List of Romanian words of possible Dacian origin

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According to the specialist Ion I. Russu  [ ro ], there are supposedly over 160 Romanian words of Dacian origin, representing, together with derivates, 10% of the basic Romanian vocabulary. [1]


Below is a list of Romanian words believed by early scholars to be of Dacian origin, which have also been attributed to other origins. The list does not include the Dacian plant names collected by Dioscorides and Pseudo-Apuleius, since these words were not retained in Romanian.


Word / NameEnglishSourcesNotes - Alternative etymologies
abeșreally, for sure!Hasdeu, Vraciu, Paligadialectal Banat; a+beș < IE *bhend(s)- 'to bind', cf. Albanian besë [2] ‘word of honor; faith’, besabesë ‘on my honor!’
Abrud Abrud River Hasdeuolder Obruth (12th century), from Latin Abruttus; a Slavic form, with a > o (Slavic) and o > a (Hungarian), and non-native preservation of -br- (vs. cibrum > Romanian ciur)
abțiguito get drunk; to beat someone gently; fig. to forge or illegally modify an original productPaliga [3] prefix ab- + root țic-, tig- 'small' cf. Romanian Țic, Țicu, Țega, țic, țînc 'small; a child'
Abud Abud, village in Mureș County Paliga [2] related to Thracian Aba, Abantes, Abro-lebas. Cf. Romanian Abrud, abur, Pre-Indo-European ultimately from *AB- 'elevated, prominent'
abur(e)steam, vapourHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu,

Paliga [2]

Aromanian abur(ã); cf. Albanian avull Proto-Albanian *abulā ‘steam, vapour’; cf. Romanian boare. Ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *AB- 'prominence, elevation'
aburca'to climb up'Paliga [4] Prefix ab (see above) + urca: ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *OR- / *UR- 'big, huge, giant' related with Greek ouranizo 'to go up, to climb' derived from Ouranos 'sky'.
Abuş Abuș, in Mureș CountyPaliga [4] Probably related to Abud, Abrud, abur(e)
-acsuffix of nouns and adjectivesPaliga [4] seems indigenous in some substratum forms in -ac, eg. Fel-eac, în-tun-ec-a (probably from a prototype *în-tumn-ec-a), mald-ac/măld-ac (cf. Spart-ac-us etc.), ber-c, mel-c, mel-eag, pel-eag-ă/pel-eg (cf. Pel-eş), Per-eg, pis-c, plis-c, prun-c, Semen-ic (cf. semeţ), ţar-c, miş-c-a, muş-c-a.
acăța, agățato hang up, hook up; accost, seizeRussuAromanian cățari ‘to snatch’, Istro-Romanian (a)coț ‘id.’; from Latin *ad + captiāre ‘to snatch’; pt > t rare but attested; cf. Latin baptizare > boteza. Acăț "acacia" used in Transylvania.
ad-, at-Paliga [5] Pre-Indo-European, spread across whole Europe. Inherited via Thracian.
adaruI make; I set up, I set an ornamentPaliga [5] Aromanian; from Indo-European *der-, dra- 'to work'; cf. Greek δράω, Lithuanian daraù, Latvian darît ‘to make’
adămanăgift, briberyPaliga [5] related to ademeni
AdeaAdea, Arad countyPaliga [5]
ademenito tempt, lure; deceiveHasdeu

Paliga [5]

dial. adimeni; from older ademană ‘(old) gift, temptation; (Trans.) usury, interest’, from Transylvanian adămană ‘gift’, from Hungarian adomány ‘gift, grant’. [6] , Haşdeu also compared it to Phrygian adamein. Paliga finds it more likely that it is a local derivation from Latin ad + manus or adă/adu mâna 'give (me) your hand'. He considers the Transylvanian dialect form was possibly borrowed into Hungarian and not the reverse.
adiato breeze gently; to whisper, touch lightlyRussu


older adiia, West Transylvanian aduĭ, aduĭa, Aromanian adil’u ‘to breathe’; Paliga thinks that the proposed Latin *adiliare is improbable. [7] [5]
adulmeca'to sniff, to smell'Paligaprobably *ad-ul-m-ec-a. Substatum root -ulm- related to olm'smell'; derivative suffix -ec also indigenous. Similar construction to adămană, ademeni. The Thracian root must be *olm-, *ulm- 'smell, to smell; to sniff; to track an animal for hunt' or dul-, dol- 'dog', see dulău, dolcă. [5]
afin Vaccinium myrtilus; billbery PaligaObscure. [5]
ag-archaic 'to get to a thorn'PaligaCf. agănău, agăţa.Related to Thracian names Aga-thyr-soi, Aeg-issus (Tulcea). agăţa is seemingly derived from the same root. [5]
AgauaAgaua village, Brăila county Paligarelated to Agnita, Agăş, Agriş/agriş, cf. Agay, Provence, and Aigai, Greece. See ag-. [5]
agănăua kind of folk dancePaligarelated to root ag-. [5]
AgăşAgăş, Bacău county, Bihor county PaligaToday extinct. The village in Bihor is near a hill called Acăţel which can be used to reject an etymology from agas 'crossroad, branched out'. Cf. Thracian Aegissus; the spelling -ss- might stand for an original š in Thracian. Also place names Egeria, Egirca, Egeta, Aegeta and in Hungary Ágasvár seems related, in which case it could be Pre-Magyar. [5]
aghiuțădevilHasdeufrom Greek ágios (άγιος) ‘holy’ + -uță. [6] [8]
aidomaalike, identicalHasdeuvariant avidoma; from a + Slavic vidomŭ ‘visible’. [6]
alac einkorn (Triticum monococcum); spelt (Triticum aestivum spelta)HasdeuOld Romanian alacu; from Latin alica ‘spelt’ (cf. Sardinian alighe, Spanish álaga).
ală (Oltenia)a monster that unleashes stormsHasdeuTransylvanian hală; from Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian dialect ála, hála, [9] from Turkish hala.
amețito drug, anesthetize, stupefyRussufrom Latin *ammattīre; cf. Old French amatir. [6]
andreaknitting needleRussuMuntenian/Transylvanian undrea; from Andrea, Undrea ‘December’, from Greek Andréas ‘St. Andrew’s Day’ (Nov. 30th); from the tradition of knitting socks on St. Andrew's Day. Similar to Alb. shëndreu ‘November’, after Shën Ndreu ‘St. Andrew’.
aninato hang up, hook; accostRussufrom Latin *annināre ‘to rock’; cf. Italian ninnare, Sardinian anninnare, Romansh niner, Provençal nina ‘to fall asleep’
aprigfiery, hot-blooded; harshRussuvariants apric, apreg; from Latin aprīcus ‘sunny, exposed (to the sun)’; cf. Calabrian apricari ‘to warm’, Spanish ábrego ‘southwest wind’, Occitan abrigar ‘to shelter’.
argealoomHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciuplural argele; from Greek argaleiós; also Albanian dial. argali ‘small, wooden loom’ (< Gk)
Argeș Argeș River HasdeuArghiș (1427), Argyas (1369); from Pecheneg argiš ‘high ground’ [10]
aruncato throwRussuAromanian aru(n)cu; from Latin eruncāre ‘to weed out’; cf. Italian arroncare, Abruzzese arrongá
azugă?HasdeuNot in current use (see also Azuga, a town in Prahova County)
bacichief shepherd, cheese-makerHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuAromanian baciu, Megleno-Romanian bač, Istro-Romanian bațe; from Turkish baş ‘leader, chief’; also Serbo-Croatian bač, Albanian baç, Hungarian bacs (all < Turkish)
baierthread, band, strap, string; coin necklace; talismanRussuTransylvanian baieră, Moldavian baieri, Muntenian băieri, Aromanian bairu; from Latin bājulus, bājula; cf. French baille ‘pail, bucket’
baligădung, manureRussu (Alb.) Aromanian baligă, Megleno-Romanian balig, Istro-Romanian bålege; from Old Albanian baljëgë (modern bajgë, dial. balgë, balëg, balëgë); also Serbo-Croatian bȁlega (< Alb)
baltăpool, puddleRussu (Alb.)Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian baltă, Istro-Romanian bote; from Albanian baltë ‘swamp’, from Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian blȁto ‘mud’, Czech blato; alternatively, directly from Slavic.
bară (Banat)marsh, morassHasdeufrom Serbo-Croatian bȁra ‘puddle, pool; swamp’ [9]
barzăstork (Ciconia ciconia)Hasdeu, Russu, Vraciu, OlteanuOltenia bardăș, bardoș ‘stork’, Transylvanian/Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian bardzu ‘white’; feminine of barz ‘whitish (of birds)’, from Albanian bardhë ‘white’, bardhosh, bardhash ‘whitish’
bascăberetHasdeu, Russu (Alb.)from French basque
batalwether (castrated ram)Hasdeufrom Turkish battal ‘useless’, [6] itself from Arabic baṭṭāl (بطّال) ‘vain, useless, worthless’ (> Spanish balde ‘in vain’); also Albanian batal, Serbo-Croatian dial. bàtāl, Bulgarian batal (батал), Greek batálikos (μπατάλικος) ‘rude, boorish’ (all < Turk).
bălaur, balaur dragon, monsterHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciufrom Serbo-Croatian blȁvor (variants blavur, blaor) ‘scheltopusik’, from Albanian bullar (var. buljar, bollar). [11]
băgato insert, thrustRussuAromanian bagu ‘to put’, Megleno-Romanian bagari; from Byzantine Greek bázo (βάζω) ‘to put in or on, set down’
băiatboy; servant, pageRussuvariant băiet;
băl, bălan, bălașfair-haired, blond (person); white-haired (animal)Hasdeufrom Albanian bal(ë) ‘white-haired; starred forehead’, balosh, balash ‘white-marked, piebald; dappled; hoary, white-haired’
bârcall to a sheepVraciufrom Albanian berr ‘sheep or goat; small livestock’; cf. Czech beran ‘ram’, Polish/Ukrainian/Russian baran (< Romanian); Canavese berro ‘ram’, Piemontese bero ‘id.’ (< Alb)
bârsăsheth, standard (part on a plow)NODEX [12] variant bârță; from Slavic; cf. Slovenian brdče ‘beam holding a trawl net’, Czech (Moravian) brdče ‘thill, draft-pole’
beregatăAdam's apple; gullet, windpipeRussudialectal bereglej, Istro-Romanian biricuată; from Hungarian beragad "to stick, get stuck"; [13] also Serbo-Croatian berikat (< Hung)
boarebreezeRussuvariant bore, Aromanian boră, Megleno-Romanian boari; from Latin boreas "north wind" (< Greek Boreas 'god of the north wind')
bordeisunken-floor cottageHasdeu, Russuolder bordeiu "cottage; whorehouse" (1595); from Hungarian bordély, German Bordell, or Italian bordello, all "brothel".
bortăhole, hollowHasdeualso borti, borteli "to bore"; from Ukrainian bort "hole", bortyty "to bore"
bradfir (Abies)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), OlteanuAromanian brad; from Proto-Albanian *brada (modern bredh).
brândușămeadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale)Russufrom Serbo-Croatian brnduša; akin to Bulgarian brenduška [6]
brânzăcheeseHasdeu, Russu, VraciuAromanian brîndzã, Megleno-Romanian brǫnză; from Albanian brëndës ‘intestines; rennet bag (made of stomach)’, identical to rânză (< rrëndës) (see below); Romanian lent Transylvanian German Pränz, Slovak/Polish bryndza , which gave Austrian Brimsen . [9] [14]
brâubelt, waistRussu (Alb.)dialectal brân, colloquial brână, Aromanian brãnu, Megleno-Romanan brǫn, Istro-Romanian brĕne; from Old Albanian *bren (modern brez ‘belt; waist’, mbrej ‘to buckle’); replaced Transylvanian/Bucovina balț ‘loop, eye(let), ring (of iron)’ (cf. Aromanian balțu), from Latin balteus ‘belt’.
brustureburdock (Lappa)Russu (Alb.)Aromanian broștur, brușturã; from Albanian brushtull ‘heather’
bucurato be gladRussu (Alb.)also bucuros ‘glad’; from Albanian bukuroj ‘to beautify’, bukurosh ‘beautiful’, both from bukur ‘nice, lovely’ [lower-alpha 1]
buiestruambling, ambling gait (of horse)Russufrom Slavic *bujestĭ ‘boldness, arrogance’ + suffix -estru [15]
bungetdense, dark forestHasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciufrom Albanian bung [6] ‘chestnut oak’ + Romanian -et ‘grove’.
burghiudrill bitHasdeuAromanian burghie, Megleno-Romanian burghijă; from Turkish burgü ‘auger, gimlet’; also Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian burgija ‘drill, gimlet’, Albanian burgi (all < Turk)
burlanspout, water pipeRussufrom Italian borlone ‘rolling cylinder’, from North Italian borlare ‘to roll’ [16]
burtăbelly, stomachRussudialectal borț ‘pregnant woman’s belly’
burtucă?HasdeuNot in current use.
burtuș?HasdeuNot in current use.
butuc, buturăstump, log; trunkRussufrom dialectal Bulgarian butuk, butur ‘freshly-chopped tree stump’, from bútam ‘to beat, knock’.
buzălip; edgeRussu (Alb.)Aromanian budzã "lip; brim"; from Albanian buzë "lip; edge"
caiertow; hemp bundle; (arch.) distaff-full of wool, etc. to be spunRussuAromanian cairu "distaff-full of wool, etc. to be spun"; from Vulgar Latin *cajulus, diminutive of caia, caiæ "stick"
cațăshepherd's rod, crookRussualso descăța "to unhook"; See acăța above.
cârlansheep or goat weanling; 2- or 3-year-old coltRussu
cârligsheep hookRussufrom Bulgarian kărlik (кърлик) [6]
căciulăhigh fur capRussu (Alb.)from Albanian kaçule, itself from Latin casula
căpușăsheep louse ( Melophagus ovinus )Russu (Alb.)from Albanian këpushë [6] ‘tick’, derivative of kap ‘to grip, snatch’
căputătoe (of shoe); low bootRussu (Alb.)from Albanian këputë "sole (of shoe)", këpucë "shoe"; unrelated to Slavic kopyto "hoof" > Romanian copită
cătunhamletRussu (Alb.)probably from Serbo-Croatian dial. kàtūn ‘herdsmen community; summer pasture’, from South Slavic katunъ ‘camp, military encampment’, from Byzantine Greek katoûna (κατοῦνα) ‘tent camp’, from Italian cantone; cf. Albanian katund (dial. katun, kotun) ‘village; herdsmen community; widely spread-out village", Romani katúna ‘Gypsy tent’ (< Gk), Bulgarian katun(in) ‘nomadic Gypsy’. [17]
cioarăcrowSala, Hasdeu, VraciuAromanian țoarã, Megleno-Romanian čoară; from Old Albanian *corrë (mod. sorrë) [6]
ciocbeakSala, Hasdeu, Vraciualso ciocârlie ‘skylark’; from Serbo-Croatian čok; also Albanian çok ‘hammer; knuckle’ (< Slavic).
ciomagclub, cudgelHasdeuAromanian ciumac, Megleno-Romanian čămugă; from Turkish çomak; also Albanian çomage ‘big hammer’ (< Turk)
ciuthornless, poll; one-hornedRussu (Alb.)dialectal șut; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian šut; also Albanian shyt ‘hornless’ (connected to "sutë" (a doe, female deer) (an albanism in the other Balkan languages)
codruwide old forestHasdeu, Vraciualso Aromanian codru ‘public square; hilltop; forest’; from Vulgar Latin *codrum, from Latin quadrum ‘square’; cf. Albanian kodër ‘hill; angular stone, cornerstone’
copactreeSala, Russu (Alb.)older copaci, Aromanian cupaciu, Megleno-Romanian cupač, Istro-Romanian copaț ‘thicket, brush’; from Albanian kopaç ‘knot in wood, stump, trunk’, itself from Bulgarian kopačĭ ‘sapper’, a derivative of kopája ‘to hollow out, dig out’.
copilchildRussuAromanian cochil(u); from Serbo-Croatian kȍpile, Bulgarian kópele, both "bastard" (whereas other Slavic languages have sense "hoe" as in: Lower Sorbian koṕeło ‘corral hoe’, Polab ťüpål ‘hoe’, Russian kopyl ‘stake; hoe’); cf. Albanian kopil (< Slav)
crețcurly; curly-hairedRussuOld Romanian creçu; from Slavic; cf. Serbian/Bulgarian krečav "curly", Polish kręty "curly", Slovenian kèrč, Czech krč
cruțato pardon, spareRussu (Alb.)from Albanian kursej ‘to spare; save money’ (var. kurcoj), from *kurt (modern shkurt), from Latin curtus ‘short’
culbecsnailHasdeuvariant cubelc
curmato stop abruptly, interruptRussu (Alb.)older curmez, from Byzantine Greek kormázein (κορμάζω); cf. Albanian kurmua
curpănvine, twining stemRussu (Alb.)from Albanian kurpën, kurpër ‘clematis’, from kurp ‘traveller's joy, old man's beard (Clematis vitalba)’; related to below.
cursătrap, snareRussu (Alb.), Olteanufrom Albanian kurth(ë), contraction of dial. kurpth, diminutive of kurp; related to above.
custurăblade, knife edge, knifeRussuvariants custure, cusutură, cuțitură, from cuțit "knife' + suffix -tură
darari?RussuNot in current use.
dașramRussu (Alb.)from Albanian dash
dărâmato tear down, demolish, destroyRussu (Alb.)Aromanian dãrîmu; from Latin dērāmāre; cf. Albanian dërmoj ‘to cut into pieces; plummet’
deh?HasdeuNot in current use.
dereticato tidy upRussuvariants derăteca, derdica, dereteca; from Latin *deradicare "to root out"
dezbărato break a habit, to ridRussuprobably from French débarasser "to rid, get rid of"
doinălamenting folksongHasdeu, VraciuTransylvanian daină; from Lithuanian dainà ‘folksong’ (cf. Latvian daĩn̨a ), derivative of Proto-Baltic *deî- (cf. Latvian diêt, dìet ‘to dance, hop; sing’)
dopcork, plugRussufrom Transylvanian German Dop. [6]
droaiecrowd, multitude; a lotRussuback-formation from the plural droi, from Albanian droe, droje [6] ‘fear’; same sense development in Rom. groază ‘horror’ > o groază de ‘a lot of’.
dulăumastiffHasdeu, Vraciufrom Polish dolow
fărâmăcrumb, morsel, bitRussu (Alb.)variant sfărâmă, Aromanian sîrmã; from Albanian thërrime, from ther ‘to stab, slaughter, snip’
gardfenceRussu (Alb.)Istro-Romanian gård "wattle gate to a pen"; from Albanian gardh; unrelated to Slavic gradŭ > Alb gradë
gataready, doneRussu (Alb.)from Albanian gat(i) "ready", from gatuaj ‘to ready, prepare; cook’, from Slavic *gotovati; [18] cf. Serbo-Croatian gotov "ready", Polish gotowy.
gâdeexecutioner; tyrantHasdeuplural gâzi; from Bulgarian gidija ‘crazy, extravagant, reckless’, Serbian gad "scoundrel"
gâdilato tickleHasdeuvar. gâdili, gâdeli, ghidili, Aromanian gádil, gădilare; from Bulgarian gădel me e (гъдел ме е) ‘it tickles’, [6] from gădeličkam (гъделичкам), [19] from Turkish gıdıklamak.
gălbeazăliver rot ( fascioliasis ), sheep poxRussu (Alb.)variant călbează; from Albanian gëlbazë, këlbazë, klëbacë ‘sheep pox’, itself from the Albanian word "kalb" (to rot, to go bad) with a diminutive suffixe -zë, commonly seen in disease names.
genunedepth, abyssHasdeu, Russudialectal gerune, Old Romanian gerure; from Latin gyrō, gyrōnem
ghearăclaw, talonRussufrom Arabic garaf ‘grasp’
ghesa poke, a goadRussudialectal ghies, ghios; from Hungarian gyűszű ‘thimble’
ghimpethornRussu (Alb.)from Albanian gjemb (dialectal Tosk gjëmp, Arvanite gljimp, Gheg glëmp)
ghiob (Transylvanian)cheese vatHasdeufrom Hungarian döböny ‘cylindrical, wooden, lidded crockery for honey and the like’ [20] [6]
ghionoaiewoodpeckerSala, Russu (Alb.)dialectal ghionoi, ghin, Aromanian ǵionu ‘tawny owl’; from Albanian gjon ‘scops owl’, from Gjon ‘John’; Albanian also has qukapik ‘woodpecker’ (< qukë ‘owl’ + pik ‘woodpecker’)
ghiontnudge, pokeRussu
ghiujgaffer, old fogeyHasdeu, VraciuAromanian ghiuș; from Albanian gjysh "grandfather"
gordinkind of grapes used in winemakingHasdeuvariants gordean, g(o)ardină, gorgan, gordan; from Russian gordina "currant"
gorundurmast oak ( Quercus petraea )Russufrom Bulgarian gorun (горун)
grapă harrow Russu (Alb.)from Albanian grep (var. grap) ‘hook’.
gresiesandstone, whetstoneRussu (Alb.)Aromanian greasă; from Albanian gërresë (var. grresë) ‘rasp, scraper; drawing knife’, from gërryej ‘to scrape, scour’
groapăhole, pitRussu (Alb.)Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian groapă, Istro-Romanian gropă; Albanian gropë, Montenegrin grȍp, variant of Serbo-Croatian grȍb
gruihilltop, hillockRussuvariant gruńu, Aromanian gruñiu ‘chin’; from Latin grunnium; cf. French groin ‘pig snout’, Italian grugno ‘snout’, Romansh grugn ‘chin’.
grumazneckRussu (Alb.), NODEXAromanian grumadz, gurmadz; from Albanian gurmaz ‘gaping maw, wide-open jaws; esophagus’ (variants gurmac, grumas, gërmaz), itself from kurm ‘trunk (of the body), torso’ (> Romanian dial. curm ‘short rope’, curmei ‘vine shoot’)
grunzlump, clodRussu (Alb.)variants (s)grunț, Aromanian grundã (plural grundz) ‘lump’, grundzã ‘bran’; from Albanian krunde ‘coarse bran; sawdust’ (var. grundë), derivative of kruaj ‘to scratch’
gudurato fawn, cajoleRussufrom Albanian gudulis ‘to tickle; pleasure’; unrelated to Romanian gâdila ‘to tickle’ (see above).
gușă a bird's crop; goiterRussu (Alb.)Aromanian gușe "neck, goiter"; from Late Latin geusiæ (Marcellus, 5th c.); cf. Italian gozzo, Friulian gose, French gosier; also Albanian gushë, Bulgarian/Serbian guša (all < Rom).
hojma (Moldova, Bucovina)repeatedly, continuouslyHasdeu, Vraciufrom Ukrainian hožma [6]
iazmă (Banat)ugly and evil apparition, ghostHasdeuwestern aiazmă, eastern agheazmă; from Greek agíasma (αγίασμα) ‘holy water; sacred spring’.
iele(mythology) white lady, Dames Blanches , who bewitch men with song and danceHasdeuvariant ele; from Romanian ele, feminine form of el "they". Euphemism of Romanian word dînsele 'ghost, soul of the dead' (= Latin lemures) [9]
încurcato tangle, to mix upRussufrom Vulgar Latin *incolicare, from colus "distaff"; also descurca "to untangle"
înghinato assemble, to put togetherRussuvariant of îmbina, from Latin imbinare; cf. Friulian imbinâ; likewise dezbina ~ desghina "to take apart, disassemble"
îngurzito wrinkle the edge of a fabric or the sole of a shoe with a threadRussuvariant îngruzi; from în + gurgui
însăilato stitch, to sew temporarilyRussuvariant înseila; from dial. saia "stitch" (Muntenia, Moldavia sailă), from Transylvanian German Seil "cord, rope".
întremato recover after illness or fatigueRussuvariants întrăma, (Moldavia, Bucovina) întrarma, back-formation from destrăma ‘unweave, unravel, break up’.
jețtall-backed (arm)chairHasdeu, Vraciuvariants jețiu, jățiu; from Transylvanian German Sätz "seat"; but older and dialectal variants jilț, jelț may have been influenced by Slavic; cf. Czech židlice "stool; seat", Serbo-Croatian sjedalo
leagăncradle, swingRussuvariants leangăn, leagănă; Istro-Romanian leagăr; back-formation of legăna "to rock, swing" (cf. Aromanian leagînu "to swing", Megleno-Romanian legăn), from Byzantine Greek liknon "cradle"
lepădato drop; to take off (clothes)Russudialectal lăpăda; Aromanian aleapidu "to throw, abandon"; from Latin lapidare "to throw stones"
lespedeplat, slab, flagstone, gravestoneRussufrom Rusyn lepest "page, sheet", dialectal lespet(ok), from lepestitj "to shed"
leșinato faintRussufrom Serbo-Croatian lešina "corpse"
mallakeside shore, riverbank; coastSala, Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciufrom Albanian mal "mountain" [21]
maldac, măldaca small load (of wood, hay, etc.)Hasdeufrom Greek mandákis
mazăre pea (Pisum sativum)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciu, OlteanuAromanian madzãre; also Romanian măzăriche ‘vetch’, Aromanian mãdziricl’e; from Albanian modhull(ë)yellow vetchling’, diminutive of modhë ‘rye-grass, brome’
mânzfoal, coltRussu (Alb.)Aromanian mîndzu, Megleno-Romanian mǫndz; from Old Albanian manz (modern Tosk mëz, Gheg mâz). Also mânzat ‘steer’, from OAlb. *manzat (mod. Tosk mëzat, Gheg mâzat ‘yearling calf; bullock’). [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 3]
măceș sweetbrier (Rosa eglanteria)Russu
mădărito pamper, to spoil (a child)Russufrom Transylvanian German maddern
măgurăhill, knollSala, Russu (Alb.)dialectal Romanian and Aromanian măgulă; from Albanian magulë, a metathesis of gamulë; likewise Serbo-Croatian gòmila ~ mògila 'heap'.
mălaicornflour; dial. millet (flour)HasdeuMoldavian malai; from Albanian miell "flour" (var. mjell, mill) or mel "millet", from Latin milium
mămăligăpolenta, cornmeal mush ( mămăligă )HasdeuAromanian mumalig; from Bulgarian mamuli[ citation needed ], metathesis of Turkish muhlama "pudding-like dish of cornmeal cooked in butter and water"
mărcat (Aromanian)rancid milkRussu
măturăbroomRussu (Alb.)Aromanian metură, Megleno-Romanian mietură, Istro-Romanian meture; from Vulgar Latin *metula (cf. Albanian netull ‘mullein’, used in broommaking), from early Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian mètla, Bulgarian metlá ‘broom’
Mehadia Mehadia Hasdeu1614; from Hungarian Mihald (1323), Myhold (1349), from Mihály "Michael" + -d
melcsnailHasdeu, Russu, Vraciuolder melciu, Aromanian zmelciu; from Bulgarian melčev (мелчев), melčov (мелчов), melčo (мелчо) ‘snail’ [26]
mieriusky blue; bluish, whitishRussufrom dial. mier ‘blue’, from Latin merus
mirebridegroomHasdeu, Russu, Vraciufrom Albanian mirë [6] ‘good’; replaced Old Romanian măritu (still used in Muntenia).
mistrețwild boarRussufrom Latin mixtīcius ‘mixed, crossbred, hybrid’; cf. Spanish mestizo ‘half-breed’; also Albanian mistrec ‘runt; brat, trouble-maker’ (< Romanian).
mișcato move, stirRussuMegleno-Romanian micicari; from Vulgar Latin root *miscicāre, from Latin miscīre ("to agitate, mix") or from a derivative of miscēre.
mormanpile, heapRussu
moșold manRussu (Alb.)back-formed from moașă ‘midwife’ (cf. Aromanian moașe, Megleno-Romanian moașă ‘old woman’), from Albanian moshë ‘age’, moshëm ‘old, aged’; replaced Old Romanian auș (still in Oltenia), from Latin avus.
moțtuft, crestHasdeufrom Slavic; cf. Czech/Slovak moc ‘power, clout’, Serbo-Croatian mȏć ‘id.’
mozoclarge shepherd dogHasdeuvariant mosoc
mugurebudRussu (Alb.)from Albanian mugull "bud, sprout"
munună, murunăhilltopRussu
murgdark-bay horseSala, Russu (Alb.)Aromanian murgu, Megleno-Romanian murg; also amurg 'twilight, dusk'; from Albanian murg "dark".
mușathandsomeRussuAromanian mușeat, Megleno-Romanian/Istro-Romanian mușat; clipped form of *frumușat, from frumos
năpârcăcommon adder, viper ( Vipera berus )Russu (Alb.)Aromanian năpîrtică; from Albanian nepërtkë (standard nepërkë, dial. nëpërkë), from Slavic *nepŭrŭtkŭ; cf. Bulgarian neprătăk ‘buttercup’.
năsărâmbă (Transylvania, Oltenia)prank, mischiefHasdeufrom sărâmb "head"
nițela littleRussufrom Old Romanian nișchițel, diminutive of nișchit, neșchit "tiny", from niște, (Oltenia) nește "some, a few", from Latin nescit
noianmultitude, heap; (arch.) abyss, immense seaSala, Russufrom Albanian ujanë "ocean", from ujë "water"
ortomanrich (of a shepherd); handsome (of an outlaw); quick (of a horse)Hasdeuvariants iortoman, hartoman; from Turkish yortman "to run, flee" [27]
păstaiepod, capsule, hullRussu (Alb.)Aromanian păstăl'e; from Vulgar Latin pistālia, from pistāre "to pound"; cf. Albanian bishtajë "pod, hull; string bean"
pânzăcloth, linen, fabric, textileRussuAromanian pîndzã, Megleno-Romanian pǫndză, Istro-Romanian pănzę; from Vulgar Latin *pandia, from pandere
pârâu (pl. pâraie)brook, creekRussu (Alb.)dial. (North) pârău, Megleno-Romanian păroi; from Albanian përrua ( përroi) ‘torrent, rushing stream’, from Bulgarian poroj (порой) ‘torrent’, from *po-rojĭ (cf. Macedonian roj (рој) ‘swarm’, Polish zdrój ‘spring, waters’); ending influenced by Romanian râu "river; stream", from Latin rivus
păstrato keep upRussuolder păstrez; Aromanian spăstrescu, Megleno-Romanian păstres; from Greek pastrevo (παστρεύω) ‘to clean, cleanse’, from Byzantine Greek spastréuō; cf. Bulgarian pastrja (< Greek) [9]
prunctoddler, infantRussufrom early Serbo-Croatian *prǫtče ‘small rod’ (modern Serbian prutka, Croatian pritka), variant of *prątče (Bulgarian prăčka), diminutive of *prątŭ ‘rod’ (Serbo-Croatan prût ‘rod, withe, switch’)
pupăză hoopoeSalaAromanian pupăză, Megleno-Romanian pupează; from Albanian pupëz(ë), diminutive of pupë, from Latin upupa [28]
pururialways, foreverRussu (Alb.)variant purure, pururea; from d(e-a) pure(a)
rațăduckHasdeu, Vraciu, Salafrom Serbo-Croatian dial. rȁca, race (also Bulgarian rĕca), from Old Albanian *roça (mod. rosë) [29]
râmf (Transylvanian)birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis)Hasdeuvariants rimf, remf, rempf; from Transylvanian German Rämp ‘birthwort’ ~ Rimf ‘tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)’ [30]
rânzăabomasum (rennet stomach)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), VraciuAromanian arîndzã ‘rennet’; from Albanian rrëndës ‘rennet’.
răbdato suffer, endure, tolerateRussuolder/Transylvanian rebda, Aromanian aravdu, arăvdare; from Latin *rigidare [31]
reazemsupport, backing, propRussuvariants razăm, reazăm, reazim; back-formation from rezema (dial. răzima) "to lean against, prop up"
ridicato raise, liftRussuolder aridica, dialectal radica, Aromanian ardic(ari); from Latin eradicare "to uproot"
Sarmisegetuza Sarmizegetusa Hasdeurefers to a pre-Roman Dacian archaeological site; did not survive into Romanian
sâmburekernel; pip, coreRussu (Alb.), NODEX, Olteanudialectal simbure, sumbure, Aromanian sîmbure, sumbur; from Albanian sumbull "push button; bud"
scăpărato strike fire; sparkle, lightenRussu (Alb.)Aromanian ascăpirare, Megleno-Romanian scăpirari; from Albanian shkrep "to strike fire", shkrepës "flint"
scrumashesRussu (Alb.)older scrumb; from Albanian shkrumb; also Bulgarian скрум (< Romanian)
sculato get up (out of bed), wake upRussu (Alb.)Aromanian sculare, Megleno-Romanian sculari, Istro-Romanian scolu; back-formed from (se) răscula "to rise up, revolt, rebel", from South Slavic raskoliti; [32] cf. Serbo-Croatian raskòliti ‘to split, cleave, rive’.
scurmato scrape or dig (with snout, claws, beak, tools)Russufrom Vulgar Latin *excorrimāre; although rimāre > Romanian râma.
searbădinsipidRussu (Alb.), Olteanuolder sarbăd, Aromanian sarbit; from Albanian tharbët "sour" (standard thartë, dialectal tharptë)
spânzpurple hellebore Russu (Alb.)variants spânț, spunz, Aromanian spingiu; from Albanian shpendër (variants shpindër, spindër, spinër) [33]
stânăsheepfoldHasdeu, Vraciu, NODEXvariants stan, stean, Aromanian stînă, stane; from Slavic; cf. Bulgarian/Serbo-Croatian stan "shepherd's hut" [34] [35] [36]
stăpânmaster, ownerHasdeu, VraciuMegleno-Romanian stăpǫn; from Slavic stopanŭ; [6] cf. Macedonian stopan, Serbo-Croatian stopanin; also Albanian (Gheg) shtëpâ ‘cheese-making shepherd’.
strănutwith a white spot on nose (of animals)Russuvariants strenut, stărnut; back-formation from strănuta, [6] from Latin sternūtāre "to sneeze"
stejaroakHasdeu, Vraciuvariants stăjer(iu), st(r)ăjar, strejar; from Bulgarian stežer (стежер); [6] doublet of steajer, from Serbo-Croatian stežer "trunk"
steregiesoot caked in a chimney; scum; dross, waste; wine tartarRussuvariants stirigie, stirighie, etc.; from variants tereghie, tirghie, etc. "wine tartar", from Greek trugiá, blended with Serbo-Croatian striješ (Chakavian striš) "wine tartar" [37]
sterpbarren, infertileRussu (Alb.)eastern stărp, Aromanian sterpu; from Byzantine Greek stérifos (στέριφος; mod. stérfos (στέρφος)); cf. Albanian shterpë, Slovene stirpa, Venetian sterpa (all < Gk).
străghiațăcottage cheeseRussuvariant stereghiață, Banat străghiată, Aromanian strãgl’atã, Megleno-Romanian strigl’ată; from Bulgarian strigle (стригле), literally ‘clipped, sheared’, preterit/past participle of striža (стрижа) ‘to shear, clip’; cf. Greek éstriglos (ἔστριγλος) ~ strigária (στριγάρια) ‘gleanings’ (< Bulg); also Serbo-Croatian strigljata, Greek stringléta (στριγκλέτα) (< (Ar)Romanian)
strepedecheese maggot (larva of the cheese fly, cheese skipper; Piophila casei)Russu (Alb.)Aromanian streapit "cheese mite", Megleno-Romanian strepij; from Albanian shtrep "maggot, larva"
struguregrape; (arch.) bunchRussu, NODEXAromanian strugur ‘sliver, gleanings’; singularized plural, from dialectal (Basarabia) strug, deverbative of dial. strugi, struji ‘to shave or scrape off; chisel’; [38] replaced Old Romanian auă, from Latin ūva
strungăsheepfold; narrow passage, canyonRussu (Alb.), NODEXfrom Albanian shtrungë ‘milking enclosure’, from shtroj ‘to spread’
sugrumato strangle, to burkeRussufrom sub "under" + grumaz "throat" (see above).
sugușato strangle, to burkeRussufrom sub "under" + gușă "neck; goiter" (see above).
șaleloins, small of the backRussu (Alb.)Aromaian șali ‘loins’; from Albanian shalë ‘saddle; inner thigh’, from Latin sella ‘saddle’; cf. inherited Romanian șa (Muntenia șea, pl. sele), Aromanian șeauã, șelã, both ‘saddle’
șirrow, lineHasdeu, Russualso șiră "spine"; from Greek sirá (σειρά) ‘line, row; cord, rope’
șopârlăwall lizard (Lacerta muralis)Hasdeu, Russu (Alb.), Vraciuvariant șopirlă, Aromanian ciupilar (recent jabilu, şapic, japie); from Albanian zhapi (plural zhapinj) ‘lizard’ (var. xhapi, xhzpik).
șoricibacon skin, pork rindRussuMoldavian cioric; from Slavic; cf. Serbo-Croatian čvarak, Czech škvarek, Polish skwarek
tarehardRussuAromanian tari ‘some, certain’, Megleno-Romanian tari, Istro-Romanian tore; from Latin talis ‘such’; [6] cf. Albanian tallë
traistăbagHasdeuolder taistră, tainstră, traistră, Bassarabia/Maramarus straistă, Transylvanian straiță; cf. Albanian trastë, trajstë, strajcë.
tulei(young) whiskersHasdeufrom Serbo-Croatian tulaj, Ukrainian tulij. [6]
țaphe-goat; buckRussu (Alb.)from Albanian cjap (var. cap, cqap, sqap).
țarcpen, foldRussu (Alb.), Olteanufrom Albanian thark (var. cark) ‘enclosure (esp. for milking)’.
țarinăcountry, landRussufrom Serbo-Croatian carina.; [6] alternatively and possibly from țară + suffix -ină.
țărușpole, pale, picketRussufrom Ukrainian taraš "post, pile, pillar" [39]
țumburușsmall, round knob, nubOlteanuolder țâmburuș; from Albanian thumbull ‘button; pin’; nearly identical to sâmbure (< sumbull) (see above).
țurcătraditional Romanian gameHasdeufrom Ukrainian curka [6]
(a se/ a) uitarespectively: to look, to forgetRussuBanat/Maramus zăuita, Aromanian ultare, Megleno-Romanian ul’t(ari), Istro-Romanian utu; from Latin oblitare "to forget"; [6] cf. Occitan/Catalan oblidar, French oublier
urcato mount, ascend; increaseRussu, Paliga [40] Either from Vulgar Latin *oricāre, [6] frequentative of orior "to rise" or ultimately from Pre-Indo-European *OR- / *UR- 'big, huge, giant' related with Greek ouranizo 'to go up, to climb' derived from Ouranos 'sky'.
urciorstyeRussuvariant ulcior, Aromanian ulcior, urcior; from Latin hordeolus; [6] cf. Italian orzaiolo, Old French orgeoul, Spanish orzuelo
urdăcottage cheeseHasdeu, Russu, Vraciufrom dialectal Albanian urdhë (standard udhos, dialectal urdhos)
urdinato go frequently, visit; have diarrheaRussufrom Latin ordināre "to put in order"; [6] cf. Spanish ordeñar
urdoarebleariness; eye snotRussufrom Latin horridus; cf. Old French ord ‘foul’.
vatrăhearth, fireplace; homeHasdeu, Russu (Alb).from Albanian vatër ; [lower-alpha 4] also Serbian vatra "fire" (< Alb)
vătămato hurt, to injureRussufrom Latin victimare "to sacrifice" [6]
vătuiyearling kid (goat); hareRussu (Alb.)older vătuiu, Aromanian/Megleno-Romanian vitul’u; from Byzantine Greek *vitoúlion (*βιτούλιον; modern Lefkada vitũli (βιτοῦλι)); [41] also Albanian ftujë (Cham ftulë, Arbëresh vëtulë) ‘female kid’ (< ByzGk)
viezurebadgerSala, Russu (Alb.), Olteanuolder viedzure, Aromanian yedzurã, yedzãre; from Albanian vjedhull, from vjedh "to steal"
viscolsnowstorm, snow squallRussufrom Hungarian *veszkölni ~ viszkol, as in veszködni ‘to agitate’, from visz, vesz ‘to take; bear’.
zarăbuttermilkRussufrom *dzară, from Albanian dhallë; also Aromanian dhală (recent loan; < Alb)
zâmbruSwiss pine, Arolla pine (Pinus cembra)Hasdeu, Vraciufrom Italian cembro (or Lombardo zémbro)
zârnăblack nightshade, sunberry ( Solanum nigrum )Hasdeufrom Slavic *zĭrno ~ zarno ‘grain; berry’; [6] cf. Serbo-Croatian zȑno, (Hvar) zȃrno, Bulgarian zărno
zburdasport, frolic, frisk aboutRussuvariant sburda; from Byzantine Greek spyrthizein ‘to frolic, lark (of animals)’
zerwheyRussu, Olteanuolder zăr, Moldavian/Banat/Aromanian dzăr, masculine back-formation from zară (see above).
zestredowryRussufrom Latin dextræ "solemn vow" [6]
zgardădog collarRussu (Alb.)from Albanian shkardhë [6] ‘dog chain; (dial.) wicker gate in fence’, from sh- + gardhë ‘fence’.
zgâriato scratchRussu (Alb.?)Megleno-Romanian zgair, zgăirari; from Latin *scaberare (< scaber "itchy"). [6]
zgîrma, zgrîma, sgrîma (Aromanian)to scratch, scrapeRussucf. Romanian scurma above
zimbru wisent Hasdeu, Vraciufrom Old Slavic *zǫbrъ; [6] cf. Ukrainian zubr (зубр), Slovak zubor, Bulgarian zúbǎr (зу́бър)


The Sources column indicates the linguist(s) or the works who suggested including the words in the list:

See also


  1. See also: E Bukura e Dheut ('The Beauty of the Earth'), Albanian mythological character.
  2. The Messapic word menza ('foal') and Gaulish manduos ('foal') are also considered cognates. [22] [23] [24]
  3. An obscure deity called Jove or Juppiter Menzanas is attested in relation to the Messapians of Sallentini. [25]
  4. See also: Nëna e Vatrës, Albanian goddess of the hearth fire.


  1. Lucian Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, Reaktion Books, ISBN   1861891032, p.57
  2. 1 2 3 Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 26.
  3. Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 25.
  4. 1 2 3 Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 27.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 I. Coteanu et al., eds. Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, 2nd edn. (Bucharest: Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică “Iorgu Iordan” / Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1996; reprint 1998).
  7. Rupprecht Rohr, Kleines rumänisches etymologisches Wörterbuch: 1. Band: A-B, s.v. "adia" (Frankfurt am Main: Haag + Herchen, 1999), 16.
  8. Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică din Bucureşti, Dicționarul limbii române moderne (Editura Academiei, 1958).
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Alexandru Ciorănescu, Diccionario etimológico rumano (Tenerife: Universidad de la Laguna, 1958-1966).
  10. Laurenţiu Rădvan, At Europe's Borders: Medieval Towns in the Romanian Principalities (Brill, 2010), 243.
  11. Draucean, Adela Ileana (2008). "The Names of Romanian Fairy-Tale Characters in the Works of the Junimist Classics". In: Studii și cercetări de onomastică și lexicologie, II (1-2), p. 28. ISSN   2247-7330
  12. Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, Entry for bîrsă
  13. Rupprecht Rohr, KlRuEW, s.v. “beregată”, 160.
  14. Lazăr Șăineanu, Dicționar universal al limbii române (Craiova: Scrisul Românesc, 1896).
  15. Rupprecht Rohr, KlRuEW, s.v. “buiestru”, 239.
  16. Rupprecht Rohr, KlRuEW, s.v. “burlan”, 251.
  17. Bardhyl Demiraj, Albanische Etymologien (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997), 214–5.
  18. Vladimir Orel, Albanian Etymological Dictionary (Leiden: Brill, 1998), 111.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2009-01-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)[ failed verification ]
  20. German original: “ein cylindrisches, hölzernes Geschirr aus einem Stücke, mit Deckel, zum Honig und dergleichen”; Gregor Dankovszky, Kritisch-etymologisches Wörterbuch der magyarischen Sprache... (Bratislava [Pozsony]: Belnays Erben, 1833), 270.
  21. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (p. 145 )
  22. Pisani, Vittore (1976). "Gli Illiri in Italia". Iliria (in Italian). 5: 69. doi:10.3406/iliri.1976.1213.
  23. Orel, Vladimir E. (1998). Albanian Etymological Dictionary. Brill. p. 260, 265. ISBN   978-90-04-11024-3.
  24. Delamarre, Xavier (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: Une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental (in French). Errance. p. 215. ISBN   9782877723695.
  25. Francisco Marcos-Marin. "Etymology and Semantics: Theoretical Considerations apropos of an Analysis of the Etymological Problem of Spanish mañero, mañeria." In: Historical Semantics—Historical Word-Formation. de Gruyter, 1985. p. 381.
  26. Maček, Slavia 28 (1959): 273.
  27. Tiktin; Ovid Densuşianu, GS, VI, 313-18.
  28. Orel, AED, p. 350.
  29. Orel, AED, p. 374.
  30. Malwine Dengel, ed. Siebenbürgisch-sächsisches Wörterbuch: Q – R, 2nd edn. (Cologne-Weimar: Böhlau Verlag, 2006), 48.
  31. Delphine Seigneur & Claudine Pagliano, "On the Rumanian kt >pt Shift: Coda Lenition or Melodic Contamination?", Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2003 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005), 327.
  32. Kim Schulte, “Loanwords in Romanian”, Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook (Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2009).
  33. Roger Bernard, “VI. Bulgare карп « ellébore », стрáтур « amarante »”, Revue des études slaves 23 (1947): 161.
  34. Lazăr Șăineanu, Dicționar universal al limbei române, 6th edn. (Editura “Scrisul românesc”, 1929).
  35. August Scriban, Dicționaru limbii românești (Institutu de Arte Grafice “Presa Bună”, 1939)
  36. Lambrior, Cihac, Densuşianu, Tiktin, Rosetti, Conev, cf. DER; DEX
  37. Olga Mladenova, Grapes and Wine in the Balkans: An Ethno-Linguistic Study (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1998), 547.
  38. Alexandru de Cihac, Dictionnaire d’étymologie daco-romane, vol. 2: Éléments slaves, magyars, turcs et albanais (Frankfurt: Ludolphe St. Goar, 1879), 375–6.
  39. Schulte, "Loanwords in Romanian", p. 254.
  40. Sorin Paliga, Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian, Bucharest: Editura Evenimentul, 2006, p. 200.
  41. Guillaume Bonnet, Les mots latins de l'albanais (Paris-Montreal: L'Harmattan, 1998), 369.
  42. (in English and Romanian) Sorin Olteanu, "The TDM Palatal" Archived 2009-04-15 at the Wayback Machine


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Alexandru Graur

Alexandru Graur was a Romanian linguist.

Dacology is a branch of Thracology which focuses on the scientific study of Dacia and Dacian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. A practitioner of the discipline is a Dacologist. Dacology investigates the range of ancient Dacian culture from c. 1000 BC up to the end of Roman rule in the 4th-7th centuries. It is directly subordinated to Thracology, since Dacians are considered a branch of the Thracians by most mainstream research and historical sources. Other theories sustain that the Daco-Thracian relation is not as strong as originally thought and as such Dacology has the potential to evolve as an independent discipline from Thracology.

Cumidava Dacian fortified settlement

Cumidava was originally a Dacian settlement, and later a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of Râşnov in Romania.

Sorin Paliga Romanian linguist and politician

Sorin Paliga is a Romanian linguist and politician. He is a university professor at the University of Bucharest. As a politician, he was the former mayor of Sector 3 of Bucharest from June 1996 to June 2000, and was affiliated with the National Liberal Party (PNL).