The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.
Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.
During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman Viziers who was titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-ı azam ('grand general') and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır, literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.
Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha was the first Grand Vizier of Murad I's reign. He was also technically the first in Ottoman history who held the title "Grand Vizier", the first who had a military background, and the first member of the illustrious Çandarlı family to hold high office. His family was to mark the rise of the Ottoman Empire between 1360 and 1450.
In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the Grand Vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a Prime Minister in other European states. Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the Grand Vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the Grand Vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.
The Tanzimât was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England.
The Senate of the Ottoman Empire was the upper house of the parliament of the Ottoman Empire, the General Assembly. Its members were appointed notables in the Ottoman government who, along with the elected lower house Chamber of Deputies, made up the General Assembly. It was created in its first incarnation according to the Ottoman constitution of 1876, which sought to reform the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional monarchy.
Grand Viziers were often replaced or resigned in rapid succession, frequently leading to political instability. In the final 10 years of the Empire alone, the office of the Grand Vizier changed hands 13 times between 12 men; some, such as Ahmed Izzet Pasha and Salih Hulusi Pasha, held office for less than a month.
Ahmed İzzet Pasha, known as Ahmet İzzet Furgaç after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman general during World War I. He was also one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire and its last Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Salih Hulusi Pasha, known as Salih Hulusi Kezrak after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire, under the reign of the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, between 8 March 1920 and 2 April 1920. Since he had been unable to form a government, and as part of the chain of events following the occupation of Istanbul by the Allies, he was dismissed from office by the sultan under foreign pressure on 2 April. His dismissal was to be followed by the official closure of the Parliament itself on 5 April, thus putting an end to the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire.
The ottoman Empire in its 600 year rule witnessed many great Grand Viziers. But some had a much more greater value than many others. Some were known for their political reforms while others for their wealth and civil status. Some well known officers are: Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha for his extreme influence in the empire during his time. He had close relations with the greatest ruler in the history of the empire Suleiman the Magnificent. He is also known as one of the wealthiest Grand viziers of the Empire. Another well known Grand Vizier is Damat Rüstem Pasha who also served during the reign of Suleiman. Rustem was known for his wealth and his influence over the sons of the sultan. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha is also well known in the Ottoman history as he served for three Ottoman sultans Suleiman The Magnificent. Selim II and his son Murad III. He was also married to one of the daughters of Selim II and he had played a major role in the enthronement of Selim.
Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, also known as Frenk Ibrahim Pasha, Makbul Ibrahim Pasha, which later changed to Maktul Ibrahim Pasha after his execution in the Topkapı Palace, was the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire appointed by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
Suleiman I, commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over at least 25 million people.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. Born in Ottoman Bosnia into an Orthodox Christian family, Mehmed was taken away at an early age as part of the Ottoman devşirme system of collection of Christian boys to be raised to serve as a janissary. These boys were converted to Islam, raised and educated, but in turn were offered opportunities to work and to rise within the Ottoman imperial system; Sokollu Mehmed Pasha is one of many that made the best of their careers.
Greek (?), from Istanbul. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier upon Kara Musa Pasha's death. (Hezarpare = Thousand pieces; literally Ahmed Pasha the Thousand Pieces; name given by chroniclers since he was lynched by the mob)
Turk, from Yenişehir. Not included in some lists. The imperial seal was sent to him by way of sea to Crete where he was in campaign, but the ships were called back because of Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha's lobbying, who had been appointed in-attorney in between but wanted the full title for him. (Deli = Mad; due to his daring and courage in the battlefield)
Albanian (Zurnazen = Clarinettist). Not included in some lists. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier due to the influence he exerted on the sultan for Gazi Hüseyin Pasha's dismissal from the office. His appointment caused an uprising in Istanbul and he was exiled after having held the seal for four hours.
Circassian ("Cenaze" or "Meyyit" = A funeral, a corpse; literally "Hasan Pasha the Funeral" or "Hasan Pasha the Corpse"; named as such because he was in his deathbed, seriously ill, throughout his term)
Hayır Bey ruled Egypt in the name of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 until his death in 1522. He was granted the position of governor by sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire for his help in the conquest of Egypt.
Koca Mehmet Ragıp Pasha (1698–1763) was an Ottoman statesman who served as Grand Vizier from 1757 to 1763, as the provincial governor of Egypt from 1744 to 1748, and as a civil servant before 1744. He was also known as a poet. His epithet Koca means "great" or "giant" in Turkish.
Semiz Ali Pasha was an Ottoman statesman from the Sanjak of Bosnia who served as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1561 to 1565. He was the beylerbey (governor) of Egypt Eyalet from 1549 to 1553. Semiz Ali Pasha was born in Prača in Bosnia, and replaced Rüstem Pasha as a Grand Vizier. After palace schooling, he discharged high-level functions along the Ottoman Empire.
Yavuz Ali Pasha or Malkoç Ali Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. He belonged to the Malkoçoglu family and served as the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 16 October 1603 to 26 July 1604. He had previously served as the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1601 to 1603. His installation as Grand Vizier took place on 29 December 1603, over two months after his appointment and a week after the accession of Ahmed I, due to the time it took him to settle affairs in Egypt and travel to Constantinople. He brought with him two years' worth of the province's back taxes.
Mere Hüseyin Pasha was an Ottoman statesman of Albanian origin. He was two times Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire in 1622 and 1623, and previously the Ottoman governor of Egypt between 1620 and 1622. His epithet "Mere!" comes from the word for "Take it!" in Albanian; he was nicknamed so because of the many times he ordered his men to "take [the heads]" of his opponents, i.e. execute them. He was purportedly the only grand vizier who did not speak Turkish.
Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire in 1622 and governor of Egypt in 1618.
Gürcü Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. He was grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 27 September 1651 and 20 June 1652.
Hadım Mehmed Pasha was a Georgian Ottoman statesman. He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 21 September 1622 and 5 February 1623. He was also the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1604 to 1605.
Ivaz Mehmed Pasha, also known as Hacı Ivaz Mehmed Pasha or Hacı Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha, was an 18th-century Ottoman grand vizier and provincial governor.
Nişancı Ahmed Pasha, also called Şehla Ahmed Pasha or Hacı Şehla Ahmed Pasha or Kör Vezir Ahmed Pasha, was an Ottoman Grand Vizier during the reign of Mahmud I. He was also the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1748 to 1751.
Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha, also known as Boynueğri Mehmed Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman. He was grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 26 April 1656 to 15 September 1656.
Bayburtlu Kara Ibrahim Pasha was an Ottoman statesman. He was Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 25 December 1683 to 18 November 1685. He was also the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1669 to 1673.
Sarı Süleyman Paşa was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 18 November 1685 to 18 September 1687. He was executed after the defeat of the Ottoman forces in the Battle of Mohács (1687).
Seyyid Hasan Pasha was an Ottoman grand vizier in the 18th century.
Seyyid Emir Mehmed Pasha, known by the epithet "al-Sharif" among his Arab subjects, was an Ottoman statesman who served as defterdar, Ottoman governor of Egypt (1596–1598), and Ottoman governor of Damascus (1599–1600).
Haseki Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman statesman and administrator. He served as the Ottoman governor of Damascus Eyalet, Egypt Eyalet (1652–56), Baghdad Eyalet (1656–59), and Aleppo Eyalet (1659–61).
Hatibzade Yahya Pasha was an Ottoman statesman and admiral. He served as Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Navy briefly in 1743, as well as serving as the Ottoman governor of Trabzon (1735–36), Ochakiv (1736–37), Bursa (1741), Egypt (1741–43), Rumelia, Aydın (1748), Mosul (1748), Diyarbekir (1748–49), Anatolia (1749–53), Vidin (1753–54), Ioannina (1755), and Trikala (1755).
Sa'deddin Pasha al-Azm was an Ottoman statesman. He served as the Ottoman governor of Aleppo (1750–52), Sidon, Tripoli (Lebanon) (1752–57), Egypt (1757), Marash, Jeddah (1758/59–60), Konya (1760–61), Rakka (1761–62), and Baghdad.
1 2 Faveyrial, Jean-Claude (1888). Histoire de l'Albanie (in French). archives of the House of the Lazarite Missionaries in Paris. p.215. "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2010-10-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)[bettersourceneeded]
↑ Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p.65. Nëna e tij, Aishe Humashah, ishte mbesa e Sulltan Sylejmanit.[bettersourceneeded]
↑ Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p.64. Nëna e Shemsi Ahmed Pashait, thuhet se ishte me origjinë familjare një pasardhës i drejtpërdrejtë i Halid Ibni Velidit, komandantit të famshëm të ushtrisë islame, i cili pushtoi Sirinë në kohën e profetit Muhamed, në shekullin e 7-të.[bettersourceneeded]
↑ Evg Radushev, Svetlana Ivanova, Rumen Kovachev - Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. Orientalski otdel, International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. p.224. ISBN954-523-072-X. Hasan Pasa (Damad-i- Padisahi), Greek convert from Morea. He began his career as imperial armourer and rose to the post of Grand Vezir (1703). He married the daughter of Sultan Mehmed IV, Hatice Sultan, fell into disgrace and was exiled with his wife to izmit.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
↑ Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy; Nicole Svobodny; Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p.53. ISBN0-8101-1971-4. Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704. He was the new sultan's son-in-law… "he was a very honest and comparatively humane pasha of Greek origin and cannot be suspected of selling the sultan's pages to a foreigner."
1 2 Mehmet Süreyya (1996) , Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman, eds., Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, pp.848–849
↑ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p.45. OCLC4694680. Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner.