This list of ancient Egyptian papyri includes some of the better known individual papyri written in hieroglyphs, hieratic, demotic or in Greek. Excluded are papyri found abroad or containing Biblical texts which are listed in separate lists.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge. Papyrus can also refer to a document written on sheets of such material, joined together side by side and rolled up into a scroll, an early form of a book.
The content descriptions are preceded by a letter in bold font, indicating the literary genre it belongs to. In the case of collections of texts of various kinds, the first letter refers to the most important text on the papyrus.
|Wadi al-Jarf Papyri||26th||O - about pyramid construction||Egyptian Museum in Cairo|
|Dryton and Apollonia Archive||Ptolemaic||P - family papers||dispersed|
|Abusir Papyri||25th or later||O - about Neferirkare Kakai|
|Moscow Mathematical Papyrus||21st||S - Mathematical problems and solutions||Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow||Moscow||Russia|
|Berlin Papyrus||21st or later||S - Medical and mathematical topics||P. Berlin 6619||Berlin||Germany|
|Westcar Papyrus||20th||L - Tales of Magic||Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin||P. Berlin 3033||Berlin||Germany|
|Heqanakht papyri||20th||P - Private Correspondence of Heqanakht||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York||22.3||New York City||United States|
|Papyrus Hermitage 1116A|
Papyrus Carlsberg 6
|20th or later||T - Instruction of Merikare|
|P. Leningrad 1115||20th or later||L - Tale of the shipwrecked sailor||P. Leningrad 1115||Moscow||Russia|
|Prisse Papyrus||20th or later||T - Instruction addressed to Kagemni |
The Maxims of Ptahhotep
|Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris||Paris||France|
|Papyrus Berlin 3023|
Papyrus Berlin 3025
Papyrus Berlin 10499
|20th or later||L - The Eloquent Peasant||P. Berlin 3023|
P. Berlin 3025
P. Berlin 10499
|Papyrus Butler 527||20th or later||L - The Eloquent Peasant||British Museum, London||P. BM 10274||London||UK|
|Papyrus Berlin 3024||20th or later||L - Dispute between a man and his Ba, Herdsman's Tale||P. Berlin 3024||Berlin||Germany|
|Hearst Papyrus||20th or later||S - Medical texts||University of California, Berkeley||Berkeley, CA||United States|
|Rhind Mathematical Papyrus||19th or later||S - Mathematical problems and solutions||British Museum, London||pBM 10057, pBM 10058||London||UK|
|Kahun Papyri||19th||S - Mathematical and medical topics||University College London||London||UK|
|Papyrus Berlin 3022||19th||B (?)- Story of Sinuhe||P. Berlin 3022||Berlin||Germany|
|Ramesseum medical papyri||18th||S - Medical texts|
|Papyrus Boulaq 18||18th||O - palace administration||Egypt||Cairo|
|London Medical Papyrus||18th||S - Medical texts||British Museum, London||pBM 10059||London||UK|
|Reisner Papyrus||18th||O - official records|
|Ipuwer Papyrus||17th||T - The Admonitions of Ipuwer||Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden||Papyrus Leiden I 344||Leiden||Netherlands|
|Papyrus Golenischeff||17th||R - Hymn to the Red Crown|
|Edwin Smith Papyrus||16th or earlier||S - Medical||New York Academy of Medicine||New York City||United States|
|Ebers Papyrus||16th||S - Medical||University of Leipzig,||Leipzig||Germany|
|Turin Erotic Papyrus||16th or later||D - Animal and erotic cartoons||P. Turin 55001||Turin||Italy|
|Millingen Papyrus (now lost)||16th or later||T - Instructions of Amenemhat|
|Papyrus of Ani||13th or later||F - Book of the Dead||Cairo Museum, Cairo||P. Boulaq 4||Cairo||Egypt|
|Turin King List||13th||O - Kinglist||Museo Egizio, Turin||Turin||Italy|
|Papyrus Sallier II||13th or later||T - The Satire of the Trades||British Museum, London||London||UK|
|Papyrus Anastasi I||13th or later||T - Satirical letter||British Museum, London||pBM 10247||London||UK|
|Papyrus Harris I||12th||O - Lists of endowments||British Museum, London||P. BM 9999.||London||UK|
|Judicial Papyrus of Turin||12th||O - Report on the Harem conspiracy against Ramesses III|
|Papyrus Harris 500||12th or later||L - Tale of the doomed prince, The Taking of Joppa, love poems, the Harper's Song||British Museum, London||P. BM 10060||London||UK|
|Papyrus Pushkin I||12th or later||L - Moscow literary letter||P. Pushkin I|
|Turin Papyrus||12th||D - Map||Museo Egizio, Turin||Turin||Italy|
|Abbott Papyrus||12th||O - Investigation of crimes|
|Leopold II and Amherst Papyrus||12th||O - Investigation of crimes||Musée d'arts, Brussels||Brussels||Belgium|
|Mayer Papyri||12th||O - Investigation of crimes|
|Chester Beatty Medical Papyrus||12th||S - Medical texts||British Museum, London||London||UK|
|Papyrus British Museum 10474||12th||T - Instructions of Amenemopet||British Museum, London||P. BM 10474||London||UK|
|Papyrus Lansing||12th||T - Schoolbook||British Museum, London||P. BM 9994||London||UK|
|Papyrus Chester Beatty IV||12th||T - The Immortality of Writers||British Museum, London||P. BM 10684||London||UK|
|Papyrus D’Orbiney||12th||L - Tale of Two Brothers||British Museum, London||P. BM 10183||London||UK|
|Papyrus Chester Beatty II||12th||L - Tale of Truth and Falsehood||British Museum, London||P. BM 10682||London||UK|
|Papyrus Chester Beatty I||12th||L - Love poetry|
Contention between Horus and Seth
|Greenfield papyrus||11th||F - Book of the Dead||British Museum, London||BM EA 10554||London||UK|
|Papyrus Moscow 120||11th or later||L - Story of Wenamun||P. Moscow 120|
|Papyrus Hood||10th||W - Onomasticon of Amenope||British Museum, London||P. BM EA 10202||London||UK|
|Papyrus Berlin 3048||08th||P - Marriage contract||P. Berlin 3048||Berlin||Germany|
|Papyrus Rylands 9||06th||P - The petition of Pediese||John Rylands Library, Manchester||P. Rylands 9||Manchester||UK|
|Brooklyn Papyrus||04th or later||S - Medical texts||Brooklyn Museum||Brooklyn||United States|
|Papyrus Bremner–Rhind||04th||R - The Songs of Isis and Nephthys.||British Museum, London||P. BM 10188||London||UK|
|British Museum Papyrus 10508||04th or later||T - Instruction of Ankhsheshonq||British Museum, London||P. BM 10508||London||UK|
|Papyrus Berlin 3008||04th or later||R - The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys||P.Berlin 3008||Berlin||Germany|
|Cairo Museum Papyrus No. 30646||04th or later||L - Setne I||Cairo Museum||Cairo Museum Papyrus No. 30646||Cairo||Egypt|
|Cairo Museum Papyrus No. 30692||04th or later||L - Setne I||Cairo Museum||Cairo Museum Papyrus No. 30692||Cairo||Egypt|
|Vienna Demotic Papyrus 6165||04th or later||L - Story-cycle of King Petubastis||Vienna Demotic Papyrus 6165||Vienna||Austria|
|Leiden Demotic Papyrus I 384||04th or later||R - The Myth of the Eye of the Sun||Leiden Demotic Papyrus I 384|
|Papyrus Milbank||04th or later||F - Book of the Dead||Oriental Institute||E10486||Chicago||United States of America|
|Milan Papyrus||03rd or later||L - Poetry in Greek||University of Milan||P.Mil.Vogl. VIII 309||Milan||Italy|
|Carlsberg Papyri||02nd and later||S - Medical texts||University of Copenhagen||Copenhagen||Denmark|
|Insinger Papyrus||02nd or later||T - Instruction of Papyrus Insinger||Leiden||Netherlands|
|British Museum Papyrus 604.||01st or later||L - Setne II||British Museum, London||P. BM 604.||London||UK|
Ancient Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt c. 3000 to c. 300 BC, from the Old Kingdom of Egypt until roughly the beginning of Hellenistic Egypt. The ancient Egyptians utilized a numeral system for counting and solving written mathematical problems, often involving multiplication and fractions. Evidence for Egyptian mathematics is limited to a scarce amount of surviving sources written on papyri. From these texts it is known that ancient Egyptians understood concepts of geometry, such as determining the surface area and volume of three-dimensional shapes useful for architectural engineering, and algebra, such as the false position method and quadratic equations.
Demotic is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts. By convention, the word "Demotic" is capitalized in order to distinguish it from demotic Greek.
The Greek Magical Papyri is the name given by scholars to a body of papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt, written mostly in ancient Greek, which each contain a number of magical spells, formulae, hymns, and rituals. The materials in the papyri date from the 100s BC to the 400s AD. The manuscripts came to light through the antiquities trade, from the 1700s onward. One of the best known of these texts is the Mithras Liturgy.
The Papyrology Collection of the University of Michigan Library is an internationally respected collection of ancient papyrus and a center for research on ancient culture, language, and history. With over 7,000 items and more than 10,000 individual fragments, the Collection is by far the largest collection of papyrus in the country, and offers a glimpse into the everyday life and language of the ancient world. Of keen interest to historians, linguists, classicists, philosophers, archaeologists, as well as others, the collection includes biblical fragments, religious writings, public and private documents, private letters, and writings on astronomy, astrology, mathematics, and magic. The papyri span nearly two millennia of history, dating from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, with the majority dating from the third century BC to the seventh century AD.
The Heqanakht papyri or Heqanakht letters are a group of papyri dating to the early Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt that were found in the tomb complex of Vizier Ipi. Their find was located in the burial chamber of a servant named Meseh, which was to the right side of the courtyard of Ipi's burial complex. It is believed that the papyri were accidentally mixed into debris used to form a ramp to push the coffin of Meseh into the chamber. The papyri contain letters and accounts written by Heqanakht, a ka-priest of Ipi. Heqankht himself was obliged to stay in the Theban area, and thus wrote letters to his family, probably located somewhere near the capital of Egypt at that time, near the Faiyum. These letters and accounts were somehow lost and thus preserved. The significance of the papers is that they give rare and valuable information about lives of ordinary members of the lower upper class of Egypt during this period.
Dirk D. Obbink is an American-born papyrologist and Classicist. He is the Lecturer in Papyrology and Greek Literature in the Faculty of Classics at Oxford University and was the head of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri Project. Obbink is also Fellow and Tutor in the University of Oxford.
The Lahun Mathematical Papyri is an ancient Egyptian mathematical text. It forms part of the Kahun Papyri, which was discovered at El-Lahun by Flinders Petrie during excavations of a workers' town near the pyramid of the 12th dynasty pharaoh Sesostris II. The Kahun Papyri are a collection of texts including administrative texts, medical texts, veterinarian texts and six fragments devoted to mathematics.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 13 is a fragment of a letter to a King of Macedon, written in Greek. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The fragment is dated to the second or third century. It is housed at Columbia University. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 48 is a letter asking for the emancipation of a slave, written in the Greek language on 16 October 86. The document was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. It is housed in the Vaughan Library at Harrow School. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 59 is a letter announcing the appointment of a delegate to the praefect's court in Alexandria, written in Greek. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The document was written on 11 February 292. Currently it is housed in the British Library (753). The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 60 is a letter addressed to the council of Oxyrhynchus, written by the strategus Hermias, in Greek. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The document was written on 17 August 323. Currently it is housed in the Library of the Trinity College in Dublin. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 67 contains three letters about a dispute concerning property, written in Greek. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. It was discovered by Grenfell and Hunt in 1897 in Oxyrhynchus. The document was written on 28 March 338. Currently it is housed in the British Museum (754) in London. The text was published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1898.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 156 is a letter, written in Greek and discovered in Oxyrhynchus. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. The document was written in the 6th century. Currently it is housed in the Egyptian Museum (10035) in Cairo.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 157 is a letter, written in Greek and discovered in Oxyrhynchus. The manuscript was written on papyrus in the form of a sheet. The document was written in the 6th century. Currently it is housed in the Egyptian Museum (10042) in Cairo.
The 2015 Homs car bombing was a twin-explosion car bombing that killed 16 and injured many more. It occurred near a hospital in al-Zahra, an Alawites populated, government-controlled Neighborhood east of Homs' old city. The attack came five days after the government and rebels agreed on a local ceasefire in the western al-Waer suburb.
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 581 is a papyrus fragment written in Ancient Greek, apparently recording the sale of a slave girl. Dating from 29 August 99 AD, P. Oxy. 581 was discovered, alongside hundreds of other papyri, by Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt while excavating an ancient landfill at Oxyrhynchus in modern Egypt. The document's contents were published by the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1898, which also secured its donation to University College, Dundee, later the University of Dundee, in 1903 – where it still resides. Measuring 6.3 x 14.7 cm and consisting of 17 lines of text, the artifact represents the conclusion of a longer record, although the beginning of the papyrus was lost before it was found. P. Oxy. 581 has received a modest amount of scholarly attention, most recently and completely in a 2009 translation by classicist Amin Benaissa of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.
The Elephantine Papyri consist of 175 documents from the Egyptian border fortresses of Elephantine and Aswan, which yielded hundreds of papyri in Hieratic and Demotic Egyptian, Aramaic, Koine Greek, Latin and Coptic, spanning a period of 1000 years. The documents include letters and legal contracts from family and other archives, and are thus an invaluable source of knowledge for scholars of varied disciplines such as epistolography, law, society, religion, language and onomastics. They are a collection of ancient Jewish manuscripts dating from the 5th century BCE. They come from a Jewish community at Elephantine, then called ꜣbw. The dry soil of Upper Egypt preserved documents from the Egyptian border fortresses of Elephantine and Aswan.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt.