List of Major League Baseball pitchers who have thrown an immaculate inning

Last updated

Sandy Koufax.jpg
Chris Sale in 2017 (37185846582) (cropped).jpg
MG 2010 Max Scherzer.jpg
Sandy Koufax (left), Chris Sale (middle), and Max Scherzer (right) are the only pitchers to achieve an immaculate inning three times in a career.

In baseball, a strikeout occurs when a pitcher throws three strikes to a batter during his time at bat. [1] An immaculate inning occurs when a pitcher strikes out all three batters he faces in one inning, using the minimum possible number of pitches (nine). [2] Ninety-five pitchers have struck out three batters on nine consecutive pitches in a half-inning of a Major League Baseball (MLB) game as of September 2021. There have been 105 immaculate innings, with the most recent being Max Scherzer of the Los Angeles Dodgers on September 12, 2021.

Contents

Seven have accomplished the feat more than once in their career, including Hall-of-Famers Lefty Grove, [lower-alpha 1] Sandy Koufax, Nolan Ryan, and Randy Johnson, and currently active pitchers Chris Sale, Max Scherzer, and Kevin Gausman. Koufax, Sale, and Scherzer are the only pitchers to achieve an immaculate inning three times.

No player has ever struck out four batters on twelve pitches in an inning, with one of those batters reaching base on an uncaught third strike. [3] [4] [5] [6] John Clarkson was the first player to strike out three batters on nine pitches, doing so in the third inning for the Boston Beaneaters against the Philadelphia Quakers on June 4, 1889. [7] Use of the term "immaculate inning" to describe the feat is relatively new to baseball, appearing in newspaper reporting after 2000. [8]

Of the 95 pitchers who have accomplished the feat, 73 have been right-handed and 22 left-handed. Five pitchers – Bob Gibson, Randy Johnson, Pedro Martínez, Nolan Ryan, and Max Scherzer – are also members of the 3,000 strikeout club. [9] Sloppy Thurston, Ryan, Wade Miley, and Thomas Pannone are the only rookies to have attained the milestone. [10] [11] [12] [13] Ryan and Gausman have struck out three batters on nine pitches in both the American League and National League. [14]

Danny Jackson is the sole player to pitch an immaculate inning in the World Series. [15] Jackson's feat came in the seventh inning of Game 5 of the 1985 World Series, in which he pitched a complete game and won, 6–1, as the Kansas City Royals staved off elimination and eventually won the series in seven games.

While an immaculate inning typically occurs with the bases empty, via a pitcher retiring the side in order, the feat can also be accomplished by a relief pitcher entering the game with one or more runners on base and no outs, who then strikes out the first three batters faced on nine pitches. An example of this occurred on May 8, 2014, when Brad Boxberger of the Tampa Bay Rays entered a game against the Baltimore Orioles with the bases loaded and no outs; Boxberger struck out the next three batters he faced on nine pitches. [16]

No pitcher has thrown more than one immaculate inning in a game. Jesús Sánchez of the Florida Marlins came within one pitch of that feat on September 13, 1998. Facing the Atlanta Braves, Sánchez struck out the side in the bottom of the second inning on 10 pitches, then threw an immaculate inning in the bottom of the third inning. [17] In total, Sánchez struck out seven consecutive batters on 25 total pitches. [17]

Frequency by decade

Billy Hoeft's immaculate inning in 1953 was the first in 25 seasons. Billy Hoeft Tigers.jpg
Billy Hoeft's immaculate inning in 1953 was the first in 25 seasons.
Brandon McCarthy threw the seventh and final immaculate inning of 2014. BrandonMcCarthyCurve.jpg
Brandon McCarthy threw the seventh and final immaculate inning of 2014.

The frequency of immaculate innings has varied widely through baseball history. There were only 31 immaculate innings in the 114 Major League seasons from 1876 to 1989, but another 31 in the 20 seasons from 1990 to 2009. The pace has since picked up even more, with 43 immaculate innings in the 12 seasons from 2010 to 2021.

DecadeImmaculate innings
NumberCumulative
1880s11
1890s01
1900s12
1910s13
1920s58
1930s08
1940s08
1950s311
1960s819
1970s827
1980s431
1990s1748
2000s1462
2010s3799
2020s6105

Updated through Max Scherzer's immaculate inning of September 12, 2021.

Players

Key
Pitcher (X)Name of the pitcher (number of immaculate innings they had pitched at that point, if more than one)
DateDate of the game
TeamThe pitcher's team at the time of the game
Opposing teamThe team against whom the pitcher struck out three batters on nine pitches
InningThe inning in which the pitcher struck out three batters on nine pitches
Batters faced (X)The batters who were struck out (number of immaculate innings they had struck out in at that point, if more than one)
Box Box score with play by play, if available
Dagger-14-plain.pngPitcher has been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame
Double-dagger-14-plain.pngPitcher is active [lower-alpha 2]
MLB pitchers who have thrown an immaculate inning
PitcherDateTeamOpposing teamInningBatters facedBox
John Clarkson Dagger-14-plain.pngJune 4, 1889 Boston Beaneaters Philadelphia Quakers 3rd Jim Fogarty, Sam Thompson, Sid Farrar n/a
Rube Waddell Dagger-14-plain.pngJuly 1, 1902 Philadelphia Athletics Baltimore Orioles 3rd Billy Gilbert, Harry Howell, John Cronin n/a
Pat Ragan October 5, 1914 Brooklyn Dodgers Boston Braves 8th Possum Whitted, Butch Schmidt, Red Smith n/a
Joe Oeschger September 8, 1921 Boston Braves Philadelphia Phillies 4th Bevo LeBourveau, Cy Williams, Ed Konetchy n/a
Sloppy Thurston August 22, 1923 Chicago White Sox Philadelphia Athletics 12th Beauty McGowan, Chick Galloway, Sammy Hale [18]
Dazzy Vance Dagger-14-plain.pngSeptember 14, 1924 Brooklyn Robins Cincinnati Reds 3rd Sam Bohne, Bubbles Hargrave, Eppa Rixey [19]
Lefty Grove Dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 23, 1928 Philadelphia Athletics Cleveland Indians 2nd Ed Morgan, Luther Harvel, Martin Autry [lower-alpha 1] [20]
Lefty Grove Dagger-14-plain.png(2)September 27, 1928 Philadelphia Athletics Chicago White Sox 7th Moe Berg, Tommy Thomas, Johnny Mostil [22]
Billy Hoeft September 7, 1953 Detroit Tigers Chicago White Sox 7th Jim Rivera, Mike Fornieles, Chico Carrasquel [23]
Robin Roberts Dagger-14-plain.pngApril 17, 1956 Philadelphia Phillies Brooklyn Dodgers 6th Carl Furillo, Charlie Neal, Sandy Amorós [24]
Jim Bunning Dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 2, 1959 Detroit Tigers Boston Red Sox 9th Sammy White, Jim Mahoney, Ike Delock [25]
Sandy Koufax Dagger-14-plain.pngJune 30, 1962 Los Angeles Dodgers New York Mets 1st Richie Ashburn, Rod Kanehl, Félix Mantilla [26]
Sandy Koufax Dagger-14-plain.png(2)April 19, 1963 Los Angeles Dodgers Houston Colt .45s 5th Bob Aspromonte, Jim Campbell, Turk Farrell [27]
Tony Cloninger June 15, 1963 Milwaukee Braves Philadelphia Phillies 8th Tony González, Clay Dalrymple, Rubén Amaro [28]
Sandy Koufax Dagger-14-plain.png(3)April 18, 1964 Los Angeles Dodgers Cincinnati Reds 3rd Leo Cárdenas, Johnny Edwards, Jim Maloney [29]
Bob Bruce April 19, 1964 Houston Colt .45s St. Louis Cardinals 8th Bill White, Charlie James, Ken Boyer [30]
Al Downing August 11, 1967 New York Yankees Cleveland Indians 2nd Tony Horton, Don Demeter, Duke Sims [31]
Nolan Ryan Dagger-14-plain.pngApril 19, 1968 New York Mets Los Angeles Dodgers 3rd Claude Osteen, Wes Parker, Zoilo Versalles [32]
Bob Gibson Dagger-14-plain.pngMay 12, 1969 St. Louis Cardinals Los Angeles Dodgers 7th Len Gabrielson, Paul Popovich, John Miller [33]
Bill Wilson July 6, 1971 Philadelphia Phillies Atlanta Braves 8th Darrell Evans, Hal King, Earl Williams [34]
John Strohmayer July 10, 1971 Montreal Expos Philadelphia Phillies 5th Mike Ryan, Woodie Fryman, Denny Doyle [35]
Milt Pappas September 24, 1971 Chicago Cubs Philadelphia Phillies 4th Greg Luzinski, Don Money, Mike Anderson [36]
Nolan Ryan Dagger-14-plain.png(2)July 9, 1972 California Angels Boston Red Sox 2nd Carlton Fisk, Bob Burda, Juan Beníquez [37]
Bruce Sutter Dagger-14-plain.pngSeptember 8, 1977 Chicago Cubs Montreal Expos 9th Ellis Valentine, Gary Carter, Larry Parrish [38]
Pedro Borbón June 23, 1979 Cincinnati Reds San Francisco Giants 9th Mike Sadek, Gary Lavelle, Billy North [39]
Lynn McGlothen August 25, 1979 Chicago Cubs San Francisco Giants 3rd Larry Herndon, Joe Strain, Jack Clark [40]
Joey McLaughlin September 11, 1979 Atlanta Braves San Francisco Giants 7thLarry Herndon (2), Greg Johnston, Johnnie LeMaster [41]
Ron Guidry August 7, 1984 New York Yankees Chicago White Sox 9thCarlton Fisk (2), Tom Paciorek, Greg Luzinski (2) [42]
Danny Jackson October 24, 1985 Kansas City Royals St. Louis Cardinals 7th Terry Pendleton, Tom Nieto, Brian Harper [15]
Jeff Robinson September 7, 1987 Pittsburgh Pirates Chicago Cubs 8th Leon Durham, Andre Dawson, Rafael Palmeiro [43]
Rob Dibble June 4, 1989 Cincinnati Reds San Diego Padres 8th Carmelo Martínez, Mark Parent, Garry Templeton [44]
Jeff Montgomery April 29, 1990 Kansas City Royals Texas Rangers 8th Pete Incaviglia, Geno Petralli, Thad Bosley [45]
Andy Ashby June 15, 1991 Philadelphia Phillies Cincinnati Reds 4th Hal Morris, Todd Benzinger, Jeff Reed [46]
David Cone August 30, 1991 New York Mets Cincinnati Reds 5th Herm Winningham, Randy Myers, Mariano Duncan [47]
Pete Harnisch September 6, 1991 Houston Astros Philadelphia Phillies 7th Wes Chamberlain, Dickie Thon, José DeJesús [48]
Trevor Wilson June 7, 1992 San Francisco Giants Houston Astros 9th Jeff Bagwell, Eric Anthony, Rafael Ramírez [49]
Mel Rojas May 11, 1994 Montreal Expos New York Mets 9th David Segui, Todd Hundley, Jeff McKnight [50]
Stan Belinda August 6, 1994 Kansas City Royals Seattle Mariners 9thEric Anthony (2), Chris Howard, Luis Sojo [51]
Todd Worrell August 13, 1995 Los Angeles Dodgers Pittsburgh Pirates 9th Mark Johnson, Angelo Encarnación, Steve Pegues [52]
Mike Magnante August 22, 1997 Houston Astros Colorado Rockies 9th Ellis Burks, Harvey Pulliam, Jeff Reed (2) [53]
Doug Jones September 23, 1997 Milwaukee Brewers Kansas City Royals 9th Johnny Damon, Scott Cooper, Rod Myers [54]
Jimmy Key April 14, 1998 Baltimore Orioles Chicago White Sox 2nd Robin Ventura, Magglio Ordóñez, Ray Durham [55]
Mike Mussina Dagger-14-plain.pngMay 9, 1998 Baltimore Orioles Tampa Bay Devil Rays 9th Fred McGriff, Paul Sorrento, Rich Butler [56]
Orel Hershiser June 16, 1998 San Francisco Giants Colorado Rockies 4thEllis Burks (2), Vinny Castilla, Todd Helton [57]
Randy Johnson Dagger-14-plain.pngSeptember 2, 1998 Houston Astros Atlanta Braves 6th Javy López, Andruw Jones, Greg Colbrunn [58]
Jesús Sánchez September 13, 1998 Florida Marlins Atlanta Braves 3rd Tony Graffanino, Greg Maddux, Walt Weiss [17]
Shane Reynolds July 15, 1999 Houston Astros Detroit Tigers 1st Juan Encarnación, Brad Ausmus, Bobby Higginson [59]
B. J. Ryan September 5, 1999 Baltimore Orioles Cleveland Indians 6th Manny Ramirez, Jim Thome, Richie Sexson [60]
Randy Johnson Dagger-14-plain.png(2)August 23, 2001 Arizona Diamondbacks Pittsburgh Pirates 6th Tony McKnight, Gary Matthews Jr., Jack Wilson [61]
Jason Isringhausen April 13, 2002 St. Louis Cardinals Houston Astros 9th Daryle Ward, José Vizcaíno, Julio Lugo [62]
Byung-Hyun Kim May 11, 2002 Arizona Diamondbacks Philadelphia Phillies 8th Scott Rolen, Mike Lieberthal, Pat Burrell [63]
Pedro Martínez Dagger-14-plain.pngMay 18, 2002 Boston Red Sox Seattle Mariners 1st Ichiro Suzuki, Mark McLemore, Rubén Sierra [64]
Brian Lawrence June 12, 2002 San Diego Padres Baltimore Orioles 3rd Brook Fordyce, Jerry Hairston Jr., Melvin Mora [65]
Brandon Backe April 15, 2004 Houston Astros Milwaukee Brewers 8th Bill Hall, Scott Podsednik, Craig Counsell [66]
Ben Sheets June 13, 2004 Milwaukee Brewers Houston Astros 3rd Pete Munro, Craig Biggio, José Vizcaíno (2) [67]
LaTroy Hawkins September 11, 2004 Chicago Cubs Florida Marlins 9th Jeff Conine, Juan Encarnación (2), Álex González [68]
Rick Helling June 20, 2006 Milwaukee Brewers Detroit Tigers 1st Curtis Granderson, Plácido Polanco, Iván Rodríguez [69]
Buddy Carlyle July 6, 2007 Atlanta Braves San Diego Padres 4th Khalil Greene, Russell Branyan, José Cruz Jr. [70]
Rich Harden June 8, 2008 Oakland Athletics Los Angeles Angels 1st Maicer Izturis, Howie Kendrick, Garret Anderson [71]
Félix Hernández Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJune 17, 2008 Seattle Mariners Florida Marlins 4th Jeremy Hermida, Jorge Cantú, Mike Jacobs [72]
A. J. Burnett June 20, 2009 New York Yankees Florida Marlins 3rd Josh Johnson, Chris Coghlan, Emilio Bonifacio [73]
Ross Ohlendorf September 5, 2009 Pittsburgh Pirates St. Louis Cardinals 7thKhalil Greene (2), Julio Lugo (2), Jason LaRue [74]
Rafael Soriano August 23, 2010 Tampa Bay Rays Los Angeles Angels 9th Erick Aybar, Mike Napoli, Peter Bourjos [75]
Jordan Zimmermann May 6, 2011 Washington Nationals Florida Marlins 2nd Giancarlo Stanton, Greg Dobbs, John Buck [76]
Juan Pérez July 8, 2011 Philadelphia Phillies Atlanta Braves 10th Jason Heyward, Nate McLouth, Wilkin Ramírez [77]
Clay Buchholz August 16, 2012 Boston Red Sox Baltimore Orioles 6th Adam Jones, Matt Wieters, Chris Davis [78]
Wade Miley Double-dagger-14-plain.pngOctober 1, 2012 Arizona Diamondbacks Colorado Rockies 3rd Jonathan Herrera, Drew Pomeranz, Josh Rutledge [79]
Iván Nova Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 29, 2013 New York Yankees New York Mets 8th Ike Davis, Mike Baxter, Rubén Tejada [80]
Steve Delabar July 30, 2013 Toronto Blue Jays Oakland Athletics 8th Adam Rosales, Coco Crisp, Chris Young [81]
Brad Boxberger Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 8, 2014 Tampa Bay Rays Baltimore Orioles 6th Steve Pearce, Jonathan Schoop, Caleb Joseph [82]
Cole Hamels Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 17, 2014 Philadelphia Phillies Cincinnati Reds 3rd Zack Cozart, Brandon Phillips, Todd Frazier [83]
Justin Masterson June 2, 2014 Cleveland Indians Boston Red Sox 4th Jonny Gomes, Grady Sizemore, Stephen Drew [84]
Garrett Richards Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJune 4, 2014 Los Angeles Angels Houston Astros 2nd Jon Singleton, Matt Dominguez, Chris Carter [85]
Rex Brothers Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJune 14, 2014 Colorado Rockies San Francisco Giants 8th Michael Morse, Brandon Crawford, Gregor Blanco [86]
Carlos Contreras July 11, 2014 Cincinnati Reds Pittsburgh Pirates 7th Jordy Mercer, Jeff Locke, Gregory Polanco [87]
Brandon McCarthy September 17, 2014 New York Yankees Tampa Bay Rays 7th Wil Myers, Nick Franklin, Matt Joyce [88]
Mike Fiers Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 7, 2015 Milwaukee Brewers Los Angeles Dodgers 4th Enrique Hernández, Carlos Frías, Joc Pederson [89]
Santiago Casilla May 17, 2015 San Francisco Giants Cincinnati Reds 9th Marlon Byrd, Brandon Phillips (2), Jay Bruce [90]
Juan Nicasio July 4, 2016 Pittsburgh Pirates St. Louis Cardinals 8th Stephen Piscotty, Jhonny Peralta (2), Yadier Molina [91]
Drew Storen April 18, 2017 Cincinnati Reds Baltimore Orioles 9thJonathan Schoop (2), J. J. Hardy, Hyun-soo Kim [92]
Craig Kimbrel Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 11, 2017 Boston Red Sox Milwaukee Brewers 9th Hernán Pérez, Travis Shaw, Domingo Santana [93]
Max Scherzer Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 14, 2017 Washington Nationals Philadelphia Phillies 5th César Hernández, Odúbel Herrera, Aaron Altherr [94]
Kenley Jansen Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 18, 2017 Los Angeles Dodgers Miami Marlins 9th Derek Dietrich, J. T. Riddle, Ichiro Suzuki (2) [95]
Carlos Carrasco Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJuly 7, 2017 Cleveland Indians Detroit Tigers 5th Nicholas Castellanos, Mikie Mahtook, José Iglesias [96]
Dellin Betances Double-dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 2, 2017 New York Yankees Detroit Tigers 8th Jim Adduci, Justin Upton, Miguel Cabrera [97]
José Alvarado Double-dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 4, 2017 Tampa Bay Rays Milwaukee Brewers 9thTravis Shaw (2), Jesús Aguilar, Hernán Pérez (2) [98]
Rick Porcello Double-dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 9, 2017 Boston Red Sox Tampa Bay Rays 5th Trevor Plouffe, Wilson Ramos, Mallex Smith [99]
Kevin Gausman Double-dagger-14-plain.pngApril 23, 2018 Baltimore Orioles Cleveland Indians 7th Yonder Alonso, Yan Gomes, Bradley Zimmer [100]
Max Scherzer Double-dagger-14-plain.png(2)June 5, 2018 Washington Nationals Tampa Bay Rays 6th Johnny Field, Christian Arroyo, Daniel Robertson [101]
Germán Márquez Double-dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 8, 2018 Colorado Rockies Pittsburgh Pirates 4th Corey Dickerson, Starling Marte, Gregory Polanco (2) [102]
Zac Rosscup Double-dagger-14-plain.pngAugust 19, 2018 Los Angeles Dodgers Seattle Mariners 9th Kyle Seager, Ryon Healy, Cameron Maybin [103]
Josh Hader Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMarch 30, 2019 Milwaukee Brewers St. Louis Cardinals 9th Tyler O'Neill, Dexter Fowler, Yairo Muñoz [104]
Thomas Pannone April 14, 2019 Toronto Blue Jays Tampa Bay Rays 5th Avisaíl García, Brandon Lowe, Daniel Robertson (2) [105]
Chris Sale Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 8, 2019 Boston Red Sox Baltimore Orioles 7th Hanser Alberto, Dwight Smith Jr., Steve Wilkerson [106]
Chris Sale Double-dagger-14-plain.png(2)June 5, 2019 Boston Red Sox Kansas City Royals 8th Kelvin Gutierrez, Nicky Lopez, Martin Maldonado [107]
Stephen Strasburg Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJuly 3, 2019 Washington Nationals Miami Marlins 4th Garrett Cooper, Neil Walker, Starlin Castro [108]
Kevin Gausman Double-dagger-14-plain.png(2)August 18, 2019 Cincinnati Reds St Louis Cardinals 9thYairo Muñoz (2), Dexter Fowler (2), Tommy Edman [109]
Chris Martin Double-dagger-14-plain.pngSeptember 11, 2019 Atlanta Braves Philadelphia Phillies 7thCésar Hernández (2), Jay Bruce (2), Logan Morrison [110]
Will Harris Double-dagger-14-plain.pngSeptember 27, 2019 Houston Astros Los Angeles Angels 8th Kaleb Cowart, Matt Thaiss, Michael Hermosillo [111]
Zach Plesac Double-dagger-14-plain.pngSeptember 18, 2020 Cleveland Indians Detroit Tigers 2nd Jorge Bonifacio, Niko Goodrum, Austin Romine [112]
Kyle Finnegan Double-dagger-14-plain.pngMay 5, 2021 Washington Nationals Atlanta Braves 6th Austin Riley, Dansby Swanson, William Contreras [113]
Michael King Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJune 4, 2021 New York Yankees Boston Red Sox 4th Hunter Renfroe, Marwin Gonzalez, Christian Vázquez [114]
Chad Green Double-dagger-14-plain.pngJuly 4, 2021 New York Yankees New York Mets 7th Michael Conforto, Jeff McNeil, Jonathan Villar [115]
Chris Sale Double-dagger-14-plain.png(3)August 26, 2021 Boston Red Sox Minnesota Twins 3rd Nick Gordon, Andrelton Simmons, Rob Refsnyder [116]
Max Scherzer Double-dagger-14-plain.png(3)September 12, 2021 Los Angeles Dodgers San Diego Padres 2nd Fernando Tatís Jr., Eric Hosmer, Tommy Pham [117]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 The game play-by-play [20] and contemporary newspaper report [21] for the game of August 23, 1928, show that Lefty Grove first allowed a single to Homer Summa in the second inning before striking out the next three batters (Morgan, Harvel, Autry) on nine consecutive pitches; this is inconsistent with the present-day usage of "immaculate inning" where only three batters are faced (each being struck out on three pitches) in the half-inning.
  2. A player is considered inactive if he has announced his retirement or has not played professionally for a full season.

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References

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