|Dynasties of Ancient Egypt|
All years are BC
See also: List of Pharaohs by Period and Dynasty
In Ancient Egyptian history, dynasties are series of rulers sharing a common origin. They are usually, but not always, traditionally divided into thirty-two pharaonic dynasties. The first thirty divisions are due to the 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho, and appeared in his now-lost work Aegyptiaca, which was perhaps written for the Greek-speaking Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. The names of the last two, the short-lived Thirty-First Dynasty and the longer-lasting Ptolemaic Dynasty, are later coinings.
The history of ancient Egypt spans the period from the early prehistoric settlements of the northern Nile valley to the Roman conquest, in 30 BC. The Pharaonic Period is dated from the 32nd century BC, when Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, until the country fell under Macedonian rule, in 332 BC.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "house", "family" and "clan", among others. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.
Manetho is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytos who lived in the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the early third century BC, during the Hellenistic period. He authored the Aegyptiaca in Greek, a major chronological source for the reigns of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is unclear if he wrote his work during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or Ptolemy II Philadelphos, but no later than that of Ptolemy III Euergetes.
While widely used and useful, the system does have its shortcomings. Some dynasties only ruled part of Egypt and existed concurrently with other dynasties based in other cities. The Seventh might not have existed at all, the Tenth seems to be a continuation of the Ninth, and there might have been one or several Upper Egyptian Dynasties before the First Dynasty.
The Seventh Dynasty of Egypt would mark the beginning of the First Intermediate Period in the early 22nd century BC but its actual existence is debated. The only historical account on the Seventh Dynasty was in Manetho's Aegyptiaca, a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BC, where the Seventh Dynasty appears essentially as a metaphor for chaos. Since next to nothing is known of this dynasty beyond Manetho's account, Egyptologists such as Jürgen von Beckerath and Toby Wilkinson have usually considered it to be fictitious. In a 2015 re-appraisal of the fall of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptologist Hracht Papazian has proposed that the Seventh Dynasty was real and that it consisted of kings usually attributed to the Eighth Dynasty.
The Tenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with the 7th, 8th, 9th and early 11th Dynasties under the group title First Intermediate Period.
The Ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with the 7th, 8th, 10th and early 11th Dynasties under the group title First Intermediate Period. The dynasty that seems to have supplanted the 8th Dynasty is extremely obscure. The takeover by the rulers of Herakleopolis was violent and is reflected in Manetho's description of Achthoes, the founder of the dynasty, as 'more terrible than his predecessors', who 'wrought evil things for those in all Egypt".
|Dynasty||Seat||Period of rule||Rulers|
|Start||End||Term||First to rule||Last to rule||List|
|Early Dynastic Period|
|Dynasty I||Thinis||3100 BCE||2900 BCE||200 years||Narmer||Qa'a||(list)|
|Dynasty II||Thinis||2890 BCE||2686 BCE||204 years||Hotepsekhemwy||Khasekhemwy||(list)|
|Dynasty III||Memphis||2686 BCE||2613 BCE||73 years||Djoser||Huni||(list)|
|Dynasty IV||Memphis||2613 BCE||2494 BCE||119 years||Sneferu|| Shepseskaf |
|Dynasty V||Memphis||2494 BCE||2345 BCE||149 years||Userkaf||Unas||(list)|
|Dynasty VI||Memphis||2345 BCE||2181 BCE||164 years||Teti|| Merenre Nemtyemsaf II |
|First Intermediate Period|
|Dynasty VII||Memphis :396||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||(list)|
|Dynasty VIII||Memphis :396||2181 BCE||2160 BCE||21 years|| Netjerkare Siptah |
|Dynasty IX||Heracleopolis Magna||2160 BCE||2130 BCE||30 years||Meryibre Khety||Unknown||(list)|
|Dynasty X||Heracleopolis Magna||2130 BCE||2040 BCE||90 years||Meryhathor||Unknown||(list)|
|Dynasty XI||Thebes||2130 BCE||1991 BCE||139 years||Intef||Mentuhotep IV||(list)|
|Dynasty XII||Itjtawy||1991 BCE||1802 BCE||189 years||Amenemhat I||Sobekneferu||(list)|
|Dynasty XIII||Itjtawy||1803 BCE||1649 BCE||154 years||Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep||Unknown||(list)|
|Second Intermediate Period|
|Dynasty XIV||Avaris||1725 BCE||1650 BCE||75 years||Yakbim Sekhaenre||Unknown||(list)|
|Dynasty XV||Avaris||1650 BCE||1550 BCE||100 years||Salitis||Khamudi||(list)|
|Abydos dynasty||Abydos||1650 BCE||1600 BCE||50 years||Unknown||Unknown||(list)|
|Dynasty XVI|| Thebes |
|1649 BCE||1582 BCE||67 years||Anat-her||Unknown||(list)|
|Dynasty XVII||Thebes||1580 BCE||1550 BCE||30 years||Rahotep||Kamose||(list)|
|Dynasty XVIII|| Thebes |
|1550 BCE||1292 BCE||258 years||Ahmose I||Horemheb||(list)|
|Dynasty XIX|| Thebes |
|1292 BCE||1189 BCE||103 years||Ramesses I||Twosret||(list)|
|Dynasty XX||Pi-Ramesses||1189 BCE||1077 BCE||112 years||Setnakhte||Ramesses XI||(list)|
|Third Intermediate Period|
|Dynasty XXI||Tanis||1069 BCE||943 BCE||126 years||Smendes||Psusennes II||(list)|
|Dynasty XXII||Bubastis||943 BCE||720 BCE||223 years||Shoshenq I||Osorkon IV||(list)|
|Dynasty XXIII|| Heracleopolis Magna |
|837 BCE||728 BCE||109 years||Harsiese A||Rudamun||(list)|
|Dynasty XXIV||Sais||732 BCE||720 BCE||12 years||Tefnakht||Bakenranef||(list)|
| Dynasty XXV |
|Memphis||744 BCE||656 BCE||88 years||Piye||Tantamani||(list)|
|Dynasty XXVI||Sais||664 BCE||525 BCE||139 years||Psamtik I||Psamtik III||(list)|
| Dynasty XXVII |
|Babylon||525 BCE||404 BCE||121 years||Cambyses II||Darius II||(list)|
|Dynasty XXVIII||Sais||404 BCE||398 BCE||6 years||Amyrtaeus||Amyrtaeus||(list)|
|Dynasty XXIX||Mendes||398 BCE||380 BCE||18 years||Nepherites I||Nepherites II||(list)|
|Dynasty XXX||Sebennytos||380 BCE||343 BCE||37 years||Nectanebo I||Nectanebo II||(list|
| Dynasty XXXI |
|Babylon||343 BCE||332 BCE||11 years||Artaxerxes III||Darius III||(list)|
| Argead dynasty |
|Alexandria||332 BCE||309 BCE||23 years||Alexander III of Macedon||Alexander IV of Macedon||(list)|
| Ptolemaic dynasty |
|Alexandria||305 BCE||30 BCE||275 years||Ptolemy I Soter||Caesarion||(list)|
|Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 30 BCE.|
(see Roman Egypt and List of Roman dynasties)
The Ptolemaic dynasty, sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a poorly known and short-lived line of pharaohs reigning in rapid succession in the early 22nd century BC, likely with their seat of power in Memphis. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was increasingly important, the Egyptian state having by then effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious.
The Late Period of ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period in the 26th Saite Dynasty founded by Psamtik I, but includes the time of Achaemenid Persian rule over Egypt after the conquest by Cambyses II in 525 BC as well. The Late Period existed from 664 BC until 332 BC, following a period of foreign rule by the Nubian 25th dynasty and beginning with a short period of Neo-Assyrian suzerainty, with Psamtik I initially ruling as their vassal. The period ended with the conquests of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty by his general Ptolemy I Soter, one of the Hellenistic diadochi from Macedon in northern Greece. With the Macedonian Greek conquest in the latter half of the 4th century BC, the age of Hellenistic Egypt began.
The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Some writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII lasted from approximately 1803 BC until approximately 1649 BC, i.e. for 154 years.
Nepherites II or Nefaarud II was the last pharaoh of the feeble and short-lived Twenty-ninth Dynasty, the penultimate native dynasty of Egypt.
Maaibre Sheshi was a ruler of areas of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. The dynasty, chronological position, duration and extent of his reign are uncertain and subject to ongoing debate. The difficulty of identification is mirrored by problems in determining events from the end of the Middle Kingdom to the arrival of the Hyksos in Egypt. Nonetheless, Sheshi is, in terms of the number of artifacts attributed to him, the best-attested king of the period spanning the end of the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate period; roughly from c. 1800 BC until 1550 BC. Hundreds of scaraboid seals bearing his name have been found throughout Canaan, Egypt, Nubia, and as far away as Carthage, where some were still in use 1500 years after his death.
Neferirkare was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty during the early First Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker he was the 17th and final king of the Eighth Dynasty. Many scholars consider Neferirkare to have been the last pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, which came to an end with the 8th Dynasty.
Wahkare Khety was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 9th or 10th Dynasty during the First Intermediate Period.
Meryibre Khety, also known by his Horus name Meryibtawy, was a pharaoh of the 9th or 10th Dynasty of Egypt, during the First Intermediate Period.
Merikare was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 10th Dynasty who lived toward the end of the First Intermediate Period. His name cannot be recognized in the Turin King List. The dates of his reign are uncertain and debated among scholars.
Nebkaure Khety was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 9th or 10th Dynasty, during the First Intermediate Period.
Sekhaenre Yakbim or Yakbmu was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Although his dynastic and temporal collocation is disputed, Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt believes that he likely was the founder of the Levantine-blooded Fourteenth Dynasty, while in older literature he was mainly considered a member of the Sixteenth Dynasty.
Netjerkare Siptah was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the seventh and last ruler of the Sixth Dynasty. Alternatively some scholars classify him as the first king of the Seventh or Eighth Dynasty. As the last king of the 6th Dynasty, Netjerkare Siptah is considered by some Egyptologists to be the last king of the Old Kingdom period.
Sharek or Shalek could have been a poorly known ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
The system of dynasties devised in the third century B.C. is not without its problems—for example, the Seventh Dynasty is now recognized as being wholly spurious, while several dynasties are known to have ruled concurrently in different parts of Egypt...