List of Texian survivors of the Battle of the Alamo

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Juan Seguin left the Alamo as a courier. Juan seguin.jpg
Juan Seguín left the Alamo as a courier.

When the Battle of the Alamo ended at approximately 6:30 a.m. on March 6, 1836, fewer than fifty of the almost 250 Texians who had occupied the Alamo Mission in San Antonio, Texas, were alive. [1] The conflict, a part of the Texas Revolution, was the first step in Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna's attempt to retake the province of Texas after an insurgent army of Texian settlers, native "Tejanos", and adventurers from the United States had driven out all Mexican troops the previous year. [2] As part of his preparations for marching on Texas, in late December 1835 Santa Anna had convinced the Mexican Congress to pass a resolution that all "foreigners landing on the coast of the Republic or invading its territory by land, armed, and with the intent of attacking our country, will be deemed pirates" and subject to immediate execution. [3]

Battle of the Alamo Major battle of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian and immigrant occupiers. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians, both legal Texas settlers and illegal immigrants from the United States, to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the rebellion.

Texians were residents of Mexican Texas and, later, the Republic of Texas.

Alamo Mission in San Antonio famous fort in San Antonio, Texas

The Alamo Mission in San Antonio, commonly called The Alamo and originally known as the Misión San Antonio de Valero, is a historic Spanish mission and fortress compound founded in the 18th century by Roman Catholic missionaries in what is now San Antonio, Texas, United States. It was the site of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District and a part of the San Antonio Missions World Heritage Site.

Contents

Santa Anna led an army to San Antonio de Bexar, arriving on February 23, 1836, and immediately initiating a siege of the Alamo, which housed Texian Army troops. [4] As the Mexican Army had approached San Antonio, several of the Alamo defenders brought their families into the Alamo to keep them safe. [5] [6] During the twelve days of the siege, Alamo co-commander William Barret Travis sent multiple couriers to the acting Texas government, the remaining Texas army under James Fannin, and various Texas communities, asking for reinforcements, provisions, and ammunition. [7]

San Antonio City in Texas, United States

San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality.

Siege of the Alamo Siege of the Texas Revolution

The Siege of the Alamo describes the first thirteen days of the Battle of the Alamo. On February 23, Mexican troops under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna entered San Antonio de Bexar, Texas and surrounded the Alamo Mission. The Alamo was defended by a small force of Texians and Tejanos, led by William Barrett Travis and James Bowie, and included Davy Crockett. Before beginning his assault on the Alamo, Santa Anna offered them one last chance to surrender. Travis replied by opening fire on the Mexican forces and, in doing so, effectively sealed their fate. The siege ended when the Mexican Army launched an early-morning assault on March 6. Almost all of the defenders were killed, although several civilians survived.

The Consultation served as the provisional government of Mexican Texas from October 1835 to March 1836 during the Texas Revolution. Tensions rose in Texas during early 1835 as throughout Mexico federalists began to oppose the increasingly centralist policies of the government. In the summer, Texians elected delegates to a political convention to be held in Gonzales in mid-October. Weeks before the convention and war began, settlers took up arms against Mexican soldiers at the Battle of Gonzales. The convention was postponed until November 1 after many of the delegates joined the newly organized volunteer Texian Army to initiate a siege of the Mexican garrison at San Antonio de Bexar. On November 3, a quorum was reached in San Antonio. Within days, the delegates passed a resolution to define why Texians were fighting. They expressed allegiance to the deposed Constitution of 1824 and maintained their right to form an independent government while this document was not in effect. Henry Smith was elected governor of the new provisional government and the remaining delegates formed a General Council. In the next weeks, the council authorized the creation of a new regular army to be commanded by Sam Houston. As Houston worked to establish an army independent from the existing volunteer army, the council repeatedly interfered in military matters.

The siege culminated in an early-morning assault by Mexican troops which left almost all of the defenders dead. [3] [8] Some reports claimed that several Texians surrendered but were quickly executed on Santa Anna's orders. [8] Of the Texians who fought during the battle, only two survived: Travis's slave, Joe, was assumed by the Mexican soldiers to be a noncombatant, [9] and Brigido Guerrero, who had deserted from the Mexican Army several months before, convinced the Mexican soldiers that he had been taken prisoner by the Texians. [10] Alamo co-commander James Bowie's freedman, Sam, was also spared, although it is not known if he participated in the fighting. [9]

James Bowie nineteenth-century American pioneer, soldier, smuggler, slave trader, and land speculator, played a prominent role in the Texas Revolution

James Bowie was a 19th-century American pioneer who played a prominent role in the Texas Revolution, culminating in his death at the Battle of the Alamo. Stories of him as a fighter and frontiersman, both real and fictitious, have made him a legendary figure in Texas history and a folk hero of American culture.

A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves were freed either by manumission or emancipation. A fugitive slave is one who escaped slavery by fleeing.

Susanna Dickinson Alamo77dickinson.jpg
Susanna Dickinson

During the battle, most of the women and children had gathered in the sacristy of the church. [11] As Mexican soldiers entered the room, a boy, thought to be the son of defender Anthony Wolf, stood up to rearrange a blanket around his shoulders. Mistaking him for a Texian soldier, the Mexican soldiers bayoneted him. [12] In the confusion, at least one of the women was lightly wounded. [9] Bowie's family, including Gertrudis Navarro, Juana Navarro Alsbury and her son, were hiding in one of the rooms along the west wall. Navarro opened the door to their room to signal that they meant no harm. [13] A Mexican officer soon arrived and led the women to a spot along one of the walls where they would be relatively safe. [14] All of the women and children were eventually placed under the protection of an officer and escorted out of the Alamo and imprisoned in the home of the Musquiz family. [12]

Sacristy part of a church

A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments and other church furnishings, sacred vessels, and parish records. In some countries, it is known as the vestry.

On March 7, Santa Anna interviewed each of the survivors individually. [15] [16] He was impressed with Susanna Dickinson, the young widow of Alamo artillery captain Almaron Dickinson, and offered to adopt her infant daughter Angelina and have the child educated in Mexico City. Susanna Dickinson refused the offer, which was not extended to Juana Navarro Alsbury for her son who was of similar age. [15]

Susanna Dickinson Alamo survivor

Susanna Wilkerson Dickinson and her infant daughter, Angelina, were among the few American survivors of 1836 Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Her husband, Almaron Dickinson, and 185 other Texian defenders were killed by the Mexican Army.

Almaron Dickinson was a Texian soldier and defender during the Battle of the Alamo, fought during the Texas Revolution. Dickinson is best known as the artillery officer of the small garrison, and the husband of one of the only three non-Mexican survivors to live through the battle, Susanna Dickinson, as well as the father to their infant daughter Angelina, whose life was also spared.

Juana Gertrudis Navarro Alsbury was one of the few Texian survivors of the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution in 1836. As Mexican forces entered her hometown, San Antonio de Bexar, on February 23, Alsbury's cousin by marriage, James Bowie, brought her with him to the Alamo Mission so that he could protect her. Bowie, the co-commander of the Texian forces, collapsed from illness on the second day of the siege; Alsbury nursed him throughout the remainder of the siege. On March 4, Texian co-commander William Barret Travis sent her as an emissary to Mexican commander Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to negotiate an honorable surrender for the Texian forces. She made no headway, and her visit likely increased Santa Anna's impatience to end the siege in a spectacular fashion. Santa Anna launched an early-morning assault on the Alamo on March 6.

Santa Anna ordered that the Tejano civilian survivors be allowed to return to their homes in San Antonio. Dickinson and Joe were allowed to travel towards the Anglo settlements, escorted by Ben, a former slave from the United States who served as Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte's cook. [15] Each woman was given $2 and a blanket and was allowed to go free and spread the news of the destruction that awaited those who opposed the Mexican government. Before releasing Joe, Santa Anna ordered that the surviving members of the Mexican Army parade in a grand review, [17] in the hopes that Joe and Dickinson would deliver a warning to the remainder of the Texian forces that his army was unbeatable. [15]

Tejano resident of the state of Texas culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Texas and northern Mexico

Tejanos are the Hispanic residents of the state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of Tejas, Coahuila, and other northern Mexican states. They may be variously of Criollo Spaniard or Mestizo origin. Alongside Californios and Neomexicanos, Tejanos are part of the larger Chicano/Mexican-American/Hispano community of the United States, who have lived in the American Southwest since the 16th century.

Juan Almonte Mexican general, diplomat and regent

Juan Nepomuceno Almonte was a 19th-century Mexican official, soldier and diplomat. He was a veteran of the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Almonte was also a leader of Mexico's Conservatives in the 1860s and served as regent after the Second Mexican Empire was established by Napoleon III of France.

When the small party of survivors arrived in Gonzales on March 13 they found Sam Houston, the commander of all Texian forces, waiting there with about 400 men. [18] [19] After Dickinson and Joe related the details of the battle and the strength of Santa Anna's army, Houston advised all civilians to evacuate [18] and then ordered the army to retreat. [20] This was the beginning of the Runaway Scrape, in which much of the population of Texas, including the acting government, rushed to the East to escape the advancing Mexican Army. [21]

List of survivors

NameStatus in the AlamoBirthDeathNotes
James L. AllenSoldierJanuary 2, 1815 April 25, 1901Allen left the Alamo on March 5. He was the last courier to leave. [22]
Horace Alsbury Soldier1805 - 1847When Mexican troops arrived on February 23, Travis sent Alsbury as the first courier. His wife Juana was inside the fortress and later provided John Salmon Ford with her account of the battle. [23]
Juana Navarro Alsbury Civilian noncombatantDecember 1808 July 25, 1888Alsbury entered the Alamo for protection at the invitation of her cousin-in-law James Bowie, after her husband, Horace Alsbury, was sent on a scouting mission for the Texian Army. [24] [25] [26]
Jose Maria ArochaSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Simon ArreolaSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Jesse B. Badgett1807 - 1858He and Samuel A. Maverick were elected February 5 to represent the garrison at the Convention of 1836 which convened March 1 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. [27]
Andrew BarcenaSoldierunknownAlso known as Andres Barcinas, he and Anselmo Bergara had been part of Seguín's company. They were the first witnesses of the Alamo's fall to arrive in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Houston denounced them as Mexican spies and had them arrested, but Barcena fought under Seguín at the Battle of San Jacinto. [28]
Samuel G. BastainBastain left February 29 as a courier to reiterate urgency to Gonzales reinforcements, whom he joined en route. On the return trip, they were unable to enter the Alamo. [29]
John Walker Baylor, Jr.SoldierDecember 1813 September 3, 1836According to his family, Baylor left the Alamo as a courier, probably February 25. He died of complications from wounds suffered at the Battle of San Jacinto. [30] [31]
Anselmo BergaraSoldierB.) 1778 - San Fernando de BejarHe and Andrew Barcena had been part of Seguín's company. Bergara And Barcena are said to have been sent to warn Houston of the impending Alamo’s fall. Arrived in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Bergara later fought under Seguín as part of his cavalry troop. [32]
BettieCivilian noncombatantunknownBettie was a black cook for the garrison. When Mexican troops entered the kitchens, Charlie grabbed a young Mexican officer and threatened to kill him unless the soldiers spared his life and Bettie's. [33] Thomas Ricks Lindley speculated that Bettie was a servant in the Veramendi home, where James Bowie, Juana Navarro Alsbury and Gertrudis Navarro lived. [5]
Robert BrownSoldierb. possibly 1818Brown left as a courier after February 25. [31] [34]
Cesario CarmonaSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
María de Jesús Castro
also known as María de Jesús Esparza
Civilian noncombatantJanuary 11, 1826 1899Castro was the stepdaughter of defender Gregorio Esparza. [26] [35]
CharlieSlaveunknownWhen Mexican troops entered the kitchens, Charlie grabbed a young Mexican officer and threatened to kill him unless the soldiers spared his life and Bettie's. [33]
Antonio Cruz y ArochaSoldierunknownOn February 25, Cruz accompanied Juan Seguin to gather reinforcements. [36] [37]
Matias CurvierSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Alexandro De La GarzaSoldierunknownHe left as a courier. [38]
Francis L. DesauqueSoldierd. March 27, 1836Desaque left Bexar to obtain provisions for the garrison about February 22. He died in the Goliad massacre. [39]
Angelina DickinsonCivilian noncombatant18341869Dickinson was the daughter of defender Almaron Dickinson and his wife Susanna. After the battle, Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna offered to adopt her, but Susanna Dickinson refused to give up her child. [15] [40]
Susanna Dickinson Civilian noncombatant1814 October 7, 1883Dickinson was the wife of defender Almaron Dickinson. After the battle, Santa Anna sent Dickinson and William Barret Travis's slave Joe to Gonzales to warn the Texian colonists of the dangers of opposing Santa Anna. [15] [26] [40]
Philip Dimmitt Captain of a company of soldiers1801 July 8, 1841Dimmitt left the Alamo on February 23 to gather reinforcements. He was captured by a Mexican raiding party in 1841 and committed suicide after being threatened with execution. [37] [41]
Lucio EnriquesSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Ana Salazar EsparzaCivilian noncombatantd. December 12, 1847Esparza was the wife of defender Gregorio Esparza, and the mother of Maria de Jesus Castro and Enrique, Francisco, and Manuel Esparza. After the battle she and her children were allowed to return to their home in San Antonio. [15] [42]
Enrique EsparzaCivilian noncombatantSeptember 1828 December 20, 1917Esparza was the son of defender Gregorio Esparza and Ana Salazar Esparza. [42]
Francisco EsparzaCivilian noncombatant1833 July 1887Esparza was the son of defender Gregorio Esparza and Ana Salazar Esparza. [43]
Manuel EsparzaCivilian noncombatantOctober 19, 1830 1886Esparza was the son of defender Gregorio Esparza and Ana Salazar Esparza. [44]
Manuel N. Flores Soldier1799 - 1867Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Salvador Flores Soldier1806 - 1855Flores left with Seguín on February 25. During the Runaway Scrape, he led a part of Seguín's company in guarding fleeing families. [45]
Petra GonzalesCivilian noncombatantunknownGonzales may have been an elderly relative of Ana Salazar Esparza. [46]
Ignacio GurreaSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Brigido GuerreroSoldierb. about 1810Guerrero had deserted the Mexican Army to join the Texians in December 1835. When he realized the Texians could not prevail at the Battle of the Alamo, he locked himself in a cell and convinced the Mexican Army that he was a prisoner of the Texians. [10] [37] [47]
Pedro HerreraSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Benjamin Franklin HighsmithSoldierSeptember 11, 1817 October 20, 1905Left as a courier, probably just before the siege began. Although he attempted to return to the garrison on March 5, he was chased away by Mexican soldiers. [37] [48]
JoeSlave of William B. Travis b. 1813 or 1815When the battle commenced, Joe fought alongside Travis. After Travis's death, Joe hid in the chapel. Mexican soldiers assumed him to be a noncombatant. [37] [49] [50]
John JohnsonSoldier1800Dispatched as courier February 23. [51]
William JohnsonSoldier [52]
Byrd Lockhart Soldier17821839On February 23, Lockhart and Andrew Jackson Sowell were scouting for provisions when the Mexican Army arrived. Fearing that they would be unable to re-enter the Alamo, they went to Gonzales. [53] [54]
Concepcion LosoyaCivilian noncombatantunknownLosoya was either the sister or mother of Juana Melton, wife of Alamo quartermaster Eliel Melton, and possibly the mother of defender Toribio Losoya. [5] [26] [33]
Juan LosoyaCivilian noncombatantunknownLosoya was the son of Concepcion Losoya. [33]
Samuel Maverick Soldier and delegateJuly 23, 1803 September 2, 1870Elected a delegate from the Alamo garrison on Feb. 1 to the March independence convention, left the Alamo garrison on March 2. [55]
Juana MeltonCivilian noncombatantunknownMelton was the wife of Alamo quartermaster Eliel Melton, and either the sister or daughter of Concepcion Losoya. [5] [33]
Antonio Menchaca Soldier1800 - 1879Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Gerald NavanSoldierDispatched as courier March 3. [56]
Gertrudis NavarroCivilian noncombatantNovember 26, 1816 April 1895Navarro was the sister of Juana Navarro Alsbury. She entered the Alamo for protection at the invitation of her cousin-in-law James Bowie. [25] [57]
Benjamin F. NoblesSoldierunknownNobles left the Alamo with Dimitt on February 23. [58]
William Sanders OurySoldierAugust 13, 1817 March 31, 1887Oury left the Alamo as a courier on February 29. [59]
Jose Sebastian de Jesus Pacheco [60] "Luciano" [61] SoldierJune 11, 1819 [60] August 25, 1898"Luciano" was recognized for his service as a veteran of the Texas Revolution on February 27, 1875, in his Republic pension claim. [62] An affidavit was signed by Juan Seguin on February 6, 1875, affirming that Luciano was indeed a member of Seguin's company and had entered the Alamo with Seguin himself and Jim Bowie. Luciano was sent by Seguin and William Travis to fetch a trunk from Seguin's rancho. Upon returning, he was unable to reenter the Alamo due to Mexican patrols. [63] Luciano was one of the final three surviving veterans of the Alamo when he died in Graytown, Texas, on August 25, 1898. [64] [65]
William Hester PattonCaptain of a company of soldiersb. 1808Patton left the Alamo, likely as a courier. [66]
Alijo Perez Jr.Civilian noncombatantMarch 23, 1835 October 21, 1918Perez entered the Alamo with his mother, Juana Navarro Alsbury. [25] [67] Perez was the last living survivor of the Alamo. [68]
Eduardo RamirezSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Ambrosio RodriguezSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Victoriana de Salina and three childrenCivilian noncombatantunknownThree daughters accompanied her into the Alamo. Their names and ages are unknown. [33]
SamSlave of James Bowie unknownSam was spared because he was a slave. [47] Historian Walter Lord believed that Sam did not exist and that contemporaries actually meant Ben, a former slave who served as Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte's cook and later guided Susanna Dickinson from San Antonio. [69] Thomas Ricks Lindley speculated that Sam was actually a servant at the Veramendi home, where James Bowie, Juana Navarro Alsbury, and Gertrudis Navarro lived. [5]
Trinidad SaucedoCivilian noncombatantb. 1809Saucedo may have accompanied Juana Navarro Alsbury into the Alamo. She left during a three-day armistice. [70]
Juan Seguin Captain of a cavalry companyOctober 27, 1806 August 27, 1890Seguin left on February 25 to recruit reinforcements. After encountering a Mexican patrol he pretended to be an officer in the Mexican Army. When he neared the soldiers he spurred his horse and used his knowledge of the terrain to escape. [70] [71]
SilveroSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
John William Smith ScoutMarch 4, 1792 January 12, 1845Smith first left the Alamo on February 23 with one of Travis's first pleas for help. [72] On March 1 he guided the 32 reinforcements from Gonzales into the Alamo, [73] and left again on March 3 with another message from Travis. He was returning to San Antonio with 25 reinforcements when the Alamo fell. [74] [75]
Launcelot SmitherSoldier1800 September 11, 1842Left on February 23, possibly as an official courier. He was later killed by members of Mexican General Adrián Woll's force. [76]
Andrew Jackson Sowell SoldierJune 17, 1815 January 4, 1883On February 23, Sowell and Boyd Lockhart were scouting for provisions when the Mexican Army arrived. Fearing that they would be unable to re-enter the Alamo, they went to Gonzales. [77] [78]
John Sutherland, Jr.SoldierMay 11, 1792 April 11, 1867Historians disagree on whether Sutherland was ever present at the Alamo. If he was, he left as a courier on February 23. [75] [79]
Henry WarnellSoldier1812 June 1836Historians disagree on whether Warnell was at the Alamo. The historians who place Warnell in the Alamo believe Warnell either escaped during the battle on March 6 or that he left as a courier. Warnell died in Port Lavaca, Texas of wounds incurred either during the final battle or during his escape as a courier. [33] [80]
Vicente ZepedaSoldierJuan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Some Tejanos were part of the Bexar military garrison, but others were part of Seguin's volunteer scout company and were in the Alamo on or before Feb 23. Enrique Esparza, who was inside the fortress as the son of defender Gregorio Esparza, later recalled that Santa Anna offered a three-day amnesty to all Tejano defenders. According to Esparza, Tejanos discussed the matter with Bowie who advised them to take the amnesty. It is believed most of the Tejanos left when Seguin did, either as couriers or because of the amnesty. Poyo (1996), p. 53, 58 Efficient in the Cause (Stephen L. Harden); Lindley (2003), p. 94, 134

Footnotes

  1. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 166.
  2. Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 26.
  3. 1 2 Scott, After the Alamo, p. 71.
  4. Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 303.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Lindley (2003), p. 94.
  6. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 95.
  7. Edmondson, The Alamo Story, pp. 302, 312, 345.
  8. 1 2 Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 373.
  9. 1 2 3 Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, p. 123.
  10. 1 2 Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 5556.
  11. Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 371.
  12. 1 2 Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 372.
  13. Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 54.
  14. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 165.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 55.
  16. Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 376.
  17. Edmondson The Alamo Story, p. 377.
  18. 1 2 Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 67.
  19. Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, p. 139.
  20. Lord, The Alamo, p. 182.
  21. Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 68.
  22. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 1.
  23. Matovina (1995), pp. 45–48; Lindley (2003), p. 87.
  24. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 56.
  25. 1 2 3 Hopewell, James Bowie: Texas Fighting Man, p. 119.
  26. 1 2 3 4 Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 91.
  27. Kemp, L. W. "Jesse B. Badgett". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
  28. Moore (2004), pp. 45–46, 451
  29. Lindley (2003), p. 131
  30. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 12.
  31. 1 2 Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 88.
  32. Moore (2004), pp. 45–46, 163, 171
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 407.
  34. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 2021.
  35. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 47.
  36. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p 29.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 89.
  38. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 33.
  39. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 34.
  40. 1 2 Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, p. 127.
  41. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 4445.
  42. 1 2 Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 43.
  43. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 44.
  44. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 46.
  45. de la Teja (1991), pp. 18, 135,182; Lindley (2003), pp. 94, 112; Moore (2004), p. 60
  46. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 54.
  47. 1 2 Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, p. 126.
  48. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 60.
  49. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 6465.
  50. Edmondson, The Alamo Story, p. 369.
  51. Lindley (2003), pp. 88, 109, 321; Lord (1961), p. 96.
  52. Groneman (1990), p. 67.
  53. Lindley (2003), p. 90.
  54. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 7273.
  55. Marks, Paula Mitchell. "Samuel Augustus Maverick". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
  56. Chariton (1990), p. 180
  57. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 83.
  58. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 85.
  59. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 87.
  60. 1 2 Entry no. 537. June 11, 1819. Baptized as Jose Sebastian de Jesus Pacheco, the son of Don Albino Pacheco and Doña Encarnacion Pulido. "The Baptismals of San Fernando church", by John Ogden Leal, beginning in 1731 and ending in 1855. Records of this parish church are among the Archives of the Archdiocese of San Antonio in the San Fernando Cathedral. Also, issued in 2 vols.
  61. Jose Sebastian was known as "Luciano" shortly after birth. aka.Luciano Granado, Residents of Texas, 1782-1836, vol.1. published by University of Texas Institute of Texan cultures 1984, pg.158, 196, 276, the 1820, 1826 and 1830 census of Bexar ISBN   0-911317-33-3, 9780911317336.
  62. Texas State Archives and Library Commission, Republic Claims, Reel #262, 165-178
  63. Texas State Archives and Library Commission, Republic Claims reel #262, 167-168
  64. The Records of Our Lady of Guadalupe church burial register, Graytown, Texas.
  65. Lindley (2003), p. 90
  66. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 89.
  67. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 90.
  68. Groneman, Bill, Alamo Noncombatants, Handbook of Texas, retrieved June 19, 2015
  69. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 208.
  70. 1 2 Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 97.
  71. Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, pp. 8586.
  72. Nofi, The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, p. 78.
  73. Myers, The Alamo, p. 202.
  74. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 101102.
  75. 1 2 Todish et al., The Alamo Sourcebook, p. 90.
  76. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 104105.
  77. Lindley (2003), p. 87.
  78. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 105.
  79. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, pp. 107108.
  80. Groneman, Alamo Defenders, p. 119.

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Battle of San Jacinto decisive battle of the Texas Revolution

The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes. A detailed, first-hand account of the battle was written by General Houston from Headquarters of the Texian Army, San Jacinto, on April 25, 1836. Numerous secondary analyses and interpretations have followed, several of which are cited and discussed throughout this entry.

Manuel Fernández Castrillón was a major general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He was a close friend of General and Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna. During the Texas Revolution, Castrillón advocated for mercy for captured Texian soldiers. He was killed at the Battle of San Jacinto, despite attempts by Republic of Texas Secretary of War Thomas Rusk to save his life.

Juan Seguín Hero of the Texas Revolution, Senator, Mayor, Judge

Juan Nepomuceno Seguín was a Spanish-Tejano political and military figure of the Texas Revolution who helped to establish the independence of Texas and signed its declaration of independence. Numerous places and institutions are named in his honor, including the county seat of Seguin in Guadalupe County, the Juan N. Seguin Memorial Interchange in Houston, Juan Seguin Monument in Seguin, World War II Liberty Ship SS Juan N. Seguin, Seguin High School in Arlington.

José Antonio Navarro Texas statesman, revolutionary, politician, and merchant

José Antonio Navarro was a Texas statesman, revolutionary, rancher, and merchant. The son of Ángel Navarro and Josefa María Ruiz y Peña, he was born into a distinguished noble family at San Antonio de Béxar in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. His uncle was José Francisco Ruiz and his brother-in-law was Juan Martín de Veramendi.

The Grass Fight was a small battle during the Texas Revolution, fought between the Mexican Army and the Texian Army. The battle took place on November 26, 1835, just south of San Antonio de Béxar in the Mexican region of Texas. The Texas Revolution had officially begun on October 2 and by the end of the month the Texian had initiated a siege of Béxar, home of the largest Mexican garrison in the province. Bored with the inactivity, many of the Texian soldiers returned home; a smaller number of adventurers from the United States arrived to replace them. After the Texian Army rejected commander-in-chief Stephen F. Austin's call to launch an assault on Béxar on November 22, Austin resigned from the army. The men elected Edward Burleson their new commander-in-chief.

Texian Army Army that fought for the independence of what became the Republic of Texas

The Texian Army, also known as the Army of Texas and the Army of the People, was a military organization consisting of volunteer and regular soldiers who fought against the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution. Approximately 3,700 men joined the army between October 2, 1835, during the Battle of Gonzales through the end of the war on April 21, 1836, at the Battle of San Jacinto. After gaining independence the Texian Army would be officially known as the Army of the Republic of Texas. In 1846, after the annexation of Texas by the United States, the Army of the Republic of Texas merged with the US Army. Sam Houston became the new commander in chief of the new Texas army.

Philip Dimmitt (1801–1841) was an officer in the Texian Army during the Texas Revolution. Born in Kentucky, Dimmitt moved to Texas in 1823 and soon operated a series of trading posts. After learning that Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos was en route to Texas in the year 1835 (??) to quell the unrest, Dimmitt proposed that the general be kidnapped on his arrival at Copano. The plan was shelved when fighting broke out at Gonzales, but by early October, 1835, it had been resuscitated by a group of volunteers at Matamoros. Not knowing that Cos had already departed for San Antonio de Bexar, this group decided to corner Cos at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad. Dimmitt joined them en route, and participated in the battle of Goliad.

Legacy of the Battle of the Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo left a substantial legacy and influence within American culture and is an event that is told from the perspective of the vanquished.

José Gregorio Esparza, also known as Gregorio Esparza, was the last Texan defender to enter the Alamo during the early days of March 1836 in the Siege of the Alamo and was the only one that was not burned in the pyres. He had brought his family into the Alamo compound along with him. They were able to survive the battle and were not executed by the conquering army.

Toribio Losoya Alamo defender

José Toribio Losoya, was a former Mexican soldier, a Texian military participant in the Siege of Bexar and Battle of the Alamo defender.

William Ward, was a Macon, Georgia native, who answered the appeal from Texas, during the Texas Revolution. He recruited men from Georgia and led the Georgia Battalion.

Andrew Jackson Sowell was a lifelong soldier and farmer in the 19th century. He was a participant in the Texas Revolution and a survivor of the siege of the Alamo. He continued his service during the years of the Republic of Texas, in the Mexican–American War, and the Civil War. He was a frontier defender, early Texas Ranger, and a friend and scout with Kit Carson.

Juan Valentín Amador (1793–1848) was a general in the Mexican army of the 19th century. He served under Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna during the Texas revolution.

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