List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

Last updated
Grand Vizier of
the Ottoman Empire
Sadrazamlik-nisanlari.svg
Seal of the Grand Vizier
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha chair.jpg
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Style His Highness
Residence Bab-ı Ali
Appointer The Sultan
Formation1328
First holder Alaeddin Pasha
Final holder Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Abolished1 November 1922

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish : Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

Contents

History

During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman Viziers who was titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-ı azam ('grand general') and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır, [1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the Grand Vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a Prime Minister in other European states. [2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the Grand Vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the Grand Vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.

List of Grand Viziers

Osmanli-nisani.svg Ottoman Grand Viziers Ottoman Flag.svg

Grand Viziers

NameTook officeLeft officeBackground notes
1. Alaeddin Pasha 13201331Turk, [3] probably from Cendere, Nallıhan. [4]
2. Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha 13311348Turk [5]
3. Hacı Pasha 13481349Turk [5]
4. Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha 13491364Turk, [5] Ahi.
5. Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder)136422 January 1387Turk, from Cendere (or Çandar), a village near Ankara; see Çandarlı family. The first vizier to hold the title "grand vizier" and also the first with a military background.
6. Çandarlı Ali Pasha 13871406Turk [6] (Çandarlı family)
7. "Osmancıklı" Imamzade Halil Pasha 14061413Turk, [6] from Osmancık
8. Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha 14131421Turk, [6] of Albanian origin, [7] [ incomplete short citation ] from Amasya.
9. Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder 14211429Turk [6] (Çandarlı family)
10. Amasyalı Hazır Dânişmendoğlu Koca Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha 14291439Turk, [6] from Osmancık or Amasya
11. Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger 14391 June 1453Turk [8] (Çandarlı family). First grand vizier who was executed.
12. Zaganos Pasha 14531456Devşirme. Albanian, Greek or Serb.
13. Mahmud Pasha Angelović (1st time)14561468Devşirme. Greek [8] or Serb [8]
14. Rum Mehmed Pasha 14681469 Greek [8]
15. İshak Pasha (1st time)14691472 Albanian, [9]
16. Mahmud Pasha Angelović (2nd time)14721474Devşirme. Greek [8] or Serb [8]
17. Gedik Ahmed Pasha 14741477 Albanian [10] or Greek [10] or Serb. [11]
18. Karamanlı Mehmed Pasha 14771481Turk, [10] from Karaman
19. İshak Pasha (2nd time)14811482 Albanian. [9] [ better source needed ]
20. Koca Davud Pasha 14821497 Albanian [10]
21. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (1st time)14971498Devşirme. From Herzegovina [10] (Kosača family)
22. Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger 14981499Turk [12] (Çandarlı family)
23. Mesih Pasha 14991501Abducted during Fall of Constantinople. Nephew of Constantine XI Palaiologos. [13]
24. Hadim Ali Pasha (1st time)15011503From Drozgometva in Bosnia (Hadim = Manservant), from a minor noble family called Ostoja.
25. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)15031506Devşirme. From Herzegovina [10] (Kosača family)
26. Hadim Ali Pasha (2nd time)15061511From Drozgometva in Bosnia (Hadim = Manservant), from a minor noble family called Ostoja.
27. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (3rd time)15111511Devşirme. From Herzegovina [10] (Kosača family)
28. Koca Mustafa Pasha 15111512 Greek (Rum), and not a devşirme. [14] [15] Possibly "Western" (Frenk) [15] [ citation needed ]
29. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (4th time)151228 November 1514Devşirme. From Herzegovina [10] (Kosača family)
30. Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha 18 December 15148 September 1515Albanian. [16] (Dukagjin family)
31. Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha (5th time)8 September 151526 April 1516Devşirme. From Herzegovina [10] (Kosača family)
32. Hadım Sinan Pasha 26 April 151622 January 1517 Devşirme, [17] from the noble Boronivic family (Hadim = Manservant)
33. Yunus Pasha 22 January 151713 September 1517 Devşirme, [17] Greek, Pomak, Serb, or Croat origin. [18]
34. Piri Mehmed Pasha 25 January 151827 June 1523Turk, [17] from Aksaray
35. Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, also called Frenk Ibrahim Pasha27 June 152314 March 1536Greek from Parga (The nickname Frenk refers to his European manners and tastes)
36. Ayas Mehmed Pasha 14 March 153613 July 1539 Devşirme. Albanian [19] from Vlora or Delvina
37. Çelebi Lütfi Pasha 13 July 1539April 1541 Devşirme. Albanian, [20] from Avlonya (Vlorë) (Çelebi = a refined gentleman with good manners)
38. Hadim Süleyman Pasha April 154128 November 1544 Devşirme. [20] Hungarian eunuch. [21] (Hadim = Manservant)
39. Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (1st time)28 November 15446 October 1553 Devşirme. Croat [20] from Skradin (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty )
40. Kara Ahmed Pasha 6 October 155329 September 1555Albanian [22]
41. Kehle-i-ikbâl Damat Rüstem Pasha (2nd time)29 September 155510 July 1561 Devşirme. Croat [20] from Skradin (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty )
42. Semiz Ali Pasha 10 July 156128 June 1565From Bosnia [22]
43. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 28 June 156512 October 1579 Devşirme. Serb from Bosnia [23] [24] [25] (Sokolović family)
44. Şemsi Pasha 12 October 157928 April 1580Paternal Albanian [26] and maternal Ottoman, [27] including distant Arabic ancestry. [28]
45.Vekîl-i Saltanat Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha 28 April 15807 August 1580From Bosnia. (Lala = a tutor to a Sultan )
46. Koca Sinan Pasha (1st time)7 August 15806 December 1582Albanian [29]
47. Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (1st time)24 December 158225 July 1584 Hungarian [29] from Nagykanizsa
48. Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha 28 July 158429 October 1585Turk [30] or Circassian [30] Mameluks
49. Hadim Mesih Pasha 1 November 158514 April 1586 Devşirme [30] from Bosnia [31] (Hadim = Manservant)
50. Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (2nd time)14 April 15862 April 1589 Hungarian [29] from Nagykanizsa
49. Koca Sinan Pasha (2nd time)14 April 15891 August 1591Albanian [32]
50. Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1st time)1 August 15914 April 1592Albanian [32]
51. Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha (3rd time)4 April 159228 January 1593 Hungarian [29] from Nagykanizsa
52. Koca Sinan Pasha (3rd time)28 January 159316 February 1595Albanian [33]
53. Serdar Ferhad Pasha (2nd time)16 February 15957 July 1595Albanian [33]
54. Koca Sinan Pasha (4th time)7 July 159519 November 1595Albanian [33]
55. Tekeli Lala Mehmed Pasha 19 November 159528 November 1595Turk, [26] from Manisa (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan )
56. Koca Sinan Pasha (5th time)1 December 15953 April 1596Albanian [26]
57. Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1st time)4 April 159627 October 1596From Bosnia. [34] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
58. (Cağaloğlu/Cağalazâde) Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 27 October 15965 December 1596 Italian. [35] From the noble Genoese family of Cicala.
59. Damat Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time)5 December 15963 November 1597From Bosnia. [35] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
60. Hadim Hasan Pasha 3 November 15979 April 1598Devşirme [35] of Albanian origin.[ citation needed ]
61. Cerrah Mehmed Pasha 9 April 15986 January 1599 Devşirme, of unknown origin. [36] (Cerrah = Surgeon)
62. Damat Ibrahim Pasha (3rd time)6 January 159910 July 1601From Bosnia. [36] (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
63. Yemişçi Hasan Pasha 22 July 16014 October 1603Albanian [36] (Yemişçi = Fruit-vendor; in reference to his previous profession)
63. Yavuz Ali Pasha 16 October 160326 July 1604From Bosnia. [37] (Malkoçoğlu family)
64. Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha 5 August 160421 June 1606 Serb [37] (Lala = Tutor to a Sultan ). Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's nephew.
66. Dervish Mehmed Pasha 21 June 16069 December 1606From Bosnia. [37]
67. Kuyucu Murad Pasha 11 December 16065 August 1611From Bosnia. [38] (Kuyucu = The well-digger; name given since he had the habit of burying his enemies in wells)
68. Gümülcineli Damat Nasuh Pasha 5 August 161117 October 1614Albanian, [38] from Gümülcine. (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty). One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
69. Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (1st time)17 October 161417 November 1616Turk, [38] from Istanbul (Öküz = Oxen; literally Mehmed Pasha the Oxen; name given since he was heavily built)
70. Damat Halil Pasha (1st time)17 November 161618 January 1619 Armenian, [39] from Zeytun ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
71. Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)18 January 161923 December 1619Turk, [39] from Istanbul
72. Güzelce Ali Pasha 23 December 16199 March 1621(?) [39] (Güzelce = Handsome)
73. Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha 9 March 162117 September 1621Albanian, [40] from Ohri
74. Dilaver Pasha 17 September 162120 May 1622From Bosnia. [40]
75. Kara Davud Pasha 20 May 162213 June 1622From Bosnia. [40]
76. Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1st time)13 June 16228 July 1622Albanian [40] ("Mere!" = "Take it!" in Albanian; purportedly the only grand vizier who did not speak Turkish, named after the oft-repeated order he gave on the subject of opponents' heads)
77. Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha 8 July 162221 September 1622Turk, [41] from former Lefke, today Orhaneli
78. Hadim Mehmed Pasha (Hadım -'Eunuch'- Mehmed Pasha)21 September 16225 February 1623 Georgian [41] (Gürcü = Georgian)
79. Mere Hüseyin Pasha (2nd time)5 February 162330 August 1623Albanian [41]
80. Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha 30 August 16233 April 1624Turk [41] (Kemankeş = Archer)
81. Çerkes Mehmed Pasha 3 April 162428 January 1625Circassian [42] (Çerkes = Circassian)
82. Hafız Ahmed Pasha (1st time)8 February 16251 December 1626 Pomak (Bulgarian Muslim), [42] from Filibe. One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan.
83. Damat Halil Pasha (2nd time)1 December 16266 April 1628Armenian, [42] from Zeytun ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
84. Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha 6 April 162825 October 1631From Bosnia. [43]
85. Hafız Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)25 October 163110 February 1632 Pomak [43] from Filibe.
86. Topal Recep Pasha 10 February 163218 May 1632From Bosnia. [43] (Topal = Lame)
87. Tabanıyassi Mehmed Pasha 18 May 16322 February 1637Albanian [43] (from Drama)(Tabanıyassı = Flat-footed)
67. Bayram Pasha 2 February 163726 August 1638Turk, [44] from Istanbul
68. Tayyar Mehmed Pasha 27 August 163824 December 1638Turk [44]
90. Kemankeş Kara Mustafa Pasha 23 December 163831 January 1644Albanian [45] (Kemankeş = Archer)
91. Sultanzade Mehmet Pasha (Civan Kapucubaşı Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha)31 January 164417 December 1645Albanian [45] (Sultanzade = Son of a female member of the Ottoman dynasty)
92. Nevesinli Salih Pasha 17 December 164516 September 1647From Nevesinje in the Sanjak of Herzegovina, [46] Bosnia Eyalet. [47]
93. Kara Musa Pasha 16 September 164721 September 1647Unknown origin. [47] Not included in some lists. Died after appointment, before receiving the seal.
94. Hezarpare Ahmet Pasha 21 September 16478 August 1648Greek (?), [47] from Istanbul. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier upon Kara Musa Pasha's death. (Hezarpare = Thousand pieces; literally Ahmed Pasha the Thousand Pieces; name given by chroniclers since he was lynched by the mob)
95. Sofu Mehmed Pasha (or Mevlevi Mehmed Pasha)8 August 164821 May 1649(?) [48] (Sofu = Devout and see Mevlevi)
96. Kara Murat Pasha (Kara Dev Murat Pasha)21 May 16495 August 1651Albanian [48] (Dev = Giant)
97. Melek Ahmed Pasha 5 August 165121 August 1651 Abazin [48] (Melek = Angel)
98. Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (1st time)21 August 165127 September 1651 Abazin [49]
99. Gürcü Mehmed Pasha 27 September 165120 June 1652Georgian [49] (Gürcü - Georgian)
100. Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha 20 June 165221 March 1653Albanian [49] (Tarhoncu, more seldom transcribed as Tarhoncu = 'Tarragon vendor'; in reference to his former profession)
101. Koca Dervish Mehmed Pasha 21 March 165328 October 1654 Circassian [49]
102. İpşiri Mustafa Pasha 28 October 165411 May 1655Abazin. [50] One of the seven husbands of Ahmed I's daughter Ayşe Sultan. (İpşiri means "Bearer of good news")
103. Kara Murat Pasha (2nd time)11 May 165519 August 1655Albanian [50]
104. Ermeni Suleyman Pasha 19 August 165528 February 1656Armenian, [50] from Malatya. (Ermeni means "Armenian")
105. Deli Gazi Hüseyin Pasha, also called Deli Hüseyin Pasha 28 February 16565 March 1656Turk, [51] from Yenişehir. Not included in some lists. The imperial seal was sent to him by way of sea to Crete where he was in campaign, but the ships were called back because of Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha's lobbying, who had been appointed in-attorney in between but wanted the full title for him. (Deli = Mad; due to his daring and courage in the battlefield)
106. Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha (held office for 4 hours)5 March 16565 March 1656Albanian [51] (Zurnazen = Clarinettist). Not included in some lists. Promoted from in-attorney title to the rank of full grand vizier due to the influence he exerted on the sultan for Gazi Hüseyin Pasha's dismissal from the office. His appointment caused an uprising in Istanbul and he was exiled after having held the seal for four hours.
107. Abaza Siyavuş Pasha I (2nd time)5 March 165625 April 1656Abazin [51]
108. Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha 26 April 165615 September 1656Turk, [52] from Samsun. (boynu yaralı means "wounded neck")
109. Köprülü Mehmed Pasha 15 September 165631 October 1661Devşirme. Albanian, [3] from Rudnik in the Sanjak of Berat (now Albania). [53] (see Köprülü family)
110. Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha 31 October 166119 October 1676Albanian [52] (see Köprülü family)
111. Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha 19 October 167625 December 1683From Merzifon (adopted into the Köprülü family) [54]
112. Kara İbrahim Pasha 15 December 168318 November 1685Turk [55]
113. Sarı Süleyman Pasha 18 November 168518 September 1687Bosniak [56] (Sarı = Blond)
114. Abaza Siyavuş Pasha 18 September 168723 February 1688Abazin [56]
115. Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha 23 February 16882 May 1688Turk [57] from Ayaş)
116. Bekri Mustafa Pasha 30 May 16887 November 1689Turk, [57] from Tekirdağ.
117. Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha 10 November 168919 August 1691Albanian [57] (Köprülü family)
118. Arabacı Ali Pasha 24 August 169121 March 1692 Albanian [58] (Arabacı = Coachman; in reference to his background)
119. Merfizonlu Hacı Ali Pasha 23 March 169217 March 1693Turk, [58] from Merzifon.
120. Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha 17 March 1693March 1694Turk, [59] from Bozok (Yozgat today).
121. Sürmeli Ali Pasha 13 March 169422 April 1695(?) [59] Greek[ citation needed ] (from Dimetoka) (Sürmeli = One who has eyes tinged with kohl)
122. Elmas Mehmed Pasha 3 May 169511 September 1697Turk [60] (Elmas = Diamond)
123. Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha 17 September 16974 September 1702Albanian [60] (Köprülü family).
124. Daltaban Mustafa Pasha 4 September 170224 January 1703Bosniak [61] according to Joseph von Hammer, Serbian descent according to other sources , from Manastır (Daltaban = Barefoot)
125. Rami Mehmed Pasha 25 January 170322 August 1703Turk (?), [61] from Istanbul
126. Kavanoz Ahmed Pasha 22 August 170316 November 1703 Russian [62] (Kavanoz = A jar; named as such because purportedly very short and fat)
127. Damat Hasan Pasha 18 November 170328 September 1704 Greek [62] [63] [64] Ottoman, from Morea, Greece (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
128. Kalaylıkoz Hacı Ahmed Pasha October 170425 December 1704Turk [62] (Kalaylıkoz = Varnished; a reference on his fondness for make-up, ornaments and dresses)
129. Teberdar/Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st time)25 December 17043 May 1706Turk, [65] from Osmancık.
130. Çorlulu Damat Ali Pasha 3 May 170615 June 1710Turk (?), [65] from Çorlu (Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty )
131. Köprülü Numan Pasha 16 June 171017 August 1710Albanian [65] (Köprülü family).
132. Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)18 August 171020 November 1711Turk, [65] from Osmancık.
133. Ağa Yusuf Pasha 20 November 171111 November 1712Georgian [66]
134. Nişancı Süleyman Pasha 12 November 17126 April 1713Abazin [66]
135. Hoca Ibrahim Pasha 6 April 17137 April 1713Turk, [66] from Serez (Serres)
136. Silahdar Damat Ali Pasha 27 April 17135 August 1716Turk [67] from İznik ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
137. Hacı Halil Pasha 21 August 1716October 1717 Albanian [67]
138. Nişancı Mehmed Pasha October 17179 May 1718Turk (?), [67] from Kayseri
139. Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha 9 May 171816 October 1730Turk, [67] from Nevşehir. ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
140. Silahdar Damat Mehmed Pasha 16 October 173023 January 1731Turk (?), [68] from Istanbul ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
141. Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha 23 January 173111 September 1731Turk, [68] from Şebinkarahisar (Kabakulak = Someone with mumps)
142. Topal Osman Pasha 21 September 173112 March 1732Turk [69] (Topal = Lame)
143. Hekimbaşızâde/Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (1st time)12 March 173214 July 1735Italian [69] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
144. Gürcü İsmail Pasha 14 July 173525 December 1735Georgian [69] (Gürcü = Georgian)
145. Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha  [ tr ]10 January 17365 August 1737Turk (?), [70] from Dimetoka
146. Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha 22 August 173719 December 1737Possibly Arab, [70] from Aleppo.
147. Yeğen Mehmed Pasha 3 December 173723 March 1739Turk [70] (Yeğen = Nephew, of the Sultan in his case)
148. İvaz Mehmed Pasha 17 March 173923 June 1740Albanian [71]
149. Nişancı Hacı Ahmed Pasha 22 July 17407 April 1742Turk, [71] from Alanya
150. Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (2nd time)21 April 17424 October 1742Italian [71] (son of Venetian convert Hekimbaşı Nuh Efendi)
151. Seyyid Hasan Pasha 4 October 174210 August 1746Arab (?), [72] or Turk, [71] from Karahisar (Şebinkarahisar today)
152. Tiryaki Hacı Mehmed Pasha 11 August 174624 August 1747Unknown origin. [72] (Tiryaki means "someone who has an addiction, to tobacco, opium, alcohol etc.")
153. Seyyid Abdullah Pasha 24 August 17472 January 1750Arab (?), [72] or Turk, [71] from Kerkük
154. Divitdar Mehmed Emin Pasha 9 January 17501 July 1752(?), [72] from Istanbul
155. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1st time)1 July 175216 February 1755Turk (?), [72] from Çorlu (köse means "a bowl, beardless")
156. Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha (3rd time)16 February 175519 May 1755From Istanbul, Venetian convert father and Turk mother.
157. Naili Abdullah Pasha 19 May 175524 August 1755Turk, [73] from Istanbul
158. Silahdar Bıyıklı Ali Pasha, aka Nişancı Ali Pasha24 August 175523 October 1755Turk (?) [73]
159. Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha 25 October 17551 April 1756Georgian, [73] from Edirne (Yirmisekiz means "twenty-eight"; named as such after his father who had served in the 28th Janissary corps battalion)
160. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)30 April 17563 December 1756Turk, [74] from Çorlu (köse means "a bowl, beardless")
161. Koca Ragıp Pasha 12 January 17578 April 1763Turk, [74] from Istanbul
162. Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha 11 April 176329 September 1763Turk, [75] from Develi
163. Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (3rd time)29 September 176330 March 1765Turk (?), [75] from Çorlu
164. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time)30 March 17657 August 1768Arab (?), [75] son of Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha
165. Silahdar Hamza Mahir Pasha 7 August 176820 October 1768Turk, [75] from Develi
166. Yağlıkçızade Mehmed Emin Pasha October 176812 August 1769Turk, [76] from Istanbul
167. Moldovancı Ali Pasha 12 August 176912 December 1769Turk, [76] from Daday
168. Ivazzade Halil Pasha 13 December 176925 December 1770Son of İvaz Mehmed Pasha, grandson of Nasrullah from Jagodina (in Serbia). [77]
169. Silahdar Mehmed Pasha 25 December 177011 December 1771Turk (?), [78] from Istanbul
170. Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)December 17716 August 1774(Arap ?) [78]
171. Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time)11 August 17747 July 1775 [79]
172. Moralı Dervish Mehmed Pasha 7 July 17755 January 1777Turk [78] (Mora = "Morea")
173. Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha 5 January 17771 September 1778Turk, [80] from Darende.
174. Kalafat Mehmed Pasha 1 September 177822 August 1779 Bulgarian, [80] from Sofia (Kalafat = Caulker).
175. Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha  [ tr ]August 177920 February 1781Turk, [80] from Arabsun near Kırşehir
176. Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)20 February 178125 August 1782 [79]
177. Yeğen Hacı Mehmed Pasha 25 August 178231 December 1782Turk [81] (Yeğen = Nephew, to the Ottoman sultan in his case).
178. Halil Hamid Pasha 31 December 178230 April 1785Turk, [81] from Isparta. Great-grandfather of Kemal Derviş, current administrator of the UNDP.
179. Şahin Ali Pasha 30 April 178525 January 1786Georgian [81]
180. Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st time)25 January 178628 May 1789Georgian [81]
181. Cenaze Hasan Pasha or Meyyit Hasan Pasha 28 May 17892 January 1790Circassian [82] ("Cenaze" or "Meyyit" = A funeral, a corpse; literally "Hasan Pasha the Funeral" or "Hasan Pasha the Corpse"; named as such because he was in his deathbed, seriously ill, throughout his term)
182. Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha 2 January 179030 March 1790Unknown origin. [82] (Cezayirli means "from Algiers" since he had been a corsair there).
183. Çelebizade Şerif Hasan Pasha 16 April 179012 February 1791(?), [82] from Rusçuk.
184. Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd time)12 February 17911792Georgian [83]
185. Damat Melek Mehmed Pasha 179221 October 1794Turk [83] ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
186. Safranbolulu Izzet Mehmet Pasha 21 October 179423 October 1798Turk, [83] from Safranbolu. [84]
187. Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1st time)23 October 179824 June 1805Georgian [85] (Kör = Blind)
188. Bostancıbaşı Hafız İsmail Pasha 24 September 180513 October 1806(?) [85]
189. Keçiboynuzu İbrahim Hilmi Pasha 13 October 18063 June 1807Turk (?) [85] (Keçiboynuzu = Carob fruit, named as such because purportedly an extremely puny person)
190. Çelebi Mustafa Pasha 3 June 180729 July 1808Unknown [86] (Çelebi = A refined gentleman with good manners)
191. Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, also called (Bayrakdar Mustafa Pasha)29 July 180815 November 1808Albanian (?), [86] from Rusçuk(?). (Alemdar or Bayraktar = standard bearer, same rank with two different names among the Janissaries)
192. Çavuşbaşı Memiş Pasha 16 November 1808December 1808 Albanian [86] (Çavuşbaşı = Head sergeant)
Çarhacı Ali Pasha [ citation needed ]December 1808March 1809Turk[ citation needed ] (Çarhacı = Skirmisher)
193. Kör Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (2nd time)March 1809February 1811Georgian [87]
194. Laz Ahmed Pasha February 1811July 1812Turk (?), [87] Laz [ citation needed ]
195. Hurşit Ahmed Pasha July 181230 March 1815Georgian, [87] the only grand vizier who committed suicide (while in office)
196. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st time)30 March 18156 January 1818Turk [87]
197. Burdurlu Dervish Mehmed Pasha 6 January 18185 January 1820(?), [88] from Burdur
198. Seyyid Ali Pasha 5 January 182021 April 1821Turk [88]
199. Benderli Ali Pasha 21 April 182130 April 1821(?), [88] from Bender (Moldavia today). The last grand vizier who was executed upon an order clearly given by the sultan (because of the Greek War of Independence).
200. Izmirli Hacı Salih Pasha  [ tr ]30 April 182111 November 1822 Donmeh (?) [88]
201. Bostancıbaşı Deli Abdullah Pasha 11 November 18224 March 1823Turk [89] (Deli = Mad, literally Abdullah Pasha the Mad)
202. Turnacızade Silahdar Ali Pasha 4 March 182313 December 1823(?) [89]
203. Mehmed Said Galip Pasha 13 December 182315 September 1824Turk [89]
204. "Benderli" Mehmed Selim Pasha 15 September 182426 October 1828(?), [89] from Bender (Moldavia today)
205. Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time)26 October 182828 January 1829Turk, [90] from Darende.
206. Reşid Mehmed Pasha January 182917 February 1833Georgian or Greek [90]
207. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd time)17 February 18338 July 1839Turk [90]
208. Husrev Pasha 8 July 183929 May 1841 Abazin [91]
209. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd time)29 May 18417 October 1841Turk [91]
210. Topal Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)7 October 18413 September 1842Turk [92] from Darende
211. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th time)3 September 184231 July 1846Turk [92]
212. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (1st time)31 July 184628 April 1848Turk [92]
213. İbrahim Sarim Pasha 28 April 184813 August 1848Turk [93]
214. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (2nd time)13 August 184827 January 1852Turk [93]
215. Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th time)27 January 18527 March 1852Turk [93]
216. Koca Mustafa Reşit Pasha (3rd time)7 March 18527 August 1852Turk [94]
217. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (1st time)7 August 18524 October 1852Turk [94]
218. Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha 4 October 185214 May 1853 Hamsheni [95] ( Damat = Bridegroom to the Ottoman Dynasty).
219-220. Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time)14 May 185330 May 1854 Albanian, [96] from Egypt, called Giritli=Cretan because he had served as governor in that island for a long time.
221. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (1st time)30 May 185424 November 1854Turk, [97] from Cyprus
222. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (4th time)24 November 18544 May 1855Turk [97]
223. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (2nd time)4 May 18551 December 1856Turk [98]
224. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (5th time)1 December 18562 August 1857Turk [98]
225. Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time)2 August 185723 October 1857 Albanian [98]
226. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (6th time)23 October 18577 January 1858Turk [98]
227. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (3rd time)11 January 18588 October 1859Turk [99]
228. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (2nd time)8 October 185924 December 1859Turk, [99] from Cyprus
229. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (1st time)24 December 185927 May 1860Turk [99] (Mütercim = A translator, an interpreter)
230. Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha (3rd time)27 May 18606 August 1861Turk, [100] from Cyprus
231. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (4th time)6 August 186122 November 1861Turk [100]
232. Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1st time)22 November 18616 January 1863Turk, [100] from Konya (Keçecizade family).
233. Yusuf Kamil Pasha 6 January 18633 June 1863Turk [101]
234. Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (2nd time)3 June 18635 June 1866Turk [101]
235. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (2nd time)5 June 186611 February 1867Turk [102]
236. Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha (5th time)11 February 18677 September 1871Turk [102]
237. Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st time)September 187131 July 1872Georgian, [102] was often called Nedimoff due to his Russophile policies
238. Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (1st time)31 July 187219 October 1872Turk (?), [103] family from Rusçuk, born in Istanbul.
239. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (3rd time)19 October 1872February 1873Turk [103]
240. Sakızlı Ahmed Esat Pasha (1st time)15 February 187315 April 1873Turk, [103] from Sakız/Chios
241. Şirvanlı Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha 15 April 187314 February 1874Turk [103] or Kurd [ citation needed ], from Şirvan.
242. Hüseyin Avni Pasha 14 February 187425 April 1875Turk [104]
243. Sakızlı Ahmed Esat Pasha (2nd time)April 1875August 1875Turk, [104] from Sakız (Chios)
244. Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd time)21 August 187511 May 1876Georgian [104]
245. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (4th time)12 May 187619 December 1876Turk [104]
246. Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (2nd time)19 December 18765 February 1877Turk (?) [105] The last grand vizier who was executed -while in exile in Taif-. Whether or not there was a direct order from the Sultan Abdulhamid II remains subject of discussion to this day.)
247. İbrahim Edhem Pasha 5 February 187711 January 1878 Greek, [105] from Chios/Sakız; sold as a slave in childhood to -later- Grand Vizier Husrev Pasha during the 1822 events in that island)
248. Ahmed Hamdi Pasha 11 January 18784 February 1878Abazin [106]
249. Ahmed Vefik Pasha 4 February 187818 April 1878Turk, [106] from Istanbul.
250. Mehmed Sadık Pasha 18 April 187828 May 1878Turk [107]
251. Mütercim Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha (5th time)28 May 18784 June 1878Turk [107]
252. Saffet Pasha 4 June 1878October 1878Turk [108]
253. Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha October 187828 July 1879Abazin [108]
254. Ahmed Arifi Pasha 28 July 1879September 1879Turk [108]
255. Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time)18 October 18799 June 1880Turk [109]
256. Kadri Pasha 9 June 188012 September 1880Turk, [109] from Antep
257. Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time)12 September 18802 May 1882Turk [110]
258. Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha 2 May 188212 July 1882Turk, [110] from Kütahya (Germiyanid family)
259. Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time)12 July 188230 November 1882Turk [111]
260. Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd time)1 December 18823 December 1882Turk [111]
261. Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time)3 December 188224 September 1885Turk [111]
262. Kâmil Pasha (1st time)25 September 18854 September 1891Turk, [112] from Cyprus.
263. Ahmed Cevat Şakir Pasha 4 September 18918 June 1895Turk, [112] from Kabaağaç in Afyonkarahisar (Şakirpaşazade family)
264. Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time)9 June 18953 October 1895Turk [112]
265. Kâmil Pasha (2nd time)3 October 18957 November 1895Turk, [113] from Cyprus.
266. Halil Rifat Pasha 7 November 18959 November 1901Turk (?), [113] from Serez
267. Mehmed Said Pasha (6th time)13 November 190115 January 1903Turk [113]
268. Avlonyalı Mehmed Ferid Pasha 15 January 190322 July 1908Albanian, [114] [115] from Avlonya (Vlorë)
269. Mehmed Said Pasha (7th time)22 July 19086 August 1908Turk [114]
270. Kâmil Pasha (3rd time)5 August 190814 February 1909Turk, [114] from Cyprus
271. Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st time)14 February 190914 April 1909Greek [116] or Turk [117] from Cyprus
272. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (1st time)14 April 19095 May 1909Turk [117]
273. Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd time)5 May 190912 January 1910Greek or Turk, from Midilli
274. İbrahim Hakkı Pasha 12 January 191030 September 1911Turk (?) [118]
275-276. Mehmed Said Pasha (8th time)30 September 191122 July 1912Turk [118]
277. Ahmed Muhtar Pasha 22 July 191229 October 1912Turk, [119] from Bursa
278. Kâmil Pasha (4th time)29 October 191223 January 1913Turk, [120] from Cyprus
279. Mahmud Shevket Pasha 23 January 191311 June 1913 Chechen (?), [120] Circassian [121] and/or Arab [122] Ottoman, from Baghdad
280. Said Halim Pasha 12 June 19134 February 1917Albanian (?) [123] Albanian origins (from the family of the Khedives of Egypt)
281. Mehmed Talaat Pasha 4 February 191714 October 1918(?), [123] from Edirne
282-283. Ahmed Izzet Pasha 14 October 191811 November 1918Albanian [121] [124] Ottoman, from Istanbul
284. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (2nd time)11 November 19184 March 1919Turk [125]
285-287. Damat Ferid Pasha (1st time)4 March 19192 October 1919Bosniak, with family origins in the village of Potoci, near Pljevlja (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
288. Ali Rıza Pasha 2 October 19198 March 1920Turk (?), [126] from Istanbul
289. Salih Hulusi Pasha 8 March 19205 April 1920 Circassian, [126] from Istanbul
290-291. Damat Ferid Pasha (2nd time)5 April 192021 October 1920Bosniak, with family origins in the village of Potoci, near Pljevlja (Damat, bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty)
292. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (3rd time)21 October 19204 November 1922Turk, [127] last grand vizier

See also

References

  1. Archivum Ottomanicum , p. 240, at Google Books
  2. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire , p. 235, at Google Books
  3. 1 2 Dânişmend 1971, p. 7.
  4. Yücel 1991, p. 310.
  5. 1 2 3 Dânişmend 1971, p. 8.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Danişmend (1971), p. 9. (in Turkish)
  7. Stavrides 2001, p. 55.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Danişmend (1971), p. 10. (in Turkish)
  9. 1 2 Faveyrial, Jean-Claude (1888). Histoire de l'Albanie (in French). archives of the House of the Lazarite Missionaries in Paris. p. 215. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2010-10-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)[ better source needed ]
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Danişmend (1971), p. 11. (in Turkish)
  11. Theoharis Stavrides (2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453-1474) ISBN   978-90-04-12106-5 . Brill Academic Publishers.templatestyles stripmarker in |title= at position 104 (help)
  12. Danişmend (1971), p. 12. (in Turkish)
  13. Inalcik, Halil (1991). "Mesīḥ Pasha". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VI: Mahk–Mid. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 1025–1026. ISBN   90-04-08112-7.
  14. Türkçülük ve Türkçülük mücadeleleri tarihi. 1969. p. 53. 11 - Koca Mustafa Paşa (Rum)
  15. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 13. (in Turkish)
  16. Danişmend (1971), p. 14. (in Turkish)
  17. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 15. (in Turkish)
  18. Alper, Omer Mahir, "Yunus Paşa", (1999) Yaşamları ve Yapıtlarıyla Osmanlılar Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul:Yapı Kredi Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık A.Ş. C.2 s.678 ISBN   975-08-0072-9
  19. Danişmend (1971), p. 16. (in Turkish)
  20. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 17. (in Turkish)
  21. A military history of modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War by Andrew James McGregor p.30
  22. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 18. (in Turkish)
  23. Samarčić, Radovan (2004). Sokollu Mehmet Paşa (3rd ed.) Istanbul: Aralik. ISBN   975-8823-62-0
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  25. Danişmend (1971), p. 19. (in Turkish)
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  27. Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p. 65. Nëna e tij, Aishe Humashah, ishte mbesa e Sulltan Sylejmanit.[ better source needed ]
  28. Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p. 64. Nëna e Shemsi Ahmed Pashait, thuhet se ishte me origjinë familjare një pasardhës i drejtpërdrejtë i Halid Ibni Velidit, komandantit të famshëm të ushtrisë islame, i cili pushtoi Sirinë në kohën e profetit Muhamed, në shekullin e 7-të.[ better source needed ]
  29. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 21. (in Turkish)
  30. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 22. (in Turkish)
  31. Necipoğlu 2005, p. 403.
  32. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 23. (in Turkish)
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  34. Islamic Desk Reference: Compiled from "The Encyclopaedia of Islam", E. J. Van Donzel, BRILL, 1994, p.165. Bosnian origin
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  40. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 31. (in Turkish)
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  43. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 34. (in Turkish)
  44. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 35. (in Turkish)
  45. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 36. (in Turkish)
  46. Uzunçarşılı & Karal 1954, p. 393.
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  63. Evg Radushev, Svetlana Ivanova, Rumen Kovachev - Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. Orientalski otdel, International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. p. 224. ISBN   954-523-072-X. Hasan Pasa (Damad-i- Padisahi), Greek convert from Morea. He began his career as imperial armourer and rose to the post of Grand Vezir (1703). He married the daughter of Sultan Mehmed IV, Hatice Sultan, fell into disgrace and was exiled with his wife to izmit.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  64. Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy; Nicole Svobodny; Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN   0-8101-1971-4. Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704. He was the new sultan's son-in-law… "he was a very honest and comparatively humane pasha of Greek origin and cannot be suspected of selling the sultan's pages to a foreigner."
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  85. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 69. (in Turkish)
  86. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 70. (in Turkish)
  87. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 71. (in Turkish)
  88. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 72. (in Turkish)
  89. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 73. (in Turkish)
  90. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 74. (in Turkish)
  91. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 75. (in Turkish)
  92. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 76. (in Turkish)
  93. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 77. (in Turkish)
  94. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 78. (in Turkish)
  95. History and identity among the Hemshin -HOVANN H. SIMONIAN -172
  96. Danişmend (1971), p. 79. (in Turkish)
  97. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 80. (in Turkish)
  98. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 81. (in Turkish)
  99. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 82. (in Turkish)
  100. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 83. (in Turkish)
  101. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 84. (in Turkish)
  102. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 85. (in Turkish)
  103. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 86. (in Turkish)
  104. 1 2 3 4 Danişmend (1971), p. 87. (in Turkish)
  105. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 88. (in Turkish)
  106. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 89. (in Turkish)
  107. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 90. (in Turkish)
  108. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 91. (in Turkish)
  109. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 92. (in Turkish)
  110. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 93. (in Turkish)
  111. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 94. (in Turkish)
  112. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 95. (in Turkish)
  113. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 96. (in Turkish)
  114. 1 2 3 Danişmend (1971), p. 97. (in Turkish)
  115. Gawrych, George (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. London: IB Tauris. pp. 23, 26, 132, 153. ISBN   9781845112875.
  116. Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC   4694680. Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner.
  117. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 98. (in Turkish)
  118. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 99. (in Turkish)
  119. Danişmend (1971), p. 100. (in Turkish)
  120. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 101. (in Turkish)
  121. 1 2 Nâzım Tektaş, Sadrazamlar: Osmanlı'da ikinci adam saltanatı, Çatı Kitapları, 2002, p. .
  122. Ali Bilgenoğlu, Osmanlı Devleti'nde Arap milliyetçi cemiyetler, Müdafaa-i Hukuk Yayınları, 2007, p. 87. (in Turkish)
  123. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 102. (in Turkish)
  124. Danişmend (1971), p. 103. (in Turkish)
  125. Danişmend (1971), p. 104. (in Turkish)
  126. 1 2 Danişmend (1971), p. 105. (in Turkish)
  127. Danişmend (1971), p. 106. (in Turkish)

Sources