List of Olympic venues in athletics

Last updated

Panathinaiko Stadium hosted the athletics events for the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. In 2004, it was the finish line for the athletics marathon events. Panathinaiko.jpg
Panathinaiko Stadium hosted the athletics events for the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. In 2004, it was the finish line for the athletics marathon events.
Olympic Stadium in Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympic athletic events. Stadium Australia 2.jpg
Olympic Stadium in Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympic athletic events.

For the Summer Olympics, there are 60 venues that have been or will be used for athletics. These venues have been the main stadium that has also served as host for both the opening and closing ceremonies of the Summer Olympics, with a notable exception being the Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, who hosted athletics events at Rio 2016; the ceremonies were hosted in the Maracanã.

Other uses for the stadiums have included the FIFA World Cup, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the World Series, the National Football League's Super Bowl, the Asian Games, the Pan American Games (North and South America), and the IAAF World Championships in Athletics.

For the FIFA World Cup, the athletic stadiums of 1908 (1966), 1924 (1938 final), 1936 (1974, 2006 final), 1948 (1966 final), 1960 (1990 final), 1968 (1986), 1972 (1974 final), and 1980 (2018) hosted the final match. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

As of 2019, seven of the athletic stadiums have played host to seven IAAF World Championships in Athletics. They are from 1936 (2009), 1952 (1983, 2005), 1960 (1987), 1964 (1991), 1980 (2013), 2004 (1997), 2008 (2015), and 2012 (2017). [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]


Two athletic stadiums used for the Summer Olympics have hosted the Asian Games. They are 1964 (1958) and 1988 (1986). [16] [17] Two other stadiums played host to the Pan American Games were from 1968 (1955) and 2016 (2007). [18] [19]

Three athletic venues hosted the Major League Baseball All-Star Game with the stadium for 1932 and 1984 hosting the second 1959 game, the 1976 venue hosting in 1982, and the 1996 venue (reconfigured as Turner Field after the 1996 Games) in 2000. [20] [21] [22] The World Series would be hosted at the 1932 and 1984 athletics Summer Olympics in 1959 while the 1996 athletics venue would host forty years later. [23] [24] The 1976 athletics venue hosted the Canadian Football League Grey Cup six times between 1977 and 2008. [25] [26] Finally, the athletics venues used for the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics played host to the National Football League's Super Bowl's I and VII. [27] [28]

GamesVenueOther sports hosted at venues for gamesCapacityRef.
1896 Athens Marathon (city) (Marathon start) Cycling (Individual road race)Not listed. [29]
Panathinaiko Stadium Gymnastics, Weightlifting, and Wrestling 80,000 [30]
1900 Paris Croix-Catelan Stadium NoneNot listed. [31]
1904 St. Louis Francis Field Archery, Cycling, Football, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Roque, Tennis, Tug of war, Weightlifting, and Wrestling 19,000. [32]
1908 London White City Stadium Archery, Cycling (track), Diving, Field hockey, Football, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Rugby union, Swimming, Tug of war, Water polo (final), Wrestling 68,000. [33]
1912 Stockholm Stockholm Olympic Stadium Equestrian, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon (running), Tug of war, Wrestling 33,000. [34]
1920 Antwerp Olympisch Stadion Equestrian, Field hockey, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon, Rugby union, Tug of war, Weightlifting 30,000 [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]
1924 Paris Stade de Colombes Cycling (road), Equestrian, Fencing, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon (fencing, running), Rugby union, Tennis 60,000 [44]
1928 Amsterdam Olympic Stadium Cycling (track), Equestrian (jumping), Football (final), Gymnastics 33,025 [45]
1932 Los Angeles Olympic Stadium Equestrian (eventing, jumping), Field hockey, Gymnastics 105,000 [46]
Riverside Drive at Griffith Park (50 km walk)NoneNot listed. [47]
1936 Berlin Avus Motor Road (Marathon, 50 km walk) Cycling (road)Not listed. [48]
Olympic Stadium Equestrian (jumping), Football (final), Handball (final)110,000 [49]
1948 London Empire Stadium Equestrian (jumping), Field hockey (medal matches), Football (medal matches)82,000 [50]
1952 Helsinki Olympic Stadium Equestrian (jumping), Football (final)70,000 [51]
1956 Melbourne Melbourne Cricket Ground Field hockey (final), Football (final)104,000 [52]
1960 Rome Arch of Constantine (Marathon – finish line)NoneNot listed. [53] [54]
Raccordo Anulare (Marathon)NoneNot listed. [53]
Stadio Olimpico Non-road65,000 [55]
Via Appia Antica (Marathon)NoneNot listed. [56] [57]
Via Cristoforo Colombo (Marathon) Cycling (road team time trial)Not listed. [58] [59]
1964 Tokyo Fuchu City (Marathon, 50 km walk)NoneNot listed. [60]
Karasuyama-machi (Marathon, 50 km walk)NoneNot listed. [61]
National Stadium Equestrian (team jumping), Football (final)71,600 [61] [62]
Sasazuka-machi (Marathon, 50 km walk)NoneNot listed [60]
Shinjuku (Marathon, 50 km walk)NoneNot listed [61]
1968 Mexico City Estadio Olímpico Universitario Ceremonies (opening/ closing), Equestrian (jumping team)83,700 [63]
Zócalo (Marathon start)NoneNot listed [64]
1972 Munich Olympiastadion Ceremonies (opening/ closing), Equestrian (jumping team), Football (final), Modern pentathlon (running)77,000 [65]
1976 Montreal Montreal Botanical Garden (20 km walk) Modern pentathlon (running)Not listed. [66]
Olympic Stadium Ceremonies (opening/ closing), Equestrian (jumping team final), Football (final)70,000 [67]
Streets of Montreal (Marathon)NoneNot listed. [66]
1980 Moscow Central Lenin stadium Equestrian (jumping individual), Football (final), Opening/closing ceremonies80,000 [68]
Streets of Moscow (Marathon, walks)NoneNot listed. [69]
1984 Los Angeles Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Ceremonies (opening/ closing)92,516 [70]
Santa Monica College (Marathon start)NoneNot listed. [71]
Streets of Los Angeles (Marathon, walks)NoneNot listed. [71]
Streets of Santa Monica (Marathon)NoneNot listed. [71]
1988 Seoul Olympic Stadium Equestrian (jumping individual final), Football (final)100,000 [72]
Streets of Seoul (Marathon, walks)NoneNot listed. [73]
1992 Barcelona Estadi Olímpic de Monjuïc Ceremonies (opening/closing)67,007 [74]
Marathon course (Marathon)NoneNot listed. [75]
Mataró (Marathon start)NoneNot listed. [75]
Walking course (Walks)NoneNot listed. [76]
1996 Atlanta Marathon course (Marathon)None800 [77] [78]
Olympic Stadium Ceremonies (opening/ closing)85,600 [77] [79]
Walking course (Walks) Athletics (walks)800 [77] [78]
2000 Sydney Marathon course (Marathon)NoneNot listed. [80]
North Sydney (Marathon start)NoneNot listed. [80]
Olympic Stadium Ceremonies (opening/closing), Football (final)114,700 [81]
2004 Athens Marathon (city) (Marathon start)NoneNot listed. [82]
Olympic Stadium (All but shot put)Ceremonies (opening/ closing), Football (final)72,000 [83]
Panathinaiko Stadium (Marathon finish) Archery 7,500 (archery)
34,500 (athletics marathon finish)
[84]
Stadium at Olympia (Shot put)NoneNot listed. [82]
2008 Beijing Beijing National Stadium Football (final), Ceremonies (opening/closing)91,000 [85]
2012 London Marathon Course (with Race Walk in The Mall) Cycling (road start and finish)Not listed. [86]
Olympic Stadium Ceremonies (opening/ closing)80,000 [87]
2016 Rio de Janeiro Pontal (Walks) Cycling (time trial)5,000 [88]
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange Football (8 group matches)60,000 [89]
Sambódromo (Marathon) Archery 72,000 [90]
2020 Tokyo New National Stadium Ceremonies (opening/closing), Football (women's final)68,000
Odori Park (Marathon, Walks)None700
2024 Paris Champs-Élysées (Walks, Marathon finish line) Cycling (road events), Skateboarding (street)10,000
Stade de France Ceremonies (opening/closing)75,000
Eiffel Tower (Marathon start) Triathlon, Swimming (marathon)13,000

Related Research Articles

Venues of the 2000 Summer Olympics

For the 2000 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty sports venues were used. After Melbourne hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics, Australia made several bids for the Summer Olympics before finally winning the 2000 Summer Olympics by two votes over Beijing, China. Venue construction was set at the Homebush Bay area of Sydney in an effort to rehabilitate the land. Environmental studies of the area in the early 1990s forced remediation to be used for about a fifth of the site selected. Fifteen new venues were constructed for the Games. Many of the venues used for the 2000 Games continue to be in use as of 2020, although some of the pre-existing facilities have been demolished and replaced.

For the 1952 Summer Olympics, a total of twenty-four sports venues were used. Three of the venues were constructed for the 1940 Summer Olympics, but were postponed in the wake of World War II. Those venues were completed in time for the 1952 Games. The main stadium served as host to the World Athletics Championships in 1983 and in 2005. Two venues were purchased by the city of Helsinki after the Olympics, one changed from an exhibition center to a sports arena, and another changed from a sports arena to an art museum. With an annual average temperature of 5.9 °C, Helsinki is the coldest city to host the Summer Olympics.

For the 1960 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-four sports venues were used. The Basilica of Maxentius, the Baths of Caracalla, the Appian Way, and Via Cassia were among the ancient Roman venues used for the games. The football stadium in Florence hosted the 1934 FIFA World Cup and would later host the 1990 FIFA World Cup. Stadio Olimpico would later serve host to the 1987 IAAF World Championships in Athletics and the final venue for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The marathon would be lit at night by Italian soldiers holding torches that included the Appian Way with a finish at the Arch of Constantine.

For the 1964 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-three sports venues were used. Six of the venues were built before the International Olympic Committee awarded the 1964 Games to Tokyo in 1959. This included two venues that hosted the 1958 Asian Games. There were thirteen new, eight temporary, and five reconstructed and/or renovated venues that were used during the event. During the Olympics, wind and weather had issues with two athletic events. After the Olympics, one venue hosted both a FIFA World Cup and a World Athletics Championship event while another also hosted a World Athletics Championship event.

Venues of the 1968 Summer Olympics

For the 1968 Summer Olympics, a total of twenty-five sports venues were used. Most of the venues were constructed after Mexico City was awarded the 1968 Games. Mexican efforts in determining wind measurement led to sixteen world records in athletics at the University Olympic Stadium. All four of the football venues used for these games would also be used for both of the occurrences that Mexico hosted the FIFA World Cup, in 1970 and 1986.

Venues of the 1976 Summer Olympics

For the 1976 Summer Olympics, a total of twenty-seven sports venues were used. Several venues used had been in existence before Montreal made its first Olympic bid in the late 1930s. By the 1950s, Montreal's bid for the Olympics shifted from Winter to Summer before it was finally awarded the 1976 Summer Games in 1970. Strikes in 1974-5 affected construction of the Olympic Park, most notably the Stadium, Pool, and Velodrome, to the point where the FINA President threatened to not have the diving, swimming, and water polo events take place there for the games in early 1976 though all three venues were completed as best as possible prior to the 1976 Games. 27 swimming world records were set as a result. The oldest stadium, Molson Stadium at McGill University, would be converted into artificial turf for the field hockey tournaments while the sailing program in Kingston, Ontario would be held in freshwater, both for the first time in Summer Olympic history. Indoor track cycling took place at the Olympics for the first time at the velodrome. Once the Olympics finished, the Montreal Expos and Montreal Alouettes moved into Olympic Stadium, staying until 2004 and 1997, respectively. The Montreal Canadiens remained at the Montreal Forum until they moved to the Molson Centre in March 1996. In 1992, the velodrome was converted into an indoor zoo now known as the Montreal Biodôme. Île-Notre Dame hosted a canoe sprint world championships and two rowing world championships since the 1976 Games, but the area north of the basin on the island has been host to the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix on an almost annual basis since 1978.

Venues of the 1980 Summer Olympics

For the 1980 Summer Olympics, a total of twenty-eight sports venues were used. The first venue used for the Games was built in 1923. With the creation of the Spartakiad in Moscow in 1928, more venues were constructed. Central Lenin Stadium Grand Arena was built in 1956 for that year's versions of the Spartkiad. A plan in 1971 to construct more sports venues by 1990 was initiated, but accelerated in 1974 when Moscow was awarded the 1980 Games. The new venues to be used for the Games were completed in 1979. During the Games themselves at the permanent road cycling venue, the first ever constructed, the largest margin of victory was recorded in the individual road race cycling event since 1928. The Grand Arena hosted the football final that was played in a rainstorm for the third straight Olympics. After the 1991 break of the Soviet Union, the venues in Kiev, Minsk, and Tallinn would be located in Ukraine, Belarus, and Estonia, respectively. Luzhniki Stadium, formerly Grand Arena, continues to be used, and it was affected by the Luzhniki disaster in 1982. The stadium served as host for the IAAF World Championships in Athletics in 2013. Another venue, the Moscow Canoeing and Rowing Basin, served as host to the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in 2014. In December 2010, Russia was awarded the 2018 FIFA World Cup with Luzhniki Stadium and Dynamo Stadium proposed as venues for those events.

Venues of the 1984 Summer Olympics

For the 1984 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-one venues were used. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and the Rose Bowl, two venues previously used for the 1932 Summer Olympics, were used for the 1984 Games. Between the 1932 and the 1984 Summer Olympics, the expansion of professional sports teams assisted in the growth of the facilities that would be used for the 1984 events. Only two new permanent venues were constructed, both using corporate sponsorship, though neither were mentioned in the official Olympic report. Many other venues had temporary adjustments and returned to their normal usage once the 1984 Olympics were completed. Stanford Stadium in Palo Alto and the Rose Bowl later served as venues for the Super Bowl, the FIFA World Cup, and the FIFA Women's World Cup.

Venues of the 1988 Summer Olympics

For the 1988 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-one sports venues were used. South Korea hosted its first World Championships in 1978 in shooting sports. Three years later, Seoul was awarded the 1988 Summer Olympics. Many of the venues constructed for the 1988 Games were completed two years earlier in time for the Asian Games. The 1986 Asian Games served as test events for the 1988 Summer Olympics. The men's marathon course was lined by 36,000 policemen. Steffi Graf won a gold medal in women's singles to complete the "Golden Slam". None of the football venues used for these games were used for the 2002 FIFA World Cup that Korea co-hosted with Japan.

Venues of the 1992 Summer Olympics

For the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, a total of forty-three sports venues were used.

A total of twenty-nine sports venues were used for the 1996 Summer Olympics.

Venues of the 2004 Summer Olympics

For the 2004 Summer Olympics, a total of thirty-five sports venues were used. Athens hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, which used venues such as Panathinaiko Stadium and the city of Marathon for which the long-distance race would be named. From the end of the 1896 Games until the late 1970s, Greece underwent numerous political changes that included the Balkan Wars, two World Wars, a civil war, and a military coup that resulted in a junta that lasted from 1967 to 1974. A change in democracy in 1975 resulted in Greece's admission into the European Economic Community in 1979. Athens first bid for the 1996 Summer Olympics as part of the 100th anniversary of the Modern Olympics, but was upset by Atlanta, Georgia in the United States for the Games in 1990. Seven years later, Athens won the right to host the 2004 Summer Olympics. At the time of the awarding, 75% of competition and 92% of training venues were available though a massive construction, and a renovation program was taken to get the venues ready for the games. Accessibility and environmental issues were taken into account in venue design and construction. The marathon course used was the same one used for the 1896 Games, though it was 2.195 km (1.36 mi) longer to the marathon not being standardized until 1924. Canoe slalom's venue at Ellinikon was the first using saltwater, having it pumped in from the Aegean Sea. After the Olympics, the Markopoulo Olympic Shooting Centre was converted into a police training center, while two other venues were converted into entertainment centers.

References

  1. FIFA.com World Cup London White City Stadium 15 July 1966 URU-FRA first round results. Archived 15 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  2. FIFA.com World Cup Paris Colombes Olympique 19 June 1938 ITA-HUN final results. Archived 21 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  3. FIFA.com World Cup West Berlin Olympiastadion 18 June 1974 CHI-GDR first round results. Archived 22 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  4. FIFA.com World Cup Berlin Olympiastadion 9 July 2006 ITA-FRA final results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  5. FIFA.com World Cup London Wembley (formerly Empire) Stadium 30 July 1966 ENG-FRG final results. Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  6. FIFA.com World Cup Rome Stadio Olympico 8 July 1990 FRG-ARG final results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  7. FIFA.com World Cup Mexico City Estadio Olímpico Universitario 17 June 1986 ITA-FRA round of 16 results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  8. FIFA.com World Cup Munich Olympiastadion 7 July 1974 FRG-NED final results. Archived 22 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  9. FIFA.com Russia2018 bid package. p. 13. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  10. IAAF.org World Championships Berlin 15–23 August 2009 official website. Archived 16 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  11. IAAF.org World Championships Helsinki 7–14 August 1983 official results. Archived 12 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  12. IAAF.org World Championships Helsinki 6–14 August 2005 results. Archived 5 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  13. IAAF.org World Championships Rome 28 August – 6 September 1987 results. Archived 12 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  14. IAAF.org World Championships Tokyo 23 August – 1 September 1991 results. Archived 12 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  15. IAAF.org World Championships Athens 1–10 August 1997 results. Archived 12 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  16. "Tokyo 1958" Archived 8 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine , OCAsia.org review of Tokyo Asian Games 24 May – 1 June 1958. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  17. "Seoul 1986" Archived 7 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine , OCAsia.org review of Seoul Asian Games 20 September – 5 October 1986. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  18. LA84Foundation.org review of the 1955 Pan American Games. Archived 6 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  19. Terra.com.br profile of the 2007 Pan American Games. Accessed 6 March 2011. (in Portuguese)
  20. Baseball-reference.com Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum 3 August 1959 All-Star Game second game results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  21. Baseball-reference.com Montreal Olympic Stadium 13 July 1982 All-Star Game results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  22. Baseball-reference.com Atlanta Turner Field 11 July 2000 All-Star Game results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  23. Baseball-reference.com 1959 World Series results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  24. Baseball-reference.com 1999 World Series results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  25. CFL.ca Grey Cup Montreal Olympic Stadium 27 November 1977 Montreal-Edmonton final results. Archived 2 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  26. CFL.ca Grey Cup Montreal Olympic Stadium 23 November 2008 Calgary-Montreal final results. Archived 2 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 6 March 2011.
  27. Pro-football-reference.com Super Bowl I Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum 15 January 1967 GB-KC final results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  28. Pro-football-reference.com Super Bowl VII Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum 14 January 1973 MIA-WAS results. Accessed 6 March 2011.
  29. 1896 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 86–90, 100–2.
  30. 1896 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 31–49. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  31. 1900 Summer Olympics official report. p. 15. Accessed 14 November 2010. (in French)
  32. Spalding's report of the 1904 Summer Olympics. Archived 29 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine pp. 222–9, 233–47. Accessed 4 October 2010.
  33. 1908 Summer Olympics official report. pp. 32–5, 40. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  34. 1912 Summer Olympics official report. pp. 168–211. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  35. "1920 Summer Olympics athletics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  36. "1920 Summer Olympics equestrian". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  37. "1920 Summer Olympics men's field hockey". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  38. "1920 Summer Olympics football". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  39. "1920 Summer Olympics gymnastics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  40. "1920 Summer Olympics modern pentathlon". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  41. "1920 Summer Olympics rugby union". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  42. "1920 Summer Olympics tug of war". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  43. "1920 Summer Olympics weightlifting". Sports-reference.com. 29 August 1920. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  44. 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 10 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 50–5, 96–7, 121, 152, 216, 222, 238, 248, 265, 318, 339, 375, 499, 503, 536. (in French)
  45. 1928 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 8 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 173–205.
  46. 1932 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 10 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 61–8.
  47. 1932 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 10 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine p. 86.
  48. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 9 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 644–7, 682–5, 932–5. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  49. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 141–9, 154–62. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  50. 1948 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine pp. 42, 44–6. Accessed 19 October 2010.
  51. 1952 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 11 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 44–7. Accessed 21 October 2010.
  52. 1956 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 12 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine p. 40. Accessed 25 October 2010.
  53. 1 2 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. p. 80. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  54. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2, Part 1. p. 118. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  55. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 56–7. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  56. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 80–81. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  57. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. Part 1. pp. 117–8. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  58. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 80, 84. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  59. 1960 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 26 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. Part 2. pp. 118, 316. Accessed 28 October 2010.
  60. 1 2 1964 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 1. pp. 74–5. Accessed 31 October 2010.
  61. 1 2 3 1964 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine Volume 1. Part 1. p. 115. Accessed 31 October 2010.
  62. 1964 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine Volume 1. Part 1. pp. 118–20. Accessed 31 October 2010.
  63. 1968 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 1. p. 76. Accessed 4 November 2010. (in English and French)
  64. Sports-reference.com Mexico City Summer Olympics athletics 20 October 1968 men's marathon results. Accessed 4 November 2010.
  65. 1972 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 2. pp. 180–2. Accessed 8 November 2010.
  66. 1 2 1976 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. p. 162. Accessed 14 November 2010.
  67. 1976 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 42–65. Accessed 14 November 2010.
  68. 1980 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 1. pp. 48–51. Accessed 18 November 2010.
  69. 1980 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 1. p. 45. Accessed 18 November 2010.
  70. 1984 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Volume 1. Part 1. pp. 72–9. Accessed 24 November 2010.
  71. 1 2 3 1984 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Volume 1. Part 1. pp. 97–8. Accessed 24 November 2010.
  72. 1988 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. Part 1. pp. 162–3. Accessed 1 December 2010.
  73. 1988 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. Part 2. p. 311. Accessed 1 December 2010.
  74. 1992 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 160–7. Accessed 6 December 2010.
  75. 1 2 1992 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 204–6. Accessed 6 December 2010.
  76. 1992 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 202–3. Accessed 6 December 2010.
  77. 1 2 3 1996 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. p. 542. Accessed 9 December 2010.
  78. 1 2 1996 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Volume 3. p. 108. Accessed 9 December 2010.
  79. 1996 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Volume 3. p. 449. Accessed 9 December 2010.
  80. 1 2 2000 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 9 November 2000 at the Wayback Machine Volume 1. p. 106. Accessed 17 December 2010.
  81. 2000 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 9 November 2000 at the Wayback Machine Volume 1. p. 376. Accessed 16 December 2010.
  82. 1 2 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. p. 242. Accessed 24 December 2010.
  83. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 242, 324. Accessed 22 December 2010.
  84. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 237, 242, 244. Accessed 24 December 2010.
  85. "National Stadium". Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  86. "London Landmarks To Star in Olympic Marathon Spectacular" Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine 17 November 2004 London2012.com article accessed 30 December 2010.
  87. London2012.com profile of Olympic Stadium. Archived 19 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 30 December 2010.
  88. "Flamengo Park" (PDF), Rio de Janeiro 2016 Candidate File, 2, (BOC), 16 February 2009, pp. 90–93, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2013, retrieved 2 December 2009.
  89. "João Havelange Stadium" (PDF), Rio de Janeiro 2016 Candidate File, 2, (BOC), 16 February 2009, pp. 96–97, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2013, retrieved 2 December 2009.
  90. "Sambódromo" (PDF), Rio de Janeiro 2016 Candidate File, 2, (BOC), 16 February 2009, pp. 104–109, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2013, retrieved 2 December 2009.