|Speaker of the New York State Assembly|
Seal of New York
|Style|| The Honorable (diplomatic)|
Mister Speaker (within the assembly)
|Inaugural holder|| Walter Livingston |
September 10, 1777
|Formation||New York State Constitution|
The Speaker of the New York State Assembly is the highest official in the New York State Assembly, customarily elected from the ranks of the majority party.
The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Senate being the upper house. There are 150 seats in the Assembly, with each of the 150 Assembly districts having an average population of 128,652. Assembly members serve two-year terms without term limits.
As in most countries with a British heritage, the speaker presides over the lower house of the legislature. The position exists in every U.S. state and in the United States House of Representatives, the lower house of the Congress. New York's Assembly Speaker is very powerful. Effectively, the Speaker of the New York Assembly has the power to control much of the business in the Assembly and, in fact, throughout all of state government. Through almost single-handed control of the chamber, the Assembly Speaker is able to dictate what legislation makes and does not make it to the floor and will punish the members of his caucus who do not vote in his favor (for example, former assembly majority leader Michael Bragman losing his leadership post after running against speaker Sheldon Silver). Through the heavy gerrymandering that has given him a near-permanent supermajority, the Assembly Speaker rarely faces any challenge to his post.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
Originally, the legislative term lasted one year, from July 1 until June 30 of the next year. The members were elected at the state election in April, but the actual session began ordinarily only in January of the next calendar year, which leads occasionally to some confusion. Only if the governor called for a special session is the Assembly convened earlier. For example, in presidential election years the Assembly convened already in November to elect the presidential electors. The speaker was always elected at the first meeting of the Assembly for the remainder of the term, expiring on June 30.
The State Constitution of 1821 moved the election to November, and the beginning of the term to January 1, and from 1823 on, the legislative term coincides with the calendar year. The assembly convened usually on the first Tuesday in January and elected the speaker, who stayed in office until December 31.
An amendment to the State Constitution, adopted in November 1937, extended the assemblymen's term to two years, beginning with the electees of November 1938 who served the first two-year term in 1939-40. The elections are held in even-numbered years.
The Constitution of the State of New York establishes the structure of the government of the State of New York, and enumerates the basic rights of the citizens of New York. Like most state constitutions in the United States, New York's constitution's provisions tend to be more detailed, and amended more often than its federal counterpart. Because the history of the state constitution differs from the federal constitution, the New York Court of Appeals has seen fit to interpret analogous provisions differently from United States Supreme Court's interpretation of federal provisions.
Kingston is a city in and the county seat of Ulster County, New York, United States. It is 91 miles (146 km) north of New York City and 59 miles (95 km) south of Albany. The city's metropolitan area is grouped with the New York metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau, It became New York's first capital in 1777, and was burned by the British on October 13, 1777, after the Battles of Saratoga. In the 19th century, the city became an important transport hub after the discovery of natural cement in the region, and had both railroad and canal connections. Passenger rail service has since ceased, and many of the older buildings are part of three historic districts, including the Stockade District uptown, the Midtown Neighborhood Broadway Corridor, and the Rondout-West Strand Historic District downtown.
Walter Livingston was an American merchant, lawyer and politician.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River approximately 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and approximately 135 miles (220 km) north of New York City.
Speakers since 1823 are:
|Speaker||Party||County||Took office||Left office||Notes|
|Peter R. Livingston||Dem.-Rep./Bucktails||Dutchess||January 7, 1823||December 31, 1823|
|Richard Goodell||Dem.-Rep./Bucktails||Jefferson||January 6, 1824||December 31, 1824|
|Clarkson Crolius|| Dem.-Rep./|
|New York||January 4, 1825||December 31, 1825|
|Samuel Young||Dem.-Rep./Bucktails||Saratoga||January 3, 1826||December 31, 1826|
|Erastus Root||Dem.-Rep./Bucktails||Delaware||January 2, 1827||December 31, 1828||two terms|
|Peter Robinson||Dem./Jacksonian||Broome||January 6, 1829||December 31, 1829|
|Erastus Root||Dem./Jacksonian||Delaware||January 5, 1830||December 31, 1830||third term|
|George R. Davis||Democratic||Rensselaer||January 4, 1831||December 31, 1831|
|Charles L. Livingston||Democratic||New York||January 3, 1832||December 31, 1833||two terms|
|William Baker||Democratic||Otsego||January 7, 1834||December 31, 1834|
|Charles Humphrey||Democratic||Tompkins||January 6, 1835||December 31, 1836||two terms|
|Edward Livingston||Democratic||Suffolk||January 3, 1837||December 31, 1837|
|Luther Bradish||Whig||Franklin||January 2, 1838||December 31, 1838|
|George W. Patterson||Whig||Livingston||January 1, 1839||December 31, 1840||two terms|
|Peter B. Porter, Jr.||Whig||Niagara||January 5, 1841||December 31, 1841|
|Levi S. Chatfield||Democratic||Otsego||January 4, 1842||December 31, 1842|
|George R. Davis||Democratic||Rensselaer||January 3, 1843||December 31, 1843||second term|
|Elisha Litchfield||Democratic||Onondaga||January 2, 1844||December 31, 1844|
|Horatio Seymour||Democratic||Oneida||January 7, 1845||December 31, 1845|
|William C. Crain||Democratic||Herkimer||January 6, 1846||December 31, 1846|
|William C. Hasbrouck||Whig||Orange||January 5, 1847||December 31, 1847|
|Amos K. Hadley||Whig||Rensselaer||January 4, 1848||December 31, 1849||two terms|
|Noble S. Elderkin||Democratic||St. Lawrence||January 1, 1850||January 30, 1850||left the Assembly to return home to his sick wife|
|Robert H. Pruyn||Whig||Albany||January 30, 1850||March 14, 1850||elected when Elderkin left the Assembly|
|Ferral C. Dininny||Democratic||Steuben||March 14, 1850||December 31, 1850|
|Henry Jarvis Raymond||Whig||New York||January 7, 1851||June 10, 1851|
|Joseph B. Varnum, Jr.||Whig||Albany||June 10, 1851||December 31, 1851||elected when Raymond failed to attend special session|
|Jonas C. Heartt||Whig||Rensselaer||January 6, 1852||December 31, 1852|
|William H. Ludlow||Democratic||Suffolk||January 4, 1853||December 31, 1853|
|Robert H. Pruyn||Whig||Albany||January 3, 1854||December 31, 1854||second term|
|DeWitt C. Littlejohn||Whig||Oswego||January 2, 1855||December 31, 1855|
|Orville Robinson||Democratic||Oswego||January 16, 1856||December 31, 1856||The Assembly convened on January 1, but it took more than two weeks to elect a Speaker.|
|DeWitt C. Littlejohn||Republican||Oswego||January 6, 1857||December 31, 1857||second term|
|Thomas G. Alvord||Democratic||Onondaga||January 26, 1858||December 31, 1858|
|DeWitt C. Littlejohn||Republican||Oswego||January, 1859||December 31, 1861||three terms (third, fourth and fifth)|
|Henry J. Raymond||Republican||New York||January, 1862||December 31, 1862||second term|
|Theophilus C. Callicot||Democratic||Kings||January 26, 1863||December 31, 1863||elected by the Republicans in a split assembly|
|Thomas G. Alvord||Republican||Onondaga||January, 1864||December 31, 1864||second term|
|George G. Hoskins||Republican||Wyoming||January, 1865||December 31, 1865|
|Lyman Tremain||Republican||Albany||January, 1866||December 31, 1866|
|Edmund L. Pitts||Republican||Orleans||January, 1867||December 31, 1867|
|William Hitchman||Democratic||New York||January, 1868||December 31, 1868|
|Truman G. Younglove||Republican||Saratoga||January, 1869||December 31, 1869|
|William Hitchman||Democratic||New York||January, 1870||December 31, 1871||two terms (second and third)|
|Henry Smith||Republican||Albany||January, 1872||December 31, 1872|
|Alonzo B. Cornell||Republican||New York||January, 1873||December 31, 1873|
|James W. Husted||Republican||Westchester||January, 1874||December 31, 1874|
|Jeremiah McGuire||Democratic||Chemung||January, 1875||December 31, 1875|
|James W. Husted||Republican||Westchester||January, 1876||December 31, 1876||second term|
|George B. Sloan||Republican||Oswego||January, 1877||December 31, 1877|
|James W. Husted||Republican||Westchester||January, 1878||December 31, 1878||third term|
|Thomas G. Alvord||Republican||Onondaga||January, 1879||December 31, 1879||third term|
|George H. Sharpe||Republican||Ulster||January, 1880||December 31, 1881||two terms|
|Charles E. Patterson||Democratic||Rensselaer||February 2, 1882||December 31, 1882|
|Alfred C. Chapin||Democratic||Kings||January, 1883||December 31, 1883|
|Titus Sheard||Republican||Herkimer||January, 1884||December 31, 1884|
|George Z. Erwin||Republican||St. Lawrence||January, 1885||December 31, 1885|
|James W. Husted||Republican||Westchester||January, 1886||December 31, 1887||two terms (fourth and fifth)|
|Fremont Cole||Republican||Schuyler||January, 1888||December 31, 1889||two terms|
|James W. Husted||Republican||Westchester||January, 1890||December 31, 1890||sixth term|
|William F. Sheehan||Democratic||Erie||January, 1891||December 31, 1891|
|Robert P. Bush||Democratic||Chemung||January 5, 1892||December 31, 1892|
|William Sulzer||Democratic||New York||January, 1893||December 31, 1893|
|George R. Malby||Republican||St. Lawrence||January, 1894||December 31, 1894|
|Hamilton Fish II||Republican||Putnam||January, 1895||December 31, 1896||two terms|
|James M. E. O'Grady||Republican||Monroe||January 5, 1897||December 31, 1898||two terms|
|S. Frederick Nixon||Republican||Chautauqua||January, 1899||October 10, 1905||died in office during his seventh term|
|James W. Wadsworth, Jr.||Republican||Livingston||January, 1906||December 31, 1910||five terms|
|Daniel D. Frisbie||Democratic||Schoharie||January 4, 1911||December 31, 1911|
|Edwin A. Merritt, Jr.||Republican||St. Lawrence||January 3, 1912||November 5, 1912||resigned to take his seat in Congress|
|Alfred E. Smith||Democratic||New York||January, 1913||December 31, 1913|
|Thaddeus C. Sweet||Republican||Oswego||January 7, 1914||December 31, 1920||seven terms|
|H. Edmund Machold||Republican||Jefferson||January 5, 1921||December 31, 1924||four terms|
|Joseph A. McGinnies||Republican||Chautauqua||January 7, 1925||December 31, 1934||ten terms|
|Irwin Steingut||Democratic||Kings||January 2, 1935||December 31, 1935||father of Speaker Stanley Steingut|
|Irving M. Ives||Republican||Chenango||January 1, 1936||December 31, 1936|
|Oswald D. Heck||Republican||Schenectady||January 13, 1937||May 21, 1959||longest serving Speaker (22 years and 4 months), died in office during his thirteenth term|
|Joseph Carlino||Republican||Nassau||May 21, 1959||December 31, 1964||as Majority Leader became Acting Speaker upon the death of Oswald D. Heck, elected Speaker on July 1 for the remainder of the term, then re-elected to another two terms|
|Anthony J. Travia||Democratic||Kings||February 4, 1965||July 22, 1968||vacated his seat during his second term upon appointment as a federal judge|
|Moses M. Weinstein||Democratic||Queens||July 23, 1968||December 31, 1968||as Majority Leader became Acting Speaker upon Travia's resignation for the remainder of the term|
|Perry B. Duryea, Jr.||Republican||Suffolk||January 8, 1969||December 31, 1974||three terms, last Republican Speaker to date|
|Stanley Steingut||Democratic||Kings||January 8, 1975||December 31, 1978||two terms, son of Speaker Irwin Steingut|
|Stanley Fink||Democratic||Kings||January 2, 1979||December 31, 1986||four terms|
|Mel Miller||Democratic||Kings||January 8, 1987||December 13, 1991||removed from office upon federal conviction in the middle of his third term|
|James R. Tallon, Jr.||Democratic||Broome||December 13, 1991||December 16, 1991||as Majority Leader became Acting Speaker upon Miller's removal from office until the election of a successor|
|Saul Weprin||Democratic||Queens||December 16, 1991||February 11, 1994||elected for the remainder of Miller's term, then re-elected to another term, died in office|
|Sheldon Silver||Democratic||New York||February 11, 1994||February 2, 2015||elected Interim Speaker on January 24, 1994, after Weprin's incapacitation; elected Speaker for the remainder of the term after Weprin's death, and re-elected eleven times; announced resignation to take effect one minute before midnight on February 2, 2015 after conviction; Second longest serving assembly speaker in New York history|
|Joseph D. Morelle||Democratic||Monroe||February 3, 2015||February 3, 2015||as Majority Leader became Acting Speaker upon Silver's resignation. Served for less than 12 hours.|
|Carl Heastie||Democratic||Bronx||February 3, 2015||present|
Evert Bancker was an American trader and politician who was Mayor of Albany from 1695 to 1696 and from 1707 to 1709.
Evert Bancker may refer to:
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Bancker may refer to: