When the Battle of the Alamo ended at approximately 6:30 a.m. on March 6, 1836, fewer than fifty of the almost 250 Texians who had occupied the Alamo Mission in San Antonio, Texas, were alive. The conflict, a part of the Texas Revolution, was the first step in Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna's attempt to retake the province of Texas after an insurgent army of Texian settlers, native "Tejanos", and adventurers from the United States had driven out all Mexican troops the previous year. As part of his preparations for marching on Texas, in late December 1835 Santa Anna had convinced the Mexican Congress to pass a resolution that all "foreigners landing on the coast of the Republic or invading its territory by land, armed, and with the intent of attacking our country, will be deemed pirates" and subject to immediate execution.
Santa Anna led an army to San Antonio de Bexar, arriving on February 23, 1836, and immediately initiating a siege of the Alamo, which housed Texian Army troops.As the Mexican Army had approached San Antonio, several of the Alamo defenders brought their families into the Alamo to keep them safe. During the twelve days of the siege, Alamo co-commander William Barret Travis sent multiple couriers to the acting Texas government, the remaining Texas army under James Fannin, and various Texas communities, asking for reinforcements, provisions, and ammunition.
The siege culminated in an early-morning assault by Mexican troops which left almost all of the defenders dead.Some reports claimed that several Texians surrendered but were quickly executed on Santa Anna's orders. Of the Texians who fought during the battle, only two survived: Travis's slave, Joe, was assumed by the Mexican soldiers to be a noncombatant, and Brigido Guerrero, who had deserted from the Mexican Army several months before, convinced the Mexican soldiers that he had been taken prisoner by the Texians. Alamo co-commander James Bowie's freedman, Sam, was also spared, although it is not known if he participated in the fighting.
During the battle, most of the women and children had gathered in the sacristy of the church.As Mexican soldiers entered the room, a boy, thought to be the son of defender Anthony Wolf, stood up to rearrange a blanket around his shoulders. Mistaking him for a Texian soldier, the Mexican soldiers bayoneted him. In the confusion, at least one of the women was lightly wounded. Bowie's family, including Gertrudis Navarro, Juana Navarro Alsbury and her son, were hiding in one of the rooms along the west wall. Navarro opened the door to their room to signal that they meant no harm. A Mexican officer soon arrived and led the women to a spot along one of the walls where they would be relatively safe. All of the women and children were eventually placed under the protection of an officer and escorted out of the Alamo and imprisoned in the home of the Musquiz family.
On March 7, Santa Anna interviewed each of the survivors individually.He was impressed with Susanna Dickinson, the young widow of Alamo artillery captain Almaron Dickinson, and offered to adopt her infant daughter Angelina and have the child educated in Mexico City. Susanna Dickinson refused the offer, which was not extended to Juana Navarro Alsbury for her son who was of similar age.
Santa Anna ordered that the Tejano civilian survivors be allowed to return to their homes in San Antonio. Dickinson and Joe were allowed to travel towards the Anglo settlements, escorted by Ben, a former slave from the United States who served as Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte's cook.Each woman was given $2 and a blanket and was allowed to go free and spread the news of the destruction that awaited those who opposed the Mexican government. Before releasing Joe, Santa Anna ordered that the surviving members of the Mexican Army parade in a grand review, in the hopes that Joe and Dickinson would deliver a warning to the remainder of the Texian forces that his army was unbeatable.
When the small party of survivors arrived in Gonzales on March 13 they found Sam Houston, the commander of all Texian forces, waiting there with about 400 men. After Dickinson and Joe related the details of the battle and the strength of Santa Anna's army, Houston advised all civilians to evacuate and then ordered the army to retreat. This was the beginning of the Runaway Scrape, in which much of the population of Texas, including the acting government, rushed to the East to escape the advancing Mexican Army.
|Name||Status in the Alamo||Birth–Death||Notes|
|James L. Allen||Soldier||1815–1901||Allen left the Alamo on March 5. He was the last courier to leave.|
|Horace Alsbury||Soldier||1805–1847||When Mexican troops arrived on February 23, Travis sent Alsbury as the first courier. His wife Juana was inside the fortress and later provided John Salmon Ford with her account of the battle.|
|Juana Navarro Alsbury||Civilian noncombatant||1808–1888||Alsbury entered the Alamo for protection at the invitation of her cousin-in-law James Bowie, after her husband, Horace Alsbury, was sent on a scouting mission for the Texian Army.|
|Jose Maria Arocha||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Simon Arreola||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Jesse B. Badgett||—||1807–1858||He and Samuel A. Maverick were elected February 5 to represent the garrison at the Convention of 1836 which convened March 1 at Washington-on-the-Brazos.|
|Andrew Barcena||Soldier||–||Also known as Andres Barcinas, he and Anselmo Bergara had been part of Seguín's company. They were the first witnesses of the Alamo's fall to arrive in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Houston denounced them as Mexican spies and had them arrested, but Barcena fought under Seguín at the Battle of San Jacinto.|
|Samuel G. Bastain||—||—||Bastain left February 29 as a courier to reiterate urgency to Gonzales reinforcements, whom he joined en route. On the return trip, they were unable to enter the Alamo.|
|John Walker Baylor, Jr.||Soldier||1813–1836||According to his family, Baylor left the Alamo as a courier, probably February 25. He died of complications from wounds suffered at the Battle of San Jacinto.|
|Anselmo Bergara||Soldier||1778–||He and Andrew Barcena had been part of Seguín's company. Bergara And Barcena are said to have been sent to warn Houston of the impending Alamo’s fall. Arrived in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Bergara later fought under Seguín as part of his cavalry troop.|
|Bettie||Civilian noncombatant||–||Bettie was a black cook for the garrison. When Mexican troops entered the kitchens, Charlie grabbed a young Mexican officer and threatened to kill him unless the soldiers spared his life and Bettie's. Thomas Ricks Lindley speculated that Bettie was a servant in the Veramendi home, where James Bowie, Juana Navarro Alsbury and Gertrudis Navarro lived.|
|Robert Brown||Soldier||~1818–||Brown left as a courier after February 25.|
|Cesario Carmona||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|María de Jesús Castro|
also known as María de Jesús Esparza
|Civilian noncombatant||1826–1899||Castro was the stepdaughter of defender Gregorio Esparza.|
|Charlie||Slave||–||When Mexican troops entered the kitchens, Charlie grabbed a young Mexican officer and threatened to kill him unless the soldiers spared his life and Bettie's.|
|Antonio Cruz y Arocha||Soldier||–||On February 25, Cruz accompanied Juan Seguin to gather reinforcements.|
|Matias Curvier||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Alexandro De La Garza||Soldier||–||He left as a courier.|
|Francis L. Desauque||Soldier||?–1836||Desaque left Bexar to obtain provisions for the garrison about February 22. He died in the Goliad massacre.|
|Angelina Dickinson||Civilian noncombatant||1834–1869||Dickinson was the daughter of defender Almaron Dickinson and his wife Susanna. After the battle, Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna offered to adopt her, but Susanna Dickinson refused to give up her child.|
|Susanna Dickinson||Civilian noncombatant||1814–1883||Dickinson was the wife of defender Almaron Dickinson. After the battle, Santa Anna sent Dickinson and William Barret Travis's slave Joe to Gonzales to warn the Texian colonists of the dangers of opposing Santa Anna.|
|Philip Dimmitt||Captain of a company of soldiers||1801–1841||Dimmitt left the Alamo on February 23 to gather reinforcements. He was captured by a Mexican raiding party in 1841 and committed suicide after being threatened with execution.|
|Lucio Enriques||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Ana Salazar Esparza||Civilian noncombatant||?–1847||Esparza was the wife of defender Gregorio Esparza, and the mother of Maria de Jesus Castro and Enrique, Francisco, and Manuel Esparza. After the battle she and her children were allowed to return to their home in San Antonio.|
|Enrique Esparza||Civilian noncombatant||1828–1917||Esparza was the son of defender Gregorio Esparza and Ana Salazar Esparza.|
|Francisco Esparza||Civilian noncombatant||1833–1887||Esparza was the son of defender Gregorio Esparza and Ana Salazar Esparza.|
|Manuel Esparza||Civilian noncombatant||1830–1886||Esparza was the son of defender Gregorio Esparza and Ana Salazar Esparza.|
|Manuel N. Flores||Soldier||1799–1867||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Salvador Flores||Soldier||1806–1855||Flores left with Seguín on February 25. During the Runaway Scrape, he led a part of Seguín's company in guarding fleeing families.|
|Petra Gonzales||Civilian noncombatant||–||Gonzales may have been an elderly relative of Ana Salazar Esparza.|
|Ignacio Gurrea||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Brigido Guerrero||Soldier||~1810–||Guerrero had deserted the Mexican Army to join the Texians in December 1835. When he realized the Texians could not prevail at the Battle of the Alamo, he locked himself in a cell and convinced the Mexican Army that he was a prisoner of the Texians.|
|Pedro Herrera||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Benjamin Franklin Highsmith||Soldier||1817–1905||Left as a courier, probably just before the siege began. Although he attempted to return to the garrison on March 5, he was chased away by Mexican soldiers.|
|Joe||Slave of William B. Travis||1813/1815–||When the battle commenced, Joe fought alongside Travis. After Travis's death, Joe hid in the chapel. Mexican soldiers assumed him to be a noncombatant.|
|John Johnson||Soldier||1800||Dispatched as courier February 23.|
|Byrd Lockhart||Soldier||1782–1839||On February 23, Lockhart and Andrew Jackson Sowell were scouting for provisions when the Mexican Army arrived. Fearing that they would be unable to re-enter the Alamo, they went to Gonzales.|
|Concepcion Losoya||Civilian noncombatant||–||Losoya was either the sister or mother of Juana Melton, wife of Alamo quartermaster Eliel Melton, and possibly the mother of defender Toribio Losoya.|
|Juan Losoya||Civilian noncombatant||Losoya was the son of Concepcion Losoya.|
|Samuel Maverick||Soldier and delegate||1803–1870||Elected a delegate from the Alamo garrison on Feb. 1 to the March independence convention, left the Alamo garrison on March 2.|
|Juana Melton||Civilian noncombatant||Melton was the wife of Alamo quartermaster Eliel Melton, and either the sister or daughter of Concepcion Losoya.|
|Antonio Menchaca||Soldier||1800–1879||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Gerald Navan||Soldier||—||Dispatched as courier March 3.|
|Gertrudis Navarro||Civilian noncombatant||1816–1895||Navarro was the sister of Juana Navarro Alsbury. She entered the Alamo for protection at the invitation of her cousin-in-law James Bowie.|
|Benjamin F. Nobles||Soldier||–||Nobles left the Alamo with Dimitt on February 23.|
|William Sanders Oury||Soldier||1817–1887||Oury left the Alamo as a courier on February 29.|
|Jose Sebastian de Jesus Pacheco "Luciano"||Soldier||1819 –1898||"Luciano" was recognized for his service as a veteran of the Texas Revolution on February 27, 1875, in his Republic pension claim. An affidavit was signed by Juan Seguin on February 6, 1875, affirming that Luciano was indeed a member of Seguin's company and had entered the Alamo with Seguin himself and Jim Bowie. Luciano was sent by Seguin and William Travis to fetch a trunk from Seguin's rancho. Upon returning, he was unable to reenter the Alamo due to Mexican patrols. Luciano was one of the final three surviving veterans of the Alamo when he died in Graytown, Texas, on August 25, 1898.|
|William Hester Patton||Captain of a company of soldiers||1808–||Patton left the Alamo, likely as a courier.|
|Alijo Perez Jr.||Civilian noncombatant||1835–1918||Perez entered the Alamo with his mother, Juana Navarro Alsbury. Perez was probably the last living survivor of the Alamo.|
|Eduardo Ramirez||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Ambrosio Rodriguez||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|Victoriana de Salina and three children||Civilian noncombatant||–||Three daughters accompanied her into the Alamo. Their names and ages are unknown.|
|[[Moses Rose]]||Soldier||1780s [?]— 1850/1851[?]||Allowed to leave the Alamo March 5, 1836|
|Sam||Slave of James Bowie||–||Sam was spared because he was a slave. Historian Walter Lord believed that Sam did not exist and that contemporaries actually meant Ben, a former slave who served as Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte's cook and later guided Susanna Dickinson from San Antonio. Thomas Ricks Lindley speculated that Sam was actually a servant at the Veramendi home, where James Bowie, Juana Navarro Alsbury, and Gertrudis Navarro lived.|
|Trinidad Saucedo||Civilian noncombatant||1809–||Saucedo may have accompanied Juana Navarro Alsbury into the Alamo. She left during a three-day armistice.|
|Juan Seguin||Captain of a cavalry company||1806–1890||Seguin left on February 25 to recruit reinforcements. After encountering a Mexican patrol he pretended to be an officer in the Mexican Army. When he neared the soldiers he spurred his horse and used his knowledge of the terrain to escape.|
|Silvero||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
|John William Smith||Scout||1792–1845||Smith first left the Alamo on February 23 with one of Travis's first pleas for help. On March 1 he guided the 32 reinforcements from Gonzales into the Alamo, and left again on March 3 with another message from Travis. He was returning to San Antonio with 25 reinforcements when the Alamo fell.|
|Launcelot Smither||Soldier||1800–1842||Left on February 23, possibly as an official courier. He was later killed by members of Mexican General Adrián Woll's force.|
|Andrew Jackson Sowell||Soldier||1815–1883||On February 23, Sowell and Boyd Lockhart were scouting for provisions when the Mexican Army arrived. Fearing that they would be unable to re-enter the Alamo, they went to Gonzales.|
|John Sutherland, Jr.||Soldier||1792–1867||Historians disagree on whether Sutherland was ever present at the Alamo. If he was, he left as a courier on February 23.|
|Henry Warnell||Soldier||1812–1836||Historians disagree on whether Warnell was at the Alamo. The historians who place Warnell in the Alamo believe Warnell either escaped during the battle on March 6 or that he left as a courier. Warnell died in Port Lavaca, Texas of wounds incurred either during the final battle or during his escape as a courier.|
|Vicente Zepeda||Soldier||—||Juan Seguin's volunteers.|
James Bowie was a 19th-century American pioneer, slave trader and soldier who played a prominent role in the Texas Revolution, culminating in his death at the Battle of the Alamo. Stories of him as a fighter and frontiersman, both real and fictitious, have made him a legendary figure in Texas history and a folk hero of American culture.
The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian and immigrant occupiers. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians, both legal Texas settlers and illegal immigrants from the United States, to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the rebellion.
Manuel Fernández Castrillón was a major general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He was a close friend of General and Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna. During the Texas Revolution, Castrillón advocated for mercy for captured Texian soldiers. He was killed at the Battle of San Jacinto, despite attempts by Republic of Texas Secretary of War Thomas Rusk to save his life.
Juan Nepomuceno Seguín was a Spanish-Tejano political and military figure of the Texas Revolution who helped to establish the independence of Texas. Numerous places and institutions are named in his honor, including the county seat of Seguin in Guadalupe County, the Juan N. Seguin Memorial Interchange in Houston, Juan Seguin Monument in Seguin, World War II Liberty Ship SS Juan N. Seguin, Seguin High School in Arlington.
José Antonio Navarro was a Texas statesman, revolutionary, rancher, and merchant. The son of Ángel Navarro and Josefa María Ruiz y Peña, he was born into a distinguished noble family at San Antonio de Béxar in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. His uncle was José Francisco Ruiz and his brother-in-law was Juan Martín de Veramendi.
The Grass Fight was a small battle during the Texas Revolution, fought between the Mexican Army and the Texian Army. The battle took place on November 26, 1835, just south of San Antonio de Béxar in the Mexican region of Texas. The Texas Revolution had officially begun on October 2 and by the end of the month the Texian had initiated a siege of Béxar, home of the largest Mexican garrison in the province. Bored with the inactivity, many of the Texian soldiers returned home; a smaller number of adventurers from the United States arrived to replace them. After the Texian Army rejected commander-in-chief Stephen F. Austin's call to launch an assault on Béxar on November 22, Austin resigned from the army. The men elected Edward Burleson their new commander-in-chief.
Susanna Wilkerson Dickinson and her infant daughter, Angelina, were among the few American survivors of 1836 Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Her husband, Almaron Dickinson, and 185 other Texian defenders were killed by the Mexican Army.
To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World is an open letter written on February 24, 1836, by William B. Travis, commander of the Texian forces at the Battle of the Alamo, to settlers in Mexican Texas. The letter is renowned as a "declaration of defiance" and a "masterpiece of American patriotism", and forms part of the history education of Texas schoolchildren.
Juana Gertrudis Navarro Alsbury was one of the few Texian survivors of the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution in 1836. As Mexican forces entered her hometown, San Antonio de Bexar, on February 23, Alsbury's cousin by marriage, James Bowie, brought her with him to the Alamo Mission so that he could protect her. Bowie, the co-commander of the Texian forces, collapsed from illness on the second day of the siege; Alsbury nursed him throughout the remainder of the siege. On March 4, Texian co-commander William Barret Travis sent her as an emissary to Mexican commander Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to negotiate an honorable surrender for the Texian forces. She made no headway, and her visit likely increased Santa Anna's impatience to end the siege in a spectacular fashion. Santa Anna launched an early-morning assault on the Alamo on March 6.
The Texian Army, also known as the Revolutionary Army and Army of the People, was the land warfare branch of the Texian armed forces during the Texas Revolution. It spontaneously formed from the Texian Militia in October 1835 following the Battle of Gonzales. Along with the Texian Navy, it helped the Republic of Texas win independence from the Centralist Republic of Mexico on May 14, 1836 at the Treaties of Velasco. Although the Texas Army was officially established by the Consultation of the Republic of Texas on November 13, 1835, it did not replace the Texian Army until after the Battle of San Jacinto.
The Siege of the Alamo describes the first thirteen days of the Battle of the Alamo. On February 23, Mexican troops under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna entered San Antonio de Bexar, Texas and surrounded the Alamo Mission. The Alamo was defended by a small force of Texians and Tejanos, led by William Barrett Travis and James Bowie, and included Davy Crockett. Before beginning his assault on the Alamo, Santa Anna offered them one last chance to surrender. Travis replied by opening fire on the Mexican forces and, in doing so, effectively sealed their fate. The siege ended when the Mexican Army launched an early-morning assault on March 6. Almost all of the defenders were killed, although several civilians survived.
Philip Dimmitt (1801–1841) was an officer in the Texian Army during the Texas Revolution. Born in Kentucky, Dimmitt moved to Texas in 1823 and soon operated a series of trading posts. After learning that Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos was en route to Texas in the year 1835 (??) to quell the unrest, Dimmitt proposed that the general be kidnapped on his arrival at Copano. The plan was shelved when fighting broke out at Gonzales, but by early October, 1835, it had been resuscitated by a group of volunteers at Matamoros. Not knowing that Cos had already departed for San Antonio de Bexar, this group decided to corner Cos at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad. Dimmitt joined them en route, and participated in the battle of Goliad.
The Battle of the Alamo left a substantial legacy and influence within American culture and is an event that is told from the perspective of the vanquished.
Salvador Flores served as a volunteer in the Texan Army in 1835–1836. He was instrumental in organizing and commanding Texian volunteers in support of the Texas Revolution. He participated in many battles and would rise through the ranks to reach Captain status during the fight for Texas independence from Mexico. Salvador continued to provide protection for the ranches and settlers of Texas throughout the Republic years.
José Gregorio Esparza, also known as Gregorio Esparza, was the last Texan defender to enter the Alamo during the early days of March 1836 in the Siege of the Alamo and was the only one that was not burned in the pyres. He had brought his family into the Alamo compound along with him. They were able to survive the battle and were not executed by the conquering army.
José Toribio Losoya, was a former Mexican soldier, a Texian military participant in the Siege of Bexar and Battle of the Alamo defender.
Andrew Jackson Sowell was a lifelong soldier and farmer in the 19th century. He was a participant in the Texas Revolution and a survivor of the siege of the Alamo. He continued his service during the years of the Republic of Texas, in the Mexican–American War, and the Civil War. He was a frontier defender, early Texas Ranger, and a friend and scout with Kit Carson.
Antonio Gaona (1793–1848) was a general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He served under Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna during the Texas revolution and Mexican–American War.
Juan Valentín Amador (1793–1848) was a general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He served under Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna during the Texas revolution.