List of High Kings of Ireland

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High Kingship of Ireland
Lia Fail.jpg
The Lia Fáil (Stone of Destiny) and symbol of sovereignty on the Hill of Tara.
Details
StyleArd-Rí na hÉireann
Rí Érenn Uile
First monarch Sláine mac Dela (mythical)
Máel Sechnaill I (historical)
Last monarch
Formation1934 BC (by tradition)
Abolition1198 AD
Residence Hill of Tara
Pretender(s) Brian Ua Néill/Edubard a Briuis (claimant)

Medieval Irish historical tradition held that Ireland had a High King (Ard Rí) based at Tara since ancient times, and compilations like the 11th-century Lebor Gabála Érenn , followed by Early Modern works like the Annals of the Four Masters and Foras Feasa ar Éirinn , purported to trace the line of High Kings. John T. Koch explains: "Although the kingship of Tara was a special kingship whose occupants had aspirations towards supremacy among the kings of Ireland, in political terms it is unlikely that any king had sufficient authority to dominate the whole island before the 9th century". [1] Máel Sechnaill I is often considered the first historical High King, although he faced some opposition. Applying the title to earlier kings is considered anachronistic, while kings from before the 5th century are generally considered legendary. The traditional list of High Kings is thus a mixture of historical facts and legend.

Contents

The annals describe some later High Kings as rígh Érenn co fressabra ("Kings of Ireland with opposition"), which is a reference to the instability of the kingship of Tara from the death of Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill in 1022. He had been overthrown by Brian Boru in 1002, and restored in 1014 following Brian's death, but Brian's example was followed by many other dynasties in the century following 1022. The High Kingship was effectively ended in the 1170s after the Anglo-Norman invasion, its last holder being Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair.

Legendary kings

Kings in the Baile Chuind

The earliest-surviving list appears in the Baile Chuind (The Ecstasy of Conn), a late-7th-century poem in which Conn of the Hundred Battles experiences a vision of the kings who will succeed him. Many of these kings appear to correspond with the kings of later traditions, although the order is different, and some of the kings cannot be identified. The last four kings following Snechta Fína (Fínsnechta Fledach) do not correspond with any of the kings in later lists. The poem is therefore presumed to have been written during his time, and the kings who follow him are presumed to be fictional. [2]

With few exceptions, kings belong to Dál Cuinn (the Connachta and Uí Néill). Understood as a list of kings of Tara, it is not considered to be inclusive. A number of well-known kings from the Laigin, Érainn, Ulaid and Cruthin, are missing. The chief rivals of Dál Cuinn after Conn's floruit (and others' for a few centuries before) were the Dáirine (usually the Corcu Loígde during Dál Cuinn's era), two or three of whom are listed, but whose overkingdom in the south of Ireland collapsed in the 6th century. They were outmaneuvered and replaced by the related Eóganachta, who established the Kingship of Cashel, soon to periodically rival Tara. The poem itself in its closing language probably mentions Cathal mac Finguine when young, and this can also be used to date the Baile Chuind to the late 7th or early 8th century.

NamePresumed identityNotes
Not named Conn Cétchathach The list recounts Conn's vision of the kings who will follow him
Art Art mac Cuinn Dál Cuinn
Mac Con moccu Lugde Loígde Lugaid Mac Con Dáirine
Corbmac Cormac mac Airt Dál Cuinn
Corpre Cairbre Lifechair Dál Cuinn
Fiechri Fiachrae Cássan Cruthin and/or Airgialla?
Dáire Drechlethan likely Dáire Doimthech Dáirine
Fécho Fíacha Sroiptine?Dál Cuinn
Muiredach Tirech Muiredach Tírech Dál Cuinn
Crimthand Crimthann mac Fidaig Eóganachta/Dáirine
Níell Niall Noígíallach Dál Cuinn
Loígaire Lóegaire mac Néill Dál Cuinn/Uí Néill
Corpri Coirpre mac Néill (d. c. 463)Dál Cuinn/Uí Néill
Ailill Ailill Molt (d. 482)Connachta/Uí Fiachrach
Lugid Lugaid mac Lóegairi (d. c. 507)Uí Néill
Mac Ercéni Muirchertach mac Ercae (d. c. 536)Uí Néill/Cenél nEógain
Óengarb Túathal Máelgarb (d. c. 544)Uí Néill
Aídprobably Áed mac Ainmuirech (d. 598)Uí Néill/Cenél Conaill; seemingly misplaced chronologically
Aíd Olláinprobably Áed Uaridnach (d. 612)Uí Néill/Cenél nEógain; seemingly misplaced chronologically
Diermait Diarmait mac Cerbaill (d. c. 565)Uí Néill? Origins obscure.
Feáchno Fiachnae mac Báetáin (d. 626), or perhaps Fiachnae mac Feradaig, father of Suibne MennCruthin/Dál nAraidi, or Uí Néill/Cenél nEógain
Suibne Suibne Menn (d. 628)Uí Néill/Cenél nEógain
Domnall Domnall mac Áedo (d. c. 642)Uí Néill/Cenél Conaill
Blathmac and Diarmaid grandson of the other one Blathmac mac Áedo Sláine & Diarmait mac Áedo Sláine (both d. 665)Southern Uí Néill
Snechta Fína Fínsnechta Fledach (d. c. 695)Uí Néill/Síl nÁedo Sláine
(Cathal mac Finguine)(d. 742)Eóganachta/Eóganacht Glendamnach

Synthetic lists

The Lebor Gabála Érenn , dating to the 11th–12th century, purports to list every High King from remote antiquity to the time of Henry II's Lordship of Ireland in 1171. The High Kingship is established by the Fir Bolg, and their nine kings are succeeded by a sequence of nine kings of the Tuatha Dé Danann, most if not all of whom are considered euhemerised deities. After the Milesian (Gaelic) conquest the High Kingship is contested for centuries between the descendants of Eber Finn and Érimón, sons of Míl Espáine. The original compilation stopped at the reign of Tuathal Techtmar. The kings of the Goidelic dynasties established by Tuathal were added by other editors. Later editions of the Lebor Gabála tried to synchronise its chronology with dateable kings of Assyria, Persia, and Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman emperors. [3]

There are a handful of sources slightly predating the Lebor Gabála Érenn covering significant portions of essentially the same list of Milesian High Kings (though following a discrepant chronology), starting with the Laud Synchronisms estimated to have been compiled c.1021 (part of Laud 610). The oldest section of the Lebor Gabála Érenn "Roll of Kings" is taken from the poems of Gilla Cómáin mac Gilla Samthainde, written c.1072. [4]

Early Modern works like the Annals of the Four Masters [5] and Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn [6] continued this tradition based on later Irish annals. Keating's chronology, based on reign lengths, is longer than the synchronised chronology of the Lebor Gabála, and the Four Masters' chronology is even longer.

Fir Bolg High Kings

These kings are considered to be legendary.

LGEFFEAFM
Sláine mac Dela  1514–1513 BC1934–1933 BC
Rudraige mac Dela  1513–1511 BC1933–1931 BC
Gann and Genann mac Dela  1511–1507 BC1931–1927 BC
Sengann mac Dela  1507–1502 BC1927–1922 BC
Fiacha Cennfinnán mac Starn  1502–1497 BC1922–1917 BC
Rinnal mac Genann  1497–1491 BC1917–1911 BC
Fodbgen mac Sengann  1491–1487 BC1911–1907 BC
Eochaid mac Eirc  1487–1477 BC1907–1897 BC

Tuatha Dé Danann High Kings

These kings are considered to be legendary.

LGEFFEAFM
Bres  1477–1470 BC1897–1890 BC
Nuada  1470–1447 BC1890–1870 BC
Lugh  1447–1407 BC1870–1830 BC
Eochaid Ollathair (The Dagda)  1407–1337 BC1830–1750 BC
Delbáeth  1337–1327 BC1750–1740 BC
Fiacha  1327–1317 BC1740–1730 BC
Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine  1317–1287 BC1730–1700 BC

Milesian High Kings

These kings are considered to be legendary.

LGEFFEAFM
Eber Finn and Érimón  1287–1286 BC1700 BC
Érimón  1286–1272 BC1700–1684 BC
Muimne, Luigne and Laigne  1272–1269 BC1684–1681 BC
Ér, Orba, Ferón and Fergna  1269 BC1681 BC
Íriel Fáid  1269–1259 BC1681–1671 BC
Ethriel  1259–1239 BC1671–1651 BC
Conmáel  1239–1209 BC1651–1621 BC
Tigernmas  1209–1159 BC1621–1544 BC
    Interregnum 1544–1537 BC
Eochaid Étgudach  1159–1155 BC1537–1533 BC
Cermna Finn and Sobairce  1155–1115 BC1533–1493 BC
Eochaid Faebar Glas  1115–1095 BC1493–1473 BC
Fíachu Labrainne  1095–1071 BC1473–1449 BC
Eochu Mumu  1071–1050 BC1449–1428 BC
Óengus Olmucaid  1050–1032 BC1428–1410 BC
Énna Airgdech  1032–1005 BC1410–1383 BC
Rothechtaid mac Main  1005–980 BC1383–1358 BC
Sétna Airt  980–975 BC1358–1353 BC
Fíachu Fínscothach  975–955 BC1353–1333 BC
Muinemón  955–950 BC1333–1328 BC
Faildergdóit  950–943 BC1328–1318 BC
Ollom Fotla  943–913 BC1318–1278 BC
Fínnachta  913–895 BC1278–1258 BC
Slánoll  895–880 BC1257–1241 BC
Géde Ollgothach  880–863 BC1241–1231 BC
Fíachu Findoilches  863–833 BC1231–1209 BC
Berngal 7th century BC833–831 BC1209–1197 BC
Ailill mac Slánuill 7th century BC831–815 BC1197–1181 BC
Sírna Sáeglach 7th century BC814–794 BC1181–1031 BC
Rothechtaid Rotha 7th century BC794–787 BC1031–1024 BC
Elim Olfínechta 7th century BC787–786 BC1024–1023 BC
Gíallchad 7th century BC786–777 BC1023–1014 BC
Art Imlech 7th–6th century BC777–755 BC1014–1002 BC
Nuadu Finn Fáil 7th–6th century BC755–735 BC1002–962 BC
Bres Rí 7th–6th century BC735–726 BC962–953 BC
Eochu Apthach 6th–5th century BC726–725 BC953–952 BC
Finn mac Blatha 6th–5th century BC725–705 BC952–930 BC
Sétna Innarraid 5th century BC705–685 BC930–910 BC
Siomón Brecc 5th century BC685–679 BC910–904 BC
Dui Finn 5th century BC679–674 BC904–894 BC
Muiredach Bolgrach 5th century BC674–670 BC894–893 BC
Énna Derg 5th century BC670–658 BC893–881 BC
Lugaid Íardonn 5th century BC658–649 BC881–872 BC
Sírlám 5th century BC649–633 BC872–856 BC
Eochu Uairches 5th century BC633–621 BC856–844 BC
Eochu Fíadmuine and Conaing Bececlach 5th century BC621–616 BC844–839 BC
Lugaid Lámderg and Conaing Bececlach 5th century BC616–609 BC839–832 BC
Conaing Bececlach (alone)5th century BC609–599 BC832–812 BC
Art mac Lugdach 5th century BC599–593 BC812–806 BC
Fíachu Tolgrach  593–586 BC806–796 BC
Ailill Finn 5th–4th century BC586–577 BC796–785 BC
Eochu mac Ailella 5th–4th century BC577–570 BC785–778 BC
Airgetmar 4th century BC570–547 BC778–748 BC
Dui Ladrach 4th century BC547–537 BC748–738 BC
Lugaid Laigdech 4th century BC537–530 BC738–731 BC
Áed Rúad 4th century BC530–509 BC731–724 BC
Díthorba 4th century BC509–488 BC724–717 BC
Cimbáeth 4th century BC488–468 BC717–710 BC
Áed Rúad (2nd time)  710–703 BC
Díthorba (2nd time)  703–696 BC
Cimbáeth (2nd time)  696–689 BC
Áed Rúad (3rd time)  689–682 BC
Díthorba (3rd time)  682–675 BC
Cimbáeth (3rd time)  675–668 BC
Cimbáeth and queen Macha   668–661 BC
Macha Mong Ruad (alone)4th–3rd century BC468–461 BC661–654 BC
Rechtaid Rígderg 4th–3rd century BC461–441 BC654–634 BC
Úgaine Mor 3rd century BC441–411 BC634–594 BC
Lóegaire Lorc 3rd century BC411–409 BC594–592 BC
Cobthach Cóel Breg 3rd century BC409–379 BC592–542 BC
Labraid Loingsech 3rd century BC379–369 BC542–523 BC
Meilge Molbthach 3rd century BC369–362 BC523–506 BC
Mug Corb 3rd century BC362–355 BC506–499 BC
Óengus Ollom 3rd century BC355–337 BC499–481 BC
Irereo 3rd century BC337–330 BC481–474 BC
Fer Corb 3rd century BC330–319 BC474–463 BC
Connla Cáem 3rd century BC319–315 BC463–443 BC
Ailill Caisfiaclach 3rd–2nd century BC315–290 BC443–418 BC
Adamair 3rd–2nd century BC290–285 BC418–414 BC
Eochaid Ailtlethan 3rd–2nd century BC285–274 BC414–396 BC
Fergus Fortamail 2nd century BC274–262 BC396–385 BC
Óengus Tuirmech Temrach 2nd century BC262–232 BC385–326 BC
Conall Collamrach 2nd century BC232–226 BC326–320 BC
Nia Segamain 2nd century BC226–219 BC320–313 BC
Énna Aignech 2nd century BC219–191 BC313–293 BC
Crimthann Coscrach 2nd century BC191–184 BC293–289 BC
Rudraige mac Sithrigi 2nd–1st century BC184–154 BC289–219 BC
Finnat Már 2nd–1st century BC154–151 BC219–210 BC
Bresal Bó-Díbad 2nd–1st century BC151–140 BC210–199 BC
Lugaid Luaigne 2nd–1st century BC140–135 BC199–184 BC
Congal Cláiringnech 1st century BC135–120 BC184–169 BC
Dui Dallta Dedad 1st century BC120–110 BC169–159 BC
Fachtna Fáthach 1st century BC110–94 BC159–143 BC
Eochu Feidlech 1st century BC94–82 BC143–131 BC
Eochu Airem 1st century BC82–70 BC131–116 BC
Eterscél 1st century BC–1st century AD70–64 BC116–111 BC
Nuadu Necht 1st century64–63 BC111–110 BC
Conaire Mór 1st century63–33 BC110–40 BC
 interregnum (5 years) interregnum
40–33 BC
Lugaid Riab nDerg 1st century33–13 BC33–9 BC
Conchobar Abradruad 1st century13–12 BC9–8 BC
  Cairbre Cinnchait 1st century Crimthann Nia Náir 12 BC – AD 5 Crimthann Nia Náir
8 BC – AD 9
  Feradach Finnfechtnach 1st century Feradach Finnfechtnach
AD 5–25
Cairbre Cinnchait
AD 9–14
  Fíatach Finn 1st century Fiatach Finn 25–28 Feradach Finnfechtnach 14–36
  Fíachu Finnolach 1st century Fiacha Finnfolaidh
28–55
Fiatach Finn 36–39
  Elim mac Conrach 2nd century Cairbre Cinnchait
55–60
Fiacha Finnfolaidh
39–56
   Elim mac Conrach
60–80
Elim mac Conrach
56–76

Goidelic High Kings

Many of these kings are considered to be legendary. Dynastic affiliations are based on the genealogies of historical dynasties who claimed them as an ancestor.

LGEFFEAFM DynastySept
Tuathal Techtmar 2nd century80–10076–106 Connachta (ancestor)
Mal mac Rochride 2nd century100–104106–110 Ulaid
Fedlimid Rechtmar 2nd century104–113110–119 Connachta (ancestor)
Cathair Mór 2nd century113–116119–122 Laigin
Conn Cétchathach 2nd century116–136122–157 Connachta (ancestor)
Conaire Cóem 2nd century136–143157–165 Clanna DedadSíl Conairi (ancestor)
Art mac Cuinn 2nd century143–173165–195 Connachta
Lugaid mac Con  173–203195–225 DáirineCorcu Loígde
Fergus Dubdétach  203–204225–226 Ulaid
Cormac mac Airt  204–244226–266 Connachta
Eochaid Gonnat  244–245266–267 Ulaid?
Cairbre Lifechair  245–272267–284 Connachta
Fothad Cairpthech and Fothad Airgthech  272–273284–285 DáirineCorcu Loígde
Fíacha Sroiptine  273–306285–322 Connachta
Colla Uais  306–310322–326 Connachta
Muiredach Tirech  310–343326–356 Connachta
Cáelbad  343–344356–357 Ulaid?
Eochaid Mugmedon  344–351357–365 Connachta
Crimthann mac Fidaig  351–368365–376 Érainn?
Niall Noígíallach (generally thought historical) 368–395376–405 ConnachtaUí Néill (ancestor)
Nath Í (probably did not reign at Tara) 395–418405–428 ConnachtaUí Fiachrach
Lóegaire mac Néill (historical) 418–448428–458 ConnachtaUí Néill

Semi-historical High Kings of Ireland

These kings are historical figures for the most part, but naming them High Kings of Ireland may be anachronistic or inaccurate in certain cases. Their dynastic affiliations are also uncertain, as some may have been posthumously added to groups they did not belong to.

Kings of Ireland459–831 DynastySept
Ailill Molt 459–478 ConnachtaUí Fiachrach
Lugaid mac Lóegairi 479–503 Uí NéillCenél Lóegairi
Muirchertach mac Ercae 504–527 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Túathal Máelgarb 528–538 Uí NéillCenél Coirpri
Diarmait mac Cerbaill 539–558 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Domhnall and Fearghus 559–561 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Eochaidh and Baedan 562–563 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Ainmuire mac Sétnai 564–566 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Báetán mac Ninnedo 567 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Áed mac Ainmuirech 568–594 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Áed Sláine and Colmán Rímid 595–600 Uí NéillCenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain
Áed Uaridnach 601–607 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Máel Coba mac Áedo 608–610 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Suibne Menn 611–623 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Domnall mac Áedo 624–639 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Cellach and Conall 640–656 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Diarmait and Blathmac 657–664 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Sechnassach 665–669 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Cenn Fáelad 670–673 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Fínsnechta Fledach 674–693 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Loingsech mac Óengusso 694–701 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Congal Cennmagair 702–708 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Fergal mac Máele Dúin 709–718 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Fogartach mac Néill 719 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Cináed mac Írgalaig 720–722 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Flaithbertach mac Loingsig 723–729 Uí NéillCenél Conaill
Áed Allán 730–738 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Domnall Midi 739–758 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Niall Frossach 759–765 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Donnchad Midi 766–792 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Áed Oirdnide 793–819 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Conchobar mac Donnchada 819–833 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Feidlimid mac Crimthainn (according to the Annals of Inisfallen)832–846
836–841
Uí NéillCenél nEógain
or EóganachtaEóganacht Chaisil

Historical High Kings of Ireland

These kings can be considered genuinely historical High Kings (with or without opposition).

Kings of Ireland832–1318 DynastySept
Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid 846–860 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Áed Findliath 861–876 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Flann Sinna 877–914 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Niall Glúndub 915–917 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Donnchad Donn 918–942 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Congalach Cnogba 943–954 Uí NéillSíl nÁedo Sláine
Domnall ua Néill 955–978 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill 979–1002 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Brian Bóruma 1002–1014 Dál gCais
Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill (restored)1014–1022 Uí NéillClann Cholmáin
Donnchad mac Briain died 1064 (with opposition) Dál gCais
Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó died 1072 (with opposition) Uí Cheinnselaig
Toirdelbach Ua Briain died 1086 (with opposition) Dál gCaisUa Briain
Domnall Ua Lochlainn died 1121 (with opposition) Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Muirchertach Ua Briain died 1119 (with opposition) Dál gCaisUa Briain
Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair 1119–1156 Uí BriúinUa Conchobair
Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn 1156–1166 Uí NéillCenél nEógain
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair 1166–1198 Uí BriúinUa Conchobair

Later attempts at revival

See also

Related Research Articles

Túathal Techtmar, son of Fíachu Finnolach, was a High King of Ireland, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition. He is said to be the ancestor of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties through his grandson Conn of the Hundred Battles. The name may also have originally referred to an eponymous deity, possibly even a local version of the Gaulish Toutatis.

Eochaid Mugmedón was a legendary Irish king. According to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, Eochaid was a High King of Ireland, best known as the father of Niall of the Nine Hostages and ancestor of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties. He is not mentioned in the list of kings of Tara in the Baile Chuind, but is included in the synthetic lists of High Kings in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, the Irish annals, Geoffrey Keating's history, and the Laud Synchronisms.

Eochaid or Eochu Étgudach or Etgedach ("negligent"?), son of Dáire Doimthech, son of Conghal, son of Eadaman, son of Mal, son of Lugaid, son of Íth, son of Breogán, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn he was chosen as king by the remaining quarter of the men of Ireland after the other three-quarters had died with the former king, Tigernmas, while worshipping the deity Crom Cruach. He introduced a system whereby the number of colours a man could wear in his clothes depended on his social rank, from one colour for a slave to seven for a king or queen. He ruled for four years, until he was killed in battle at Tara by Cermna Finn, who succeeded to the throne jointly with his brother Sobairce. His reign is synchronised with that of Eupales in Assyria. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 1159–1155 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1537–1533 BC.

Sobairce, son of Ebric and a great great grandson of Míl Espáine, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, joint High King of Ireland with his brother Cermna Finn. The pair came to power after Cermna killed the previous incumbent, Eochaid Étgudach, in battle at Tara. They were the first High Kings to come from the Ulaid. They divided the country between them, the border running from Drogheda to Limerick. Sobairce ruled the northern half from Dún Sobairce, Cermna the southern half from Dún Cermna. They ruled for forty years. Sobairce died at the hands of Eochaid Menn, son of the king of the Fomorians. Cermna was killed in the same year by Eochaid Faebar Glas, son of the previous High King Conmáel, in the battle of Dún Cermna. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises their reign with those of Laosthenes in Assyria and Rehoboam in Judah. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates their reign to 1155–1115 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1533–1493 BC.

Cermna Finn, son of Ebric and a great, great grandson of Míl Espáine, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, joint High King of Ireland with his brother Sobairce.

Ailill, son of Slánoll, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland; scholars now believe these kings to be a pseudohistorical construct of the eighth century AD, a projection into the distant past of a political entity which did not become a reality till Maelseachlainn I. He took power after killing his cousin Berngal. He ruled for twelve, fifteen or sixteen years, according to various versions of the Lebor Gabála Érenn before he was killed by Sírna Sáeglach, a great grandson of Rothechtaid mac Main. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Deioces of the Medes. The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 831–815 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 1197–1181 BC.

Dui Finn, son of Sétna Innarraid, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Siomón Brecc. He ruled for ten years, before he was killed by Siomón's son Muiredach Bolgrach. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with those of Xerxes I and Artaxerxes I of Persia. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 679–674 BCBC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 904–894 BC.

Eochu, son of Ailill Finn, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He succeeded to the throne after his father was killed by Airgetmar and his ally Dui Ladrach. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, he was himself killed by Airgetmar and Dui. Geoffrey Keating says he ruled for seven years, resisted Airgetmar and made peace with Dui, who killed him treacherously at a meeting, allowing Airgetmar to take the kingship. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes II of Persia (404–358 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 577–570 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 785–778 BC.

Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, son of Eochaid Ailtlethan, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Fergus Fortamail. His sons included Énna Aignech and Fiacha Fer Mara. Énna later became High King himself and was the ancestor of Conn of the Hundred Battles and thus the Connachta and Uí Néill High Kings, while Fiacha was the ancestor of Ailill Érann and the Clanna Dedad.

Énna Aignech, son of Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, was, according to medieval Irish legend, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, and relative's killer, Nia Segamain, and ruled for twenty or twenty-eight years, after which he was killed by Crimthann Coscrach, the grandson of the man who had killed Énna's grandfather, in the Battle of Ard Crimthainn. Crimthann was killed by Rudraige mac Sithrigi, the great-grandson of the killer of one of Énna's ancestors. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Ptolemy VIII Physcon in Egypt. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 219–191 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 313–293 BC.

Congal Cláiringnech, son of Rudraige, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a king of Ulster and High King of Ireland. He was the brother of Bresal Bó-Díbad, the former High King, who had been killed by Lugaid Luaigne.

Nuadu Necht, son of Sétna Sithbac, a descendant of Crimthann Coscrach, of the Laigin, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing his predecessor, Eterscél, and ruled for six months, at the end of which he was killed by Eterscél's son Conaire Mór.

Feradach Finnfechtnach, son of Crimthann Nia Náir, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. There is some disagreement in the sources over his position in the traditional sequence of High Kings.

Fíatach Finn

Fiatach Finn mac Dáire, a distant descendant of Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a king of the Ulaid, later a High King of Ireland, and the eponymous ancestor of the early Medieval Ulster dynasty of the Dál Fiatach. He was king of the Ulaid while Feradach Finnfechtnach was High King, and succeeded to the High Kingship himself when Feradach died. He ruled for three years until he was killed by Fíachu Finnolach. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of the Roman emperor Nerva. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to AD 25–28, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to AD 36–39.

Fiacha Finnolach, son of Feradach Finnfechtnach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, Fíatach Finn. He ruled for fifteen, seventeen, or twenty-seven years, depending on the source consulted, after which he, and the freemen of Ireland, were killed in an uprising of aithech-tuatha or "subject peoples", led, according to the Lebor Gabála Érenn and the Annals of the Four Masters, by Elim mac Conrach, or by Cairbre Cinnchait according to Geoffrey Keating. His wife Eithne, daughter of the king of Alba (Scotland), who was pregnant, fled home to Alba, where she gave birth to Fíachu's son, Tuathal Techtmar, who would ultimately return to Ireland to claim the throne. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of the Roman emperor Nerva (AD 96–98). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to AD 28–55, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to AD 39–56.

Elim, son of Conrai, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland.

Fedlimid Rechtmar or Rechtaid, son of Tuathal Techtmar, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. His mother was Báine, daughter of Scál. He took power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Mal mac Rochride.

Lugaid Mac Con, often known simply as Mac Con, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He belonged to the Corcu Loígde, and thus to the Dáirine. His father was Macnia mac Lugdach, and his mother was Sadb ingen Chuinn, daughter of the former High King Conn Cétchathach. Mac Con may be to some extent identical with another legendary King of Tara from the Dáirine, Lugaid Loígde.

Fergus Dubdétach ("black-tooth") was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a king of the Ulaid who was briefly High King of Ireland. He took the High Kingship after his predecessor, Lugaid mac Con, was expelled from Tara by Cormac mac Airt and killed in Munster by Cormac's poet Ferches mac Commáin. Fergus and his two brothers, Fergus Caisfhiachlach ("rough-tooth") and Fergus Foltlebair ("long-hair"), then expelled Cormac to Connacht and Fergus took the throne. He ruled for a year, before he was defeated by Cormac, with the assistance of Tadg mac Céin and Lugaid Láma, in the Battle of Crinna.

Mal, son of Rochraide, a descendant of the legendary hero Conall Cernach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a king of the Ulaid and later a High King of Ireland. He took the High Kingship after he killed Tuathal Techtmar at Mag Line, and ruled for four years, at the end of which he was killed by Tuathal's son Fedlimid Rechtmar. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (138–161). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 100–104, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 106–110. His son was Tipraiti Tireach

References

  1. Koch, John (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1663–1664.
  2. Cycles of the Kings Web Project Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine : Baile Chuinn Cétchathaigh Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine
  3. R. A. Stewart Macalister (ed. & trans.), Lebor Gabála Érenn: The Book of the Taking of Ireland Part V, Irish Texts Society, 1956
  4. Trinity University, D.P. McCarthy, Collation of the Irish regnal canon
  5. Annals of the Four Masters vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 at CELT
  6. The History of Ireland by Geoffrey Keating at CELT

Further reading