The following is a partial list of Intel CPU microarchitectures. The list is incomplete. Additional details can be found in Intel's Tick–tock model and Process–architecture–optimization model.
|Process node |
|1978||8086 (8086, 8088)||2||5||3000|
|1982||186 (80186, 80188)||2||25|
|1993||P5 (Pentium)||5||200||800, 600, 350|
|1995||P6 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II)||14 (17 with load & store/||450||500, 350, 250|
|1997||P5 (Pentium MMX)||6||233||350|
|1999||P6 (Pentium III)||12 (15 with load & store/retire)||1400||250, 180, 130|
|2000|| NetBurst (Pentium 4)|
|20 unified with branch prediction||2000||180|
|2002||NetBurst (Pentium 4)|
|2003|| Pentium M (Banias, Dothan)|
Enhanced Pentium M (Yonah)
|10 (12 with fetch/||2333||130, 90, 65|
|2004||NetBurst (Pentium 4, Pentium D)|
|31 unified with branch prediction||3800||90, 65|
|2006||Intel Core||12 (14 with fetch/retire)||3000||65|
|2007||Penryn (die shrink)||3333||45|
|2008||Nehalem||20 unified (14 without miss prediction)||3600|
|Bonnell||16 (20 with prediction miss)||2100|
|2010||Westmere (die shrink)||20 unified (14 without miss prediction)||3866||32|
|2011||Saltwell (die shrink)||16 (20 with prediction miss)||2130|
|Sandy Bridge||14 (16 with fetch/retire)||4000|
|2012||Ivy Bridge (die shrink)||4100||22|
|2013||Silvermont||14–17 (16–19 with fetch/retire)||2670|
|Haswell||14 (16 with fetch/retire)||4400|
|2014||Broadwell (die shrink)||3700||14|
|2015||Airmont (die shrink)||14–17 (16–19 with fetch/retire)||2640|
|Skylake||14 (16 with fetch/retire)||5200|
|2016||Goldmont||20 unified with branch prediction||2600|
|2017||Goldmont Plus||? 20 unified with branch prediction ?||2800|
|2018||Palm Cove||14 (16 with fetch/retire)||3200||10|
|2019||Sunny Cove||14–20 (misprediction)||4100|
|Note: Atom microarchitectures are in Italic|
|180 nm|| P6,|
Mobile Pentium 4
| Dothan ||Prescott 2M-XE|
|65 nm|| Cedar Mill |
|2006-01-05|| Cedar Mill |
|Yonah||Presler-XE|| Dempsey |
|Core||Merom||2006-07-27||Conroe||Merom||Kentsfield|| Woodcrest |
|Sandy Bridge||2||2011-01-09||Sandy Bridge||Sandy Bridge-M||Sandy Bridge-E||Sandy Bridge-EP||–|
|22 nm||Ivy Bridge||3||2012-04-29||Ivy Bridge||Ivy Bridge-M||Ivy Bridge-E||Ivy Bridge-EP||Ivy Bridge-EX|
(37–57W TDP, PGA package)
(47W TDP, BGA package)
|14 nm||Broadwell||5||2014-09-05||Broadwell-DT||Broadwell-H (37–47W TDP)|
Broadwell-U (15–28W TDP)
Broadwell-Y (4.5W TDP)
|Skylake||Skylake||6||2015-08-05||Skylake-S||Skylake-H (35–45W TDP)|
Skylake-U (15–28W TDP)
Skylake-Y (4.5W TDP)
|Kaby Lake||7 / 8||2016-10||Kaby Lake-S||Kaby Lake-G (65–100W TDP)|
Kaby Lake-H (35–45W TDP)
Kaby Lake-U (15–28W TDP)
Kaby Lake-Y (4.5W TDP)
|Coffee Lake||8 / 9||2017-10||Coffee Lake-S||Coffee Lake-B (65W TDP)|
Coffee Lake-H (35–45W TDP)
Coffee Lake-U (15–28W TDP)
|Whiskey Lake||8||2018-08-28||N/A||Whiskey Lake-U (15W TDP)|
|Amber Lake||8 / 10||Amber Lake-Y (5–7W TDP)|
|Cascade Lake||N/A||2019-04-02||N/A||Cascade Lake-X|
|Comet Lake||10||2019-09||Comet Lake-S||Comet Lake-H (45W TDP)|
Comet Lake-U (15W TDP)
Comet Lake-Y (7W TDP)
|Cooper Lake||N/A||2020-06||N/A||Cooper Lake-SP|
|Cypress Cove||Rocket Lake||11||2021-03||Rocket Lake-S||N/A|
|10 nm||Palm Cove||Cannon Lake||8||2018-05||N/A||Cannon Lake-U (15W TDP)||N/A|
|Sunny Cove||Ice Lake||10||2019-09 (mobile) |
|N/A||Ice Lake-U (15–28W TDP) |
Ice Lake-Y (9W TDP)
|Willow Cove||Tiger Lake||11||2020-09||N/A||Tiger Lake-H (45W TDP)|
Tiger Lake-H35 (28–35W TDP)
Tiger Lake-UP3 (12–28W TDP)
Tiger Lake-UP4 (7–15W TDP)
|Intel 7||Golden Cove|| Alder Lake |
|Intel 4||TBA||Meteor Lake||TBA||2023||TBA||Granite Rapids–SP|
|45 nm||Bonnell||2008||Silverthorne||N/A||Diamondville|| Tunnel Creek,|
|32 nm||Saltwell||2011||Medfield (Penwell & Lexington),|
Clover Trail+ (Cloverview)
|Clover Trail (Cloverview)||Cedar Trail (Cedarview)||Unknown||Centerton & Briarwood||Unknown||Berryville|
|22 nm||Silvermont||2013||Merrifield (Tangier), Slayton,|
|14 nm||Airmont||2014||Binghamton & Riverton||Cherry Trail-T (Cherryview)||Braswell||Denverton Cancelled||Unknown||Unknown|
| Goldmont ||2016||Broxton Cancelled||Willow Trail Cancelled|
|2017||Unknown||Unknown|| Gemini Lake |
Gemini Lake Refresh
|10 nm||Tremont||2020||Unknown||Lakefield (hybrid)||Lakefield (hybrid)|
|Intel 7||Gracemont||2021||N/A||Grand Ridge|
Hyper-threading is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations performed on x86 microprocessors. It was introduced on Xeon server processors in February 2002 and on Pentium 4 desktop processors in November 2002. Since then, Intel has included this technology in Itanium, Atom, and Core 'i' Series CPUs, among others.
The NetBurst microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of central processing units (CPUs) made by Intel. The first CPU to use this architecture was the Willamette-core Pentium 4, released on November 20, 2000 and the first of the Pentium 4 CPUs; all subsequent Pentium 4 and Pentium D variants have also been based on NetBurst. In mid-2004, Intel released the Foster core, which was also based on NetBurst, thus switching the Xeon CPUs to the new architecture as well. Pentium 4-based Celeron CPUs also use the NetBurst architecture.
As of 2020, the x86 architecture is used in most high end compute-intensive computers, including cloud computing, servers, workstations, and many less powerful computers, including personal computer desktops and laptops. The ARM architecture is used in most other product categories, especially high-volume battery powered mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel. The original Pentium was released in 1993. After that, the Pentium II and Pentium III were released.
Tick–tock was a production model adopted in 2007 by chip manufacturer Intel. Under this model, every microarchitecture change (tock) was followed by a die shrink of the process technology (tick). It was replaced by the process–architecture–optimization model, which was announced in 2016 and is like a tick–tock cycle followed by an optimization phase. As a general engineering model, tick–tock is a model that refreshes one side of a binary system each release cycle.
Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.
Skylake is the codename used by Intel for a processor microarchitecture that was launched in August 2015 succeeding the Broadwell microarchitecture. Skylake is a microarchitecture redesign using the same 14 nm manufacturing process technology as its predecessor, serving as a "tock" in Intel's "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model. According to Intel, the redesign brings greater CPU and GPU performance and reduced power consumption. Skylake CPUs share their microarchitecture with Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake, Cannon Lake, Whiskey Lake, and Comet Lake CPUs.
Cannon Lake is Intel's codename for the 10-nanometer die shrink of the Kaby Lake microarchitecture. As a die shrink, Cannon Lake is a new process in Intel's "Process-Architecture-Optimization" execution plan as the next step in semiconductor fabrication. Cannon Lake CPUs are the first mainstream CPUs to include the AVX-512 instruction set.
LGA 1151, also known as Socket H4, is an Intel microprocessor compatible socket which comes in two distinct versions: the first revision which supports both Intel's Skylake and Kaby Lake CPUs, and the second revision which supports Coffee Lake CPUs exclusively.
Goldmont is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel. They allow only one thread per core.
Kaby Lake is Intel's codename for its seventh generation Core microprocessor family announced on August 30, 2016. Like the preceding Skylake, Kaby Lake is produced using a 14 nanometer manufacturing process technology. Breaking with Intel's previous "tick–tock" manufacturing and design model, Kaby Lake represents the optimized step of the newer process–architecture–optimization model. Kaby Lake began shipping to manufacturers and OEMs in the second quarter of 2016, and mobile chips have started shipping while Kaby Lake (desktop) chips were officially launched in January 2017.
Ice Lake is Intel's codename for the 10th generation Intel Core mobile and 3rd generation Xeon Scalable server processors based on the new Sunny Cove microarchitecture. Ice Lake represents an Architecture step in Intel's Process-Architecture-Optimization model. Produced on the second generation of Intel's 10 nm process, 10 nm+, Ice Lake is Intel's second microarchitecture to be manufactured on the 10 nm process, following the limited launch of Cannon Lake in 2018. However, Intel altered their naming scheme in 2020 for the 10 nm process. In this new naming scheme, Ice Lake's manufacturing process is called simply 10 nm, without any appended pluses.
Coffee Lake is Intel's codename for its eighth generation Core microprocessor family, announced on September 25, 2017. It is manufactured using Intel's second 14 nm process node refinement. Desktop Coffee Lake processors introduced i5 and i7 CPUs featuring six cores and Core i3 CPUs with four cores and no hyperthreading.
EPYC is a brand of x86-64 microprocessors designed and sold by AMD, based on the company's Zen microarchitecture. Introduced in June 2017, they are specifically targeted for the server and embedded system markets. Epyc processors share the same microarchitecture as their regular desktop-grade counterparts, but have enterprise-grade features such as higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, and larger cache memory. They also support multi-chip and dual-socket system configurations by using Infinity Fabric interchip interconnect.
Goldmont Plus is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium Silver branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel. The Gemini Lake platform with 14 nm Goldmont Plus core was officially launched on December 11, 2017. Intel launched Gemini Lake Refresh platform on November 4, 2019.
Sunny Cove is a codename for a CPU microarchitecture developed by Intel, first released in September 2019. It succeeds the Palm Cove microarchitecture and is fabricated using Intel's 10 nm process node. The microarchitecture is implemented in 10th-generation Intel Core processors for mobile and third generation Xeon scalable server processors. 10th-generation Intel Core mobile processors were released in September 2019, while the Xeon server processors were released in April 6, 2021.
Tremont is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium Silver branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel, it is the successor to Goldmont Plus. Intel officially launched Elkhart Lake platform with 10nm Tremont core on September 23, 2020. Intel officially launched Jasper Lake platform with 10nm Tremont core on January 11, 2021.
Gracemont is an upcoming microarchitecture for low-power processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel, and is the successor to Tremont. Like its predecessor, it will also be implemented as low-power cores in a hybrid design of the upcoming Alder Lake processors.
Willow Cove is a codename for a CPU microarchitecture developed by Intel and released on September 2020. Willow Cove is the successor to the Sunny Cove microarchitecture, and is fabricated using Intel's enhanced 10 nm process node called 10 nm SuperFin (10SF). The microarchitecture powers 11th-generation Intel Core mobile processors.
Golden Cove is a codename for a CPU microarchitecture developed by Intel and scheduled to be released in 2021. It will succeed three microarchitectures: Sunny Cove, Willow Cove, and Cypress Cove. It will be fabricated using Intel's 7 nm class process node called Intel 7, previously referred to as 10 nm Enhanced SuperFin (10ESF).