damage and 17 deaths in the Acapulco area.
Hurricane Kiko was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to have hit the eastern coast of Mexico's Baja California peninsula during recorded history. The eleventh named storm of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season, Kiko formed out of a large mesoscale convective system on August 25. Slowly tracking northwestward, the storm rapidly intensified into a hurricane early the next day. Strengthening continued until early August 27, when Kiko reached its peak intensity with winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). The storm turned west at this time, and at around 0600 UTC, the storm made landfall near Punta Arena at the southern tip of Baja California Sur. The hurricane rapidly weakened into a tropical storm later that day and further into a tropical depression by August 28, shortly after entering the Pacific Ocean. The depression persisted for another day while tracking southward, before being absorbed by nearby Tropical Storm Lorena. Though Kiko made landfall as a Category 3 hurricane, its impact was relatively minor. Press reports indicated that 20 homes were destroyed and numerous highways were flooded by torrential rains.
The 1888 Louisiana hurricane was a major hurricane that caused significant flooding and wind damage to the Mississippi River Delta and the Mississippi Valley in late August 1888. It was the third tropical cyclone and second hurricane of the 1888 Atlantic hurricane season. The cyclone first appeared north-northeast of the Turks and Caicos Islands, but may have formed earlier, undetected. It moved west-northwest, reaching hurricane intensity and making several landfalls in the Bahamas. In the island chain, the hurricane caused some damage to shipping, fruit groves, and fences, but apparently caused no known deaths.
The Atlantic Hurricane Database Re-analysis Project is an effort to extend and revise the National Hurricane Center's North Atlantic hurricane database (or HURDAT). Going back to 1851 and revisiting storms in more recent years, information on tropical cyclones is revised using an enhanced collection of historical meteorological data in the context of today's scientific understanding of hurricanes and analysis techniques.