List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

Last updated
Grand Vizier of
the Ottoman Empire
Sadrazamlik-nisanlari.svg
Seal of the Grand Vizier
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha chair.jpg
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Style His Excellency
Residence Bab-ı Ali
Appointer The Sultan
Formation1328
First holder Alaeddin Pasha
Final holder Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Abolished1 November 1922

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish : Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

Contents

History

During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman Viziers who was titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-ı azam ('grand general') and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır, [1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the Grand Vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a Prime Minister in other European states. [2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the Grand Vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the Grand Vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.

Grand Viziers were often replaced or resigned in rapid succession, frequently leading to political instability. In the final 10 years of the Empire alone, the office of the Grand Vizier changed hands 13 times between 12 men; some, such as Ahmed Izzet Pasha and Salih Hulusi Pasha, held office for less than a month.

List of Grand Viziers

Osmanli-nisani.svg Ottoman Grand Viziers Ottoman Flag.svg
NumberNameTook officeLeft officeTime in officeBackground notes
1 Alaeddin Pasha 1320133111 years, 0 days Turk, [3] probably from Cendere, Nallıhan. [4]
2 Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha 1331134817 years, 0 daysTurk [5]
3 Hacı Pasha 134813491 year, 0 daysTurk [5]
4 Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha 1349136415 years, 0 daysTurk, [5] from Ahi.
5 Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder)136422 January 138723 years, 21 daysTurk, from Cendere (or Çandar), a village near Ankara; see Çandarlı family. The first vizier to hold the title "grand vizier" and also the first with a military background.
6 Çandarlı Ali Pasha 1387140618 years, 355 daysTurk [6] (Çandarlı family)
7"Osmancıklı" Imamzade Halil Pasha 140614137 years, 0 daysTurk, [6] from Osmancık
8Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha 141314218 years, 0 daysTurk, [6] of Albanian origin, [7] [ incomplete short citation ] from Amasya.
9 Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder 142114298 years, 0 daysTurk [6] (Çandarlı family)
10Amasyalı Hazır Dânişmendoğlu Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha 1429143910 years, 0 daysTurk, [6] from Osmancık or Amasya
11 Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger 14391 June 145314 years, 151 daysTurk [8] (Çandarlı family). First grand vizier who was executed.
12 Zaganos Pasha 145314563 years, 0 daysAlbanian (Devşirme) maybe Serbian
13 Mahmud Pasha Angelović (1st time)1456146812 years, 0 daysSerbian [8] (Devşirme)
14 Rum Mehmed Pasha 146814691 year, 0 daysGreek [8]
15 İshak Pasha (1st time)146914723 years, 0 days Albanian [9]
13 Mahmud Pasha Angelović (2nd time)147214742 years, 0 daysSerbian [8] (Devşirme)
16 Gedik Ahmed Pasha 147414773 years, 0 daysAlbanian [10] or Greek [10] or Serbian. [11]
17 Karamanlı Mehmed Pasha 147714814 years, 0 daysTurk, [10] from Karaman
15 İshak Pasha (2nd time)148114821 year, 0 daysAlbanian [9] [ better source needed ]
18 Koca Davud Pasha 1482149715 years, 0 daysAlbanian [10]
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1st time)149714981 year, 0 daysSerbian Devşirme (Kosača family)
20 Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger 149814991 year, 0 daysTurk [12] (Çandarlı family)
21 Mesih Pasha 149915012 years, 0 daysAbducted during Fall of Constantinople. Nephew of Constantine XI Palaiologos. [13]
22 Hadim Ali Pasha (1st time)150115032 years, 0 days Serbian from Drozgometva (Hadim = Manservant), from a minor noble family called Ostoja.
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)150315063 years, 0 daysSerbian Devşirme ( dukes of St. Sava Kosača family)
22 Hadim Ali Pasha (2nd time)150615115 years, 0 daysSerbian from Drozgometva(Hadim = Manservant), from a minor noble family called Ostoja.
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (3rd time)151115111 year, 0 daysSerbian Devşirme (Kosača family)
23 Koca Mustafa Pasha 151115121 year, 0 daysGreek (Rum), and not a devşirme. [14] [15] Possibly "Western" (Frenk) [15] [ citation needed ]
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (4th time)151228 November 15142 years, 331 daysSerbian Devşirme (Kosača family)
24 Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha 18 December 15148 September 1515264 daysAlbanian [16] (Dukagjin family)
19 Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (5th time)8 September 151526 April 1516231 daysSerbian Devşirme (Kosača family)
25 Hadım Sinan Pasha 26 April 151622 January 1517271 daysSerbian Devşirme (from the noble Boronivic family (Hadim = Manservant) from Foča
26 Yunus Pasha 22 January 151713 September 1517234 days Ottoman Greeks, Pomak, Serbian, or Croat origin [17] [18] (Devşirme)
27 Piri Mehmed Pasha 25 January 151827 June 15235 years, 153 daysTurk, [17] from Aksaray
28 Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, also called Frenk Ibrahim Pasha27 June 152314 March 153612 years, 261 daysGreek from Parga (The nickname Frenk refers to his European manners and tastes)
29 Ayas Mehmed Pasha 14 March 153613 July 15393 years, 121 daysAlbanian [19] Devşirme (from Vlora or Delvina)
30 Çelebi Lütfi Pasha 13 July 1539April 15411 year, 262 daysAlbanian, [20] Devşirme (from Avlonya (Vlorë)) (Çelebi = a refined gentleman with good manners)
31 Hadim Süleyman Pasha April 154128 November 15443 years, 241 days Hungarian (eunuch) [20] [21] Devşirme (Hadim = Manservant)
32Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (1st time)28 November 15446 October 15538 years, 312 daysSerbian Devşirme from Sarajevo (possibly Croat from Skradin) (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty )
33 Kara Ahmed Pasha 6 October 155329 September 15551 year, 358 daysAlbanian [22]
32Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (2nd time)29 September 155510 July 15615 years, 284 days Serbian Devşirme from Sarajevo (possibly Croat from Skradin) (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty )
34 Semiz Ali Pasha 10 July 156128 June 15653 years, 353 daysSerb originally from a Bogumilic family Pračić from the village of Prača, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
35 Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 28 June 156512 October 157914 years, 106 days Serbian , relative of Serb patriarch Makarije sokolović
36 Şemsi Pasha 12 October 157928 April 1580199 daysPaternal Albanian [23] and maternal Ottoman, [24] including distant Arabic ancestry. [25]
37Vekîl-i Saltanat Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha 28 April 15807 August 1580101 daysSerbian from Klasinac, Rudo(Lala = a tutor to a Sultan )
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (1st time)7 August 15806 December 15822 years, 121 daysAlbanian [26]
39 Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1st time)24 December 158225 July 15841 year, 214 daysHungarian [26] from Nagykanizsa
40 Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha 28 July 158429 October 15851 year, 93 daysTurk [27] or Circassian [27] Mameluks
41 Hadim Mesih Pasha 1 November 158514 April 1586164 daysSerbian Devşirme (Hadim = Manservant)
39 Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (2nd time)14 April 15862 April 15892 years, 353 daysHungarian [26] from Nagykanizsa
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (2nd time)14 April 15891 August 15912 years, 109 daysAlbanian [28]
42 Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1st time)1 August 15914 April 1592247 daysAlbanian [8]
39 Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (3rd time)4 April 159228 January 1593299 daysHungarian [26] from Nagykanizsa
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (3rd time)28 January 159316 February 15952 years, 19 daysAlbanian [29]
42 Serdar Ferhad Pasha (2nd time)16 February 15957 July 1595141 daysAlbanian [29]
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (4th time)7 July 159519 November 1595135 daysAlbanian [29]
43 Tekeli Lala Mehmed Pasha 19 November 159528 November 15959 days Turk, [8] from Manisa (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan )
38 Koca Sinan Pasha (5th time)1 December 15953 April 1596124 daysAlbanian [16]
44 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1st time)4 April 159627 October 1596206 daysSerbian (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
45(Cağaloğlu/Cağalazâde) Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 27 October 15965 December 159639 days Italian [30] From the noble Genoese family of Cicala.
44 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time)5 December 15963 November 1597333 days Serbian (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
46 Hadim Hasan Pasha 3 November 15979 April 1598157 daysAlbanian [30] Devşirme
47 Cerrah Mehmed Pasha 9 April 15986 January 1599272 daysUnknown origin [31] Devşirme (Cerrah = Surgeon)
44 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (3rd time)6 January 159910 July 16012 years, 185 daysSerbian (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
48 Yemişçi Hasan Pasha 22 July 16014 October 16032 years, 74 daysAlbanian [31] (Yemişçi = Fruit-vendor; in reference to his previous profession)
49 Yavuz Ali Pasha 16 October 160326 July 16042 years, 74 daysSerbian Danişmend (1971), p. 28. (in Turkish)</ref> (Malkoçoğlu/Malkotić family)
50 Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha 5 August 160421 June 16062 years, 74 daysSerbian (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan ). Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's nephew. He was probably from Rudo or Sarajevo.
51Derviş Mehmed Pasha21 June 16069 December 16062 years, 74 dayswell known Serbian that also served as the sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Herzegovina.
52 Kuyucu Murad Pasha 11 December 16065 August 16112 years, 74 daysSerbian possibly from central Bosnia (Kuyucu = The well-digger; name given since he had the habit of burying his enemies in wells)
70Gümülcineli Damat Nasuh Pasha 5 August 161117 October 1614 Albanian, [32] from Gümülcine. (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty). One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
71 Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (1st time)17 October 161417 November 1616Turk, [32] from Istanbul (Öküz = Ox; literally Mehmed Pasha the Ox; name given since he was heavily built)
72 Damat Halil Pasha (1st time)17 November 161618 January 1619 Armenian, [33] from Zeytun ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
73 Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)18 January 161923 December 1619Turk, [33] from Istanbul
74 Güzelce Ali Pasha 23 December 16199 March 1621Greek from Istanköy (today Kos) [33] (Güzelce = Handsome)
75 Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha 9 March 162117 September 1621Albanian, [34] from Ohri
76 Dilaver Pasha 17 September 162120 May 1622Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet.
77 Kara Davud Pasha 20 May 162213 June 1622Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet. Nicknamed "traitor" due to being responsible for the death of Sultan Osman II.
78 Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1st time)13 June 16228 July 1622Albanian [34] ("Mere!" = "Take it!" in Albanian; purportedly the only grand vizier who did not speak Turkish, named after the oft-repeated order he gave on the subject of opponents' heads)
79 Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha 8 July 162221 September 1622Turk, [35] from former Lefke, today Orhaneli
80 Hadim Mehmed Pasha (Hadım -'Eunuch'- Mehmed Pasha)21 September 16225 February 1623 Georgian [35] (Gürcü = Georgian)
81 Mere Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time)5 February 162330 August 1623Albanian [35]
82 Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha 30 August 16233 April 1624Turk [35] (Kemankeş = Archer)
83 Çerkes Mehmed Pasha 3 April 162428 January 1625Circassian [36] (Çerkes = Circassian)
84 Hafız Ahmed Pasha (1st time)8 February 16251 December 1626 Pomak (Bulgarian Muslim), [36] from Filibe. One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
85 Damat Halil Pasha (2nd time)1 December 16266 April 1628Armenian, [36] from Zeytun ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
86 Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha 6 April 162825 October 1631Serbian from Pavlović Bosnian nobility
87 Hafız Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)25 October 163110 February 1632 Pomak [37] from Filibe.
88 Topal Recep Pasha 10 February 163218 May 1632Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet. He was the bridegroom of the House of Osman.
89 Tabanıyassi Mehmed Pasha 18 May 16322 February 1637Albanian [37] (from Drama)(Tabanıyassı = Flat-footed)
90 Bayram Pasha 2 February 163726 August 1638Turk, [38] from Constantinople (Today Istanbul)
91 Tayyar Mehmed Pasha 27 August 163824 December 1638Turk from the town of Ladik, Sivas Eyalet. [38]
92 Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Pasha 23 December 163831 January 1644Albanian [39] (Kemankeş = Archer)
93 Sultanzade Mehmet Pasha (Civan Kapucubaşı Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha)31 January 164417 December 1645Albanian [39] (Sultanzade = Son of a female member of the Ottoman dynasty)
94 Nevesinli Salih Pasha 17 December 164516 September 1647Serb from the Herzegovinian town of Nevesinje, [40] Bosnia Eyalet. [41]
95 Kara Musa Pasha 16 September 164721 September 1647Serbian from the Bosnia Eyalet. Died 5 days after being appointed Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
96 Hezarpare Ahmet Pasha 21 September 16478 August 1648Greek (possibly), [41] from Istanbul. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier upon Kara Musa Pasha's death. (Hezarpare = Thousand pieces; literally Ahmed Pasha the Thousand Pieces; name given by chroniclers since he was lynched by the mob)
97 Sofu Mehmed Pasha (or Mevlevi Mehmed Pasha)8 August 164821 May 1649Unknown origin [42] (Sofu = Devout and see Mevlevi)
98 Kara Murat Pasha (Kara Dev Murat Pasha)21 May 16495 August 1651Albanian [42] (Dev = Giant)
99 Melek Ahmed Pasha 5 August 165121 August 1651 Abazin [42] (Melek = Angel)
100 Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1st time)21 August 165127 September 1651 Abazin [43]
101 Gürcü Mehmed Pasha 27 September 165120 June 1652Georgian [43] (Gürcü - Georgian)
102 Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha 20 June 165221 March 1653Albanian [43] (Tarhoncu, more seldom transcribed as Tarhoncu = 'Tarragon vendor'; in reference to his former profession)
103 Koca Dervish Mehmed Pasha 21 March 165328 October 1654 Circassian [43]
104 İpşiri Mustafa Pasha 28 October 165411 May 1655Abazin. [44] One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan. (İpşiri means "Bearer of good news")
105 Kara Murat Pasha (2nd time)11 May 165519 August 1655Albanian [44]
106 Ermeni Suleyman Pasha 19 August 165528 February 1656Armenian, [44] from Malatya. (Ermeni means "Armenian")
107Deli Gazi Hüseyin Pasha, also called Deli Hüseyin Pasha 28 February 16565 March 1656Turk, [45] from Yenişehir. Not included in some lists. The imperial seal was sent to him by way of sea to Crete where he was in campaign, but the ships were called back because of Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha's lobbying, who had been appointed in-attorney in between but wanted the full title for him. (Deli = Mad; due to his daring and courage in the battlefield)
108 Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (held office for 4 hours)5 March 16565 March 1656Albanian [45] (Zurnazen = Clarinettist). Not included in some lists. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier due to the influence he exerted on the sultan for Gazi Hüseyin Pasha's dismissal from the office. His appointment caused an uprising in Istanbul and he was exiled after having held the seal for four hours.
109 Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (2nd time)5 March 165625 April 1656Abazin [45]
110 Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha 26 April 165615 September 1656Turk, [46] from Samsun. (boynu yaralı means "wounded neck")
111 Köprülü Mehmed Pasha 15 September 165631 October 1661Albanian [3] Devşirme, from Rudnik in the Sanjak of Berat (now Albania). [47] (see Köprülü family)
112 Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha 31 October 166119 October 1676Albanian [46] (see Köprülü family)
113 Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha 19 October 167625 December 1683From Merzifon (adopted into the Köprülü family) [48]
114 Kara İbrahim Pasha 15 December 168318 November 1685Turk [49]
114 Sarı Süleyman Pasha 18 November 168518 September 1687 Serb from Taşlıca (today Pljevlja in Montenegro) (Sarı = Blond)
116 Abaza Siyavuş Pasha 18 September 168723 February 1688Abazin [32]
117 Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha 23 February 16882 May 1688Turk, [50] from Ayaş
118 Bekri Mustafa Pasha 30 May 16887 November 1689Turk, [50] from Tekirdağ.
119 Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha 10 November 1689.19 August 1691Albanian [50] (Köprülü family)
120 Arabacı Ali Pasha 24 August 169121 March 1692 Albanian [51] (Arabacı = Coachman; in reference to his background)
121 Merfizonlu Hacı Ali Pasha 23 March 169217 March 1693Turk, [51] from Merzifon.
122 Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha 17 March 1693March 1694Turk, [52] from Bozok (Yozgat today).
123 Sürmeli Ali Pasha 13 March 169422 April 1695(origin unknown) [52] Greek[ citation needed ] (from Dimetoka) (Sürmeli = One who has eyes tinged with kohl)
124 Elmas Mehmed Pasha 3 May 169511 September 1697Turk [53] (Elmas = Diamond)
125 Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha 17 September 16974 September 1702Albanian [53] (Köprülü family).
126 Daltaban Mustafa Pasha 4 September 170224 January 1703 Serbian [54] according to Joseph von Hammer, Bosniak descent according to other sources, from Manastır (Daltaban = Barefoot)
127 Rami Mehmed Pasha 25 January 170322 August 1703Turk (possibly), [54] from Istanbul
128 Kavanoz Ahmed Pasha 22 August 170316 November 1703 Russian [55] (Kavanoz = A jar; named as such because purportedly very short and fat)
129 Damat Hasan Pasha 18 November 170328 September 1704 Greek [55] [56] [57] Ottoman, from Morea, Greece (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
130 Kalaylıkoz Hacı Ahmed Pasha October 170425 December 1704 Turk [55] (Kalaylıkoz = Varnished; a reference on his fondness for make-up, ornaments and dresses)
131Teberdar/Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st time)25 December 17043 May 1706Turk, [58] from Osmancık.
132 Çorlulu Damat Ali Pasha 3 May 170615 June 1710Turk (possibly), [58] from Çorlu (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty )
133 Köprülü Numan Pasha 16 June 171017 August 1710Albanian [58] (Köprülü family).
134 Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)18 August 171020 November 1711Turk, [58] from Osmancık.
135 Ağa Yusuf Pasha 20 November 171111 November 1712Georgian [59]
136 Nişancı Süleyman Pasha 12 November 17126 April 1713Abazin [59]
137 Hoca Ibrahim Pasha 6 April 17137 April 1713Turk, [59] from Serez (Serres)
138 Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha 27 April 17135 August 1716Turk [60] from İznik ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
139 Hacı Halil Pasha 21 August 1716October 1717 Albanian [60]
140 Nişancı Mehmed Pasha October 17179 May 1718Turk (possibly), [60] from Kayseri
141 Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha 9 May 171816 October 1730Turk, [60] from Nevşehir. ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
142 Silahdar Damat Mehmed Pasha 16 October 173023 January 1731Turk (possibly), [61] from Istanbul ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
143 Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha 23 January 173111 September 1731Serbian (maybe Turk) from the town of Şebinkarahisar (Kabakulak = Someone with mumps)
144 Topal Osman Pasha 21 September 173112 March 1732Turk [62] (Topal = Lame)
145Hekimbaşızâde/Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1st time)12 March 173214 July 1735 Italian/Venetian [62] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
146 Gürcü İsmail Pasha 14 July 173525 December 1735Georgian [62] (Gürcü = Georgian)
147 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha  [ tr ]10 January 17365 August 1737Turk (possibly), [63] from Dimetoka
148 Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha 22 August 173719 December 1737 Arab (possibly), [63] from Aleppo
149 Yeğen Mehmed Pasha 3 December 173723 March 1739Turk [63] (Yeğen = Nephew, of the Sultan in his case)
150 İvaz Mehmed Pasha 17 March 173923 June 1740Albanian [64]
151 Nişancı Hacı Ahmed Pasha 22 July 17407 April 1742 Turk, [64] from Alanya
152 Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (2nd time)21 April 17424 October 1742 Italian/Venetian [64] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
153 Seyyid Hasan Pasha 4 October 174210 August 1746Arab (possibly), [65] or Turk, [64] from Karahisar (Şebinkarahisar today)
154 Tiryaki Hacı Mehmed Pasha 11 August 174624 August 1747Possibly a Turk from Istanbul, maybe Serbian or Albanian (Tiryaki means "someone who has an addiction, to tobacco, opium, alcohol etc.")
155 Seyyid Abdullah Pasha 24 August 17472 January 1750Arab (possibly), [65] or Turk, [64] from Kerkük
156 Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha 9 January 17501 July 1752Unknown origin, [65] from Istanbul
157 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1st time)1 July 175216 February 1755Turk (possibly), [65] from Çorlu (köse means "a bowl, beardless")
158 Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (3rd time)16 February 175519 May 1755From Istanbul, Venetian convert father and Turk mother.
159 Naili Abdullah Pasha 19 May 175524 August 1755Turk, [66] from Istanbul
160 Silahdar Bıyıklı Ali Pasha, aka Nişancı Ali Pasha24 August 175523 October 1755Turk (possibly) [66]
161. Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha 25 October 17551 April 1756Georgian, [66] from Edirne (Yirmisekiz means "twenty-eight"; named as such after his father who had served in the 28th Janissary corps battalion)
162. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)30 April 17563 December 1756Turk, [67] from Çorlu (köse means "a bowl, beardless")
163. Koca Ragıp Pasha 12 January 17578 April 1763Turk, [67] from Istanbul
164. Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha 11 April 176329 September 1763Turk, [68] from Develi
165. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (3rd time)29 September 176330 March 1765Turk (possibly), [68] from Çorlu
166. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time)30 March 17657 August 1768Arab (possibly), [68] son of Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha
167. Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha 7 August 176820 October 1768Turk, [68] from Develi
168. Yağlıkçızade Mehmed Emin Pasha October 176812 August 1769Turk, [69] from Istanbul
169. Moldovancı Ali Pasha 12 August 176912 December 1769Turk, [69] from Daday
170. Ivazzade Halil Pasha 13 December 176925 December 1770Albanian [70] (1971) Son of İvaz Mehmed Pasha, grandson of Nasrullah from Jagodina (in Serbia). [71]
171. Silahdar Mehmed Pasha 25 December 177011 December 1771Turk (possibly), [72] from Istanbul
172. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)December 17716 August 1774Arab (possibly) [72]
173. Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time)11 August 17747 July 1775 [73]
174. Moralı Dervish Mehmed Pasha 7 July 17755 January 1777Turk [72] (Mora = "Morea")
175. Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha 5 January 17771 September 1778Turk, [74] from Darende.
176. Kalafat Mehmed Pasha 1 September 177822 August 1779 Bulgarian, [74] from Sofia (Kalafat = Caulker).
177. Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha  [ tr ]August 177920 February 1781Turk, [74] from Arabsun near Kırşehir
178. Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)20 February 178125 August 1782 [73]
179. Yeğen Hacı Mehmed Pasha 25 August 178231 December 1782Turk [75] (Yeğen = Nephew, to the Ottoman sultan in his case).
180. Halil Hamid Pasha 31 December 178230 April 1785Turk, [75] from Isparta. Great-grandfather of Kemal Derviş, current administrator of the UNDP.
181. Şahin Ali Pasha 30 April 178525 January 1786Georgian [75]
182. Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st time)25 January 178628 May 1789Georgian [75]
183. Cenaze Hasan Pasha or Meyyit Hasan Pasha 28 May 17892 January 1790 Circassian [76] ("Cenaze" or "Meyyit" = A funeral, a corpse; literally "Hasan Pasha the Funeral" or "Hasan Pasha the Corpse"; named as such because he was in his deathbed, seriously ill, throughout his term)
184. Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha 2 January 179030 March 1790Unknown origin [76] (Cezayirli means "from Algiers" since he had been a corsair there).
185. Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha 16 April 179012 February 1791origin unknown, [76] from Rusçuk.
186. Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd time)12 February 17911792Georgian [77]
187. Damat Melek Mehmed Pasha 179221 October 1794Turk [77] ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
188. Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha 21 October 179423 October 1798 Turk, [77] from Safranbolu. [78]
189. Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1st time)23 October 179824 June 1805Georgian [79] (Kör = Blind)
190. Bostancıbaşı Hafız İsmail Pasha 24 September 180513 October 1806Unknown origin [79]
191. Keçiboynuzu İbrahim Hilmi Pasha 13 October 18063 June 1807Turk (possibly) [79] (Keçiboynuzu = Carob fruit, named as such because purportedly an extremely puny person)
192. Çelebi Mustafa Pasha 3 June 180729 July 1808Unknown origin [80] (Çelebi = A refined gentleman with good manners)
193. Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, also called (Bayrakdar Mustafa Pasha)29 July 180815 November 1808Albanian, [34] from Rusçuk (possibly). (Alemdar or Bayraktar = standard bearer, same rank with two different names among the Janissaries)
194. Çavuşbaşı Memiş Pasha 16 November 1808December 1808 Albanian [80] (Çavuşbaşı = Head sergeant)
195. Çarhacı Ali Pasha [ citation needed ]December 1808March 1809Turk[ citation needed ] (Çarhacı = Skirmisher)
196. Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (2nd time)March 1809February 1811Georgian [81]
197. Laz Ahmed Pasha February 1811July 1812Turk (possibly), [81] Laz [ citation needed ]
198. Hurşit Ahmed Pasha July 181230 March 1815Georgian, [81] the only grand vizier who committed suicide (while in office)
199. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st time)30 March 18156 January 1818Turk [81]
200. Burdurlu Dervish Mehmed Pasha 6 January 18185 January 1820origin unknown, [82] from Burdur
201. Seyyid Ali Pasha 5 January 182021 April 1821Turk [82]
202. Benderli Ali Pasha 21 April 182130 April 1821origin unknown, [82] from Bender (Moldavia today). The last grand vizier who was executed upon an order clearly given by the sultan (because of the Greek War of Independence).
203. Izmirli Hacı Salih Pasha  [ tr ]30 April 182111 November 1822 Donmeh (possibly) [82]
204. Bostancıbaşı Deli Abdullah Pasha 11 November 18224 March 1823Turk [83] (Deli = Mad, literally Abdullah Pasha the Mad)
205. Turnacızade Silahdar Ali Pasha 4 March 182313 December 1823origin unknown [83]
206. Mehmed Said Galip Pasha 13 December 182315 September 1824Turk [83]
207. "Benderli" Mehmed Selim Pasha 15 September 182426 October 1828origin unknown, [83] from Bender (Moldavia today)
208. Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time)26 October 182828 January 1829Turk, [84] from Darende.
209. Reşid Mehmed Pasha January 182917 February 1833Georgian or Greek [84]
210. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd time)17 February 18338 July 1839Turk [84]
211. Husrev Pasha 8 July 183929 May 1841 Abazin [85]
212. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd time)29 May 18417 October 1841Turk [85]
213. Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)7 October 18413 September 1842Turk [86] from Darende
214. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th time)3 September 184231 July 1846Turk [86]
215. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1st time)31 July 184628 April 1848Turk [86]
216. İbrahim Sarim Pasha 28 April 184813 August 1848 Turk [87]
217. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (2nd time)13 August 184827 January 1852Turk [87]
218. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th time)27 January 18527 March 1852Turk [87]
219. Koca Mustafa Reşit Pasha (3rd time)7 March 18527 August 1852Turk [88]
220. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1st time)7 August 18524 October 1852Turk [88]
221. Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha 4 October 185214 May 1853 Hamsheni [89] ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman Dynasty).
222. Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time)14 May 185330 May 1854Albanian [90] from Egypt, called Giritli=Cretan because he had served as governor in that island for a long time.
223. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1st time)30 May 185424 November 1854Turk, [91] from Cyprus
224. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (4th time)24 November 18544 May 1855Turk [91]
225. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (2nd time)4 May 18551 December 1856Turk [92]
226. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (5th time)1 December 18562 August 1857Turk [92]
227. Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time)2 August 185723 October 1857Albanian [92]
228. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (6th time)23 October 18577 January 1858Turk [92]
229. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (3rd time)11 January 18588 October 1859Turk [93]
230. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (2nd time)8 October 185924 December 1859Turk, [93] from Cyprus
231. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (1st time)24 December 185927 May 1860Turk [93] (Mütercim = A translator, an interpreter)
232. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (3rd time)27 May 18606 August 1861Turk, [94] from Cyprus
233. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (4th time)6 August 186122 November 1861Turk [94]
234. Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1st time)22 November 18616 January 1863Turk, [94] from Konya (Keçecizade family).
235. Yusuf Kamil Pasha 6 January 18633 June 1863Turk [95]
236. Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (2nd time)3 June 18635 June 1866Turk [95]
237. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (2nd time)5 June 186611 February 1867Turk [96]
238. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (5th time)11 February 18677 September 1871Turk [96]
239. Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st time)September 187131 July 1872Georgian, [96] was often called Nedimoff due to his Russophile policies
240. Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (1st time)31 July 187219 October 1872Turk (possibly), [97] family from Rusçuk, born in Istanbul.
241. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (3rd time)19 October 1872February 1873Turk [97]
242. Sakızlı Ahmed Esat Pasha (1st time)15 February 187315 April 1873Turk, [97] from Sakız/Chios
243. Şirvanlı Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha 15 April 187314 February 1874Turk [97] or Kurd [ citation needed ], from Şirvan [ disambiguation needed ].
244. Hüseyin Avni Pasha 14 February 187425 April 1875Turk [98]
245. Sakızlı Ahmed Esat Pasha (2nd time)April 1875August 1875Turk, [98] from Sakız (Chios)
246. Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd time)21 August 187511 May 1876Georgian [98]
247. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (4th time)12 May 187619 December 1876Turk [98]
248. Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (2nd time)19 December 18765 February 1877Turk (possibly) [99] The last grand vizier who was executed -while in exile in Taif-. Whether or not there was a direct order from the Sultan Abdulhamid II remains subject of discussion to this day.)
249. İbrahim Edhem Pasha 5 February 187711 January 1878 Greek, [99] from Chios/Sakız; sold as a slave in childhood to -later- Grand Vizier Husrev Pasha during the 1822 events in that island)
250. Ahmed Hamdi Pasha 11 January 18784 February 1878Abazin [100]
251. Ahmed Vefik Pasha 4 February 187818 April 1878Turk, [100] from Istanbul.
252. Mehmed Sadık Pasha 18 April 187828 May 1878Turk [101]
253. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (5th time)28 May 18784 June 1878Turk [101]
254. Saffet Pasha 4 June 1878October 1878Turk [102]
255. Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha October 187828 July 1879Abazin [102]
256. Ahmed Arifi Pasha 28 July 1879September 1879Turk [102]
257. Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time)18 October 18799 June 1880Turk [103]
258. Kadri Pasha 9 June 188012 September 1880Turk, [103] from Antep
259. Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time)12 September 18802 May 1882Turk [104]
260. Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha 2 May 188212 July 1882Turk, [104] from Kütahya (Germiyanid family)
261. Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time)12 July 188230 November 1882Turk [105]
262. Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd time)1 December 18823 December 1882Turk [105]
263. Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time)3 December 188224 September 1885Turk [105]
264. Kâmil Pasha (1st time)25 September 18854 September 1891Turk, [106] from Cyprus.
265. Ahmed Cevat Şakir Pasha 4 September 18918 June 1895Turk, [106] from Kabaağaç in Afyonkarahisar (Şakirpaşazade family)
266. Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time)9 June 18953 October 1895Turk [106]
267. Kâmil Pasha (2nd time)3 October 18957 November 1895Turk, [107] from Cyprus.
268. Halil Rifat Pasha 7 November 18959 November 1901Turk (possibly), [107] from Serez
269. Mehmed Said Pasha (6th time)13 November 190115 January 1903Turk [107]
270. Avlonyalı Mehmed Ferid Pasha 15 January 190322 July 1908Albanian, [108] [109] from Avlonya (Vlorë)
271. Mehmed Said Pasha (7th time)22 July 19086 August 1908Turk [108]
272. Kâmil Pasha (3rd time)5 August 190814 February 1909Turk, [108] from Cyprus
273. Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st time)14 February 190914 April 1909Greek [110] or Turk [111] from Cyprus
274. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1st time)14 April 19095 May 1909Crimean Tatar [111]
275. Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd time)5 May 190912 January 1910Greek or Turk, from Midilli
276. İbrahim Hakkı Pasha 12 January 191030 September 1911Turk (possibly) [112]
277. Mehmed Said Pasha (8th time)30 September 191122 July 1912Turk [112]
278. Ahmed Muhtar Pasha 22 July 191229 October 1912Turk, [113] from Bursa
279. Kâmil Pasha (4th time)29 October 191223 January 1913Turk, [114] from Cyprus
280. Mahmud Shevket Pasha 23 January 191311 June 1913 Chechen [114] [115] [116] [117]
281. Said Halim Pasha 12 June 19134 February 1917Albanian [70]
282. Mehmed Talaat Pasha 4 February 191714 October 1918origin unknown, [70] from Edirne
283. Ahmed Izzet Pasha 14 October 191811 November 1918Albanian [118] [119] Ottoman, from Istanbul
284. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (2nd time)11 November 19184 March 1919Crimean Tatar [120]
285. Damat Ferid Pasha (1st time)4 March 19192 October 1919 Serbian from the region of Sandžak , origins from Potoci born in Istanbul (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
286. Ali Rıza Pasha 2 October 19198 March 1920Turk (possibly), [121] from Istanbul
287. Salih Hulusi Pasha 8 March 19205 April 1920 Circassian, [121] from Istanbul
288. Damat Ferid Pasha (2nd time)5 April 192021 October 1920 Serbian from the region of Sandžak in today Serbia, origins from Potoci born in Istanbul (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
289. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (3rd time)21 October 19204 November 1922 Turk, [122] last grand vizier

See also

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References

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Sources