List of Latino and Hispanic Nobel laureates

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The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969. [1] Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 800 individuals. [2]

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

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Latin Americans, Spaniards, Latinos and Hispanics have been the recipients in five of six award categories: Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. The first Spanish recipient, José Echegaray, was awarded the Literature Prize in 1905, and the first Latin American to receive the prize was Carlos Saavedra Lamas in 1936. The most recent recipient Juan Manuel Santos was awarded the Peace prize in October 2016.

Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with both their nationality and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans or their ancestors immigrated since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Black Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German, French, and Jewish diasporas.

Spaniards people native to any part of Spain or that hold Spanish citizenship

Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history, ancestry, and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is commonly known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, and is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain. Historically, the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine One of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries. The Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature. The reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, and has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.

Two Latin American laureates — Óscar Arias Sánchez and Juan Manuel Santos — were president of their country when they were awarded the prize. As of 2015, 25 Nobel Prize winners have been Latin American, Spanish, Latinos or Hispanics.

Juan Manuel Santos former President of Colombia

Juan Manuel Santos Calderón is a Colombian politician. From 2010 to 2018, he was the President of Colombia. He was the sole recipient of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize.

Laureates

YearImageLaureateCountryCategoryComment
1904 Jose Echegaray y Eizaguirre.jpg José Echegaray Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Literature [3] First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize
1906 Cajal-Restored.jpg Santiago Ramón y Cajal Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Physiology or Medicine [4] First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize in science
1922 Jacinto Benavente y Martinez.jpg Jacinto Benavente Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Literature
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas.jpg Carlos Saavedra Lamas Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Peace First Latin American to win a Nobel Prize, first Hispanic to win a Nobel Peace Prize
1945 Gabriela Mistral-01 cropped.jpg Gabriela Mistral Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Literature First Latin American to win a Nobel Prize in literature
1949 Bernado Houssay.JPG Bernardo Houssay Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Physiology or Medicine [5] First Latin American to win a Nobel Prize in science
1956 JRJimenez.JPG Juan Ramón Jiménez Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Literature
1959 Severo Ochoa nobel.jpg Severo Ochoa Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Physiology or Medicine
1967 MiguelAngelAsturias.JPG Miguel Ángel Asturias Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Literature
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez 1961.jpg Luis Walter Alvarez Flag of the United States.svg  United States Physics First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize in Physics [6]
1970 Luis Federico Leloir - young.jpg Luis F. Leloir Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Chemistry [7] First Hispanic to win a Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1971 Pablo Neruda.jpg Pablo Neruda Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Literature
1977 Vicentealeixandre.jpg Vicente Aleixandre Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Literature
1980 Adolfo Perez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Peace [8]
1980 Nobel prize medal grey.png Baruj Benacerraf Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela/Flag of the United States.svg  United States [9] Physiology or Medicine [9]
1982 Gabriel Garcia Marquez.jpg Gabriel García Márquez Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Literature
1982 Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg Alfonso García Robles Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Peace
1984 Milstein lnp.jpg César Milstein Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Physiology or Medicine [10]
1987 OscarArias.jpg Óscar Arias Sánchez Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica Peace
1989 Camilo Jose Cela Madrid 1996.jpg Camilo José Cela Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Literature
1990 Paz0.jpg Octavio Paz Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Literature
1992 Rigoberta Menchu Tum.JPG Rigoberta Menchú Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Peace
1995 Mario Molina 1c389 8387.jpg Mario J. Molina Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Chemistry
2010 Vargas Llosa Madrid 2012.jpg Mario Vargas Llosa Flag of Peru.svg  Peru/Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Literature
2016 Juan Manuel Santos in 2018.jpg Juan Manuel Santos Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Peace

See also

Related Research Articles

Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates. There are five Nobel Committees, one for each Nobel Prize.

References

  1. "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica , accessed 14 November 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
    An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969
  2. "All Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  3. "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904:Frédéric Mistral, José Echegaray". Elsevier Publishing Company. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  4. Sherrington, C. S. (1935). "Santiago Ramon y Cajal. 1852-1934". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society . 1 (4): 424. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1935.0007.
  5. Young, F.; Foglia, V. G. (1974). "Bernardo Alberto Houssay 1887–1971". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 20: 246. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1974.0011.
  6. Fernandez, R. M. (September 2011). "A Finding Aid to the Mabel Alvarez Papers, 1898–1987, in the Archives of American Art". Archives of American Art . Retrieved June 15, 2011.
  7. "Biography of Luis Leloir". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  8. "Adofo Pérez Esquivel". Nobel Prize Committee.
  9. 1 2 http://www.eluniversal.com/2011/08/02/muere-el-premio-nobel-de-medicina-baruj-benacerraf.shtml
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2015-12-09.