The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969.Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 800 individuals.
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
Latin Americans, Spaniards, Latinos and Hispanics have been the recipients in five of six award categories: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. The first Spanish recipient, José Echegaray, was awarded the Literature Prize in 1905, and the first Latin American to receive the prize was Carlos Saavedra Lamas in 1936. The most recent recipient Juan Manuel Santos was awarded the Peace prize in October 2016.
Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with both their nationality and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans or their ancestors immigrated since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Black Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German, French, and Jewish diasporas.
Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history, ancestry, and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is commonly known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, and is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain. Historically, the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries. The Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature. The reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, and has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.
Two Latin American laureates — Óscar Arias Sánchez and Juan Manuel Santos — were president of their country when they were awarded the prize. As of 2015, 25 Nobel Prize winners have been Latin American, Spanish, Latinos or Hispanics.
Juan Manuel Santos Calderón is a Colombian politician. From 2010 to 2018, he was the President of Colombia. He was the sole recipient of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize.
|1904||José Echegaray||Literature||First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize|
|1906||Santiago Ramón y Cajal||Physiology or Medicine||First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize in science|
|1936||Carlos Saavedra Lamas||Peace||First Latin American to win a Nobel Prize, first Hispanic to win a Nobel Peace Prize|
|1945||Gabriela Mistral||Literature||First Latin American to win a Nobel Prize in literature|
|1949||Bernardo Houssay||Physiology or Medicine||First Latin American to win a Nobel Prize in science|
|1956||Juan Ramón Jiménez||Literature|
|1959||Severo Ochoa||Physiology or Medicine|
|1967||Miguel Ángel Asturias||Literature|
|1968||Luis Walter Alvarez||Physics||First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize in Physics|
|1970||Luis F. Leloir||Chemistry||First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize in Chemistry|
|1980||Adolfo Pérez Esquivel||Peace|
|1980||Baruj Benacerraf||Physiology or Medicine|
|1982||Gabriel García Márquez||Literature|
|1982||Alfonso García Robles||Peace|
|1984||César Milstein||Physiology or Medicine|
|1987||Óscar Arias Sánchez||Peace|
|1989||Camilo José Cela||Literature|
|1995||Mario J. Molina||Chemistry|
|2010||Mario Vargas Llosa||Literature|
|2016||Juan Manuel Santos||Peace|
A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates. There are five Nobel Committees, one for each Nobel Prize.
An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969