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This list of ancient Germanic peoples is a list of groups and alliances of ancient Germanic peoples in ancient times. These reports begin in the 2nd century BC and extend into late antiquity. Beginning with the states of the Early Middle Ages, the period in which earlier forms of kingship had a historical impact ends, with the exception of Northern Europe, where the Vendel Period from 550 AD to 800 AD and the subsequent Viking Age until 1050 AD are still seen in the Germanic context.
The associations and locations of the numerous peoples and groups in ancient sources are subject to uncertainty and speculation, and classifications of ethnicity with a common culture or a temporary alliance of heterogeneous groups are disputed. For some, it is not even certain that these groups are Germanic in the broader linguistic sense, or in other words, that they consisted of speakers of a Germanic language.
In this respect, the names listed here are not terms for ethnic groups in any modern sense, but the names of groups that were perceived in ancient and late antiquity as Germanic, that is, as peoples, groups, alliances and associations of the Barbaricum east of the Rhine and to the north of the Danube, also known as Germania, especially those that arrived during the Migration Period.
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The present list is largely based on the list of Germanic tribal names and its spelling variants contained in the first register of the Reallexikons der Germanischen Altertumskunde .
The first column contains the English name and its variants, if one is common, otherwise the traditional ancient name. The second column contains ancient names of Latin and Greek authors, the latter both in transcription and in Greek. The third column gives a brief description followed by a location.
The fifth column gives important sources of tradition for the group in question. The few ancient main sources for names and location of Germanic tribes are not linked. These are:
|Adogit||Hålogaland, the northernmost Norwegian Petty Kingdom. Between the Namdalen valley in Nord-Trøndelag and the Lyngen fjord in Troms.||Jordanes|
|Adrabaecampi||Adrabaikampoi (´Αδραβαικαμποι)||See Kampoi||North of the Danube, south of Bohemia||Ptolemy|
|Aduatuci, Atuatuci||Aduatici, Atouatikoi (Ἀτουατικοί)||Left bank of the Rhine in the squad of the Belgian tribes against Caesar||In the first century BC in the area of today's Tongeren (Belgium), between the Scheldt and the Meuse||Julius Caesar|
|Aelvaeones, Elouaiones, Elvaiones, Aelvaeones, Ailouaiones, Alouiones, Ailouones||Alouiones (Αλουίωνες), Helouaiones ('Ελουαίωνες)||See Helveconae||Presumably at the middle Oder, today's Silesia||Tacitus, Ptolemy|
|Agradingun||Saxon tribe||Middle course of the Weser|
|Alemanni, Alamanni||Alamanni||From various Elbe Germanic tribes, among them probably Suebian tribes, armies and followers from the 3rd century on provincial Roman soil (Agri decumates) developed population group||Core areas in Baden-Württemberg and Alsace, in Bavarian Swabia, German-speaking Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Vorarlberg|
|Ambrones, Obrones, Ymbre||Ambrones||Participation of tribal groups in the train of the Cimbri and the Teutons at the end of the 2nd century BC|
|Ampsivarii, Ampsivari, Amsivarii, Amsivari||Ansibarii, Ansivaroi (Ἀνσιβαριοί)||Southern neighbours of the Frisii||1st century in the lower Emsland||Tacitus|
|Anartes, Anarti, Anartii, Anartoi||Anarti||Possibly Germanic tribe in the border area between the Teutons and the Dacians||Hungary or Romania||Julius Caesar|
|Angisciri||Tribe in the wake of Dengizich||Jordanes|
|Angles, Anglians||Anglii, Angeiloi (Άγγειλοι), Angiloi (Άγγιλοι)||At Tacitus to the Ingaevones counted North Germanic people||Originally in Jutland (Schleswig-Holstein), later Mittelelb-Saale area, from 200 emigration to Great Britain||Tacitus|
|Anglevarii, Angleverii, Anglevaries, Angleveries|
|Anglo-Saxons||From the Angles and Saxons, as well as the Jutes, Frisii and Franks on British soil originated collecting people||Southeastern England|
|Angrivarii, Angrevarii, Angrivari, Angrevari, Angarii, Angerii, Angrii, Angari, Angeri, Angri, Aggeri, Angriouarroi, Aggerimenses, Angerienses||Angrivarii, Angriouarioi (Αγγριουάριοι)||In the 1st century, south of the Chauci, north of the Cherusci, northwest of the Dulgubnii and east of the Ampsivarii||On the Weser, mainly on the right bank, from the tributary of the Aller to the Steinhuder Meer|
|Armalausi, Armilausi||Probably a part of the Hermunduri, in the 3rd and 4th centuries between the Alemanni and the Marcomanni||Possibly in the Upper Palatinate||Tabula Peutingeriana|
|Ascomanni||Designation of the Vikings at Adam of Bremen|
|Avarpi, Auarpoi, Avarni|
|Aviones, Auiones, Chaibones||Aviones|
|Baiuvarii, Bavarii, Baioarii, Baiovarii||Bavarii||Towards the end of the migration of peoples in the 5th century, people formed with the core area in Raetia and Noricum||Altbayern, Austria and South Tyrol|
|Bardes, Bards, Bardi||Possibly a non-southward group of the Lombards||South of the Elbe, in the area of Bardowick and Lüneburg|
|Bastarnae, Bastarni, Basternae||Bastarnae||Fights with the Romans in the 3rd century BC, probably outweigh Germanic tribe||East side of the Carpathian Mountains to the mouth of the Danube estuary||Polybius|
|Batavi, Batavii, Batavians||Batavi||Originally allies of the Romans in the province of Gallia Belgica, 69 Revolt of the Batavi under Gaius Julius Civilis||In the 1st century at the mouth of the Rhine|
|Brisgavi, Brisigavi||Brisgavi, Brisigavi||Alemannic tribe in the 5th century||Breisgau|
|Bructeri, Boructuarii, Boruactii, Borchtii||Bructeri, Boructuarii, Broukteroi (Βρούκτεροι)||In the 1st century, opponents of the Romans in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest||Between the middle Ems and the upper Lippe|
|Bucinobantes||Bucinobantes||Alemannic tribe in the 4th century||Main estuary at Mainz||Ammianus Marcellinus|
|Burgundians||Burgundiones||East Germanic people with late antique foundations on the Rhine and later the Rhone|
|Caeroesi, Caerosi||Caerosi, Caeroesi, Ceroesi, Cerosi||Left Rhine Celto-Germanic tribe||In the 1st century BC in the Eifel-Ardennes area||Julius Caesar|
|Cananefates, Canninefates, Caninefates, Canenefatae||Cannenefates, Canninefates, Cannenafates, Cannefates||In the 1st century, western neighbours of the Batavi||Around Voorburg in South Holland|
|Caracates. Caeracates||Possibly an old Northern German Celtic tribe of the Cimbri or a Vindelician tribe. Location unknown.|
|Carpi, Carpiani||Carpi, Carpiani||Southeastern European people, classification as Germanic is controversial||End of the 3rd century in Moesia and Dacia|
|Caritni||Ludwigshafen am Rhein||Ptolemy|
|Chaibones, Aviones, Auiones|
|Chamavi||Chamavi, Chamauoi (Χαμαυοί)||Neighbours of the Angrivarii and Dulgubnii, eventually went into the Franks||In the 1st century on the Lower Rhine||Tacitus|
|Charini, Charinni, Harii||Charini, Harii|
|Chatti, Catti, Cattai, Cathi, Cathai, Chattai, Chatthi, Chatthai||Chatti, Catti, Cathi, Chattai (Χάτται), Chattoi (Χάττοι)||In the 1st century, neighbours of the Suebi, precursors of the Hesse||Valleys of the Eder, Fulda and the upper reaches of the Lahn|
|Chattuarii, Chasuarii, Hasuarii, Attuarii||Atthuarii, Attuarii, Chattouarioi (Χαττουάριοι)|
|Chatvores, Catvori?||Name is Greek or Latin in origin and means "bristle eater"||Upper Palatinate||Ptolemy|
|Chauci||Chauki, Chauchi, Cauci, Kauchoi (Καῦχοι), Kaukoi (Καῦκοι)||From Tacitus to the Ingaevones counted tribe||On both sides of the lower Weser|
|Cherusci||Cherusci, Cherouskoi (Χεροῦσκοι), Chairouskoi (Χαιρουσκοί)||Tribe of Arminius, in the 1st century, opponents of the Romans||On both sides of the upper Weser run in East Westphalia and in Lower Saxony to the Elbe|
|Cilternsaetan, Ciltate/Ciltanati?||Possibly a tribe of Etruscan origin or a tribe named after the Roman Plebeian family Cilnii.|
|Cimbri||Combri, Cymbri, Cimbri, Kimbroi (Κίμβροι)||Along with the Teutons and Ambrones from 120 BC incidence in Gaul and Italy||Originally probably northern Jutland. Most consider this tribe a confederation of Northern German Celtic tribes before their defeat against the Romans. If Celtic most likely a Q-Celtic speaking people.|
|Clondicus||Kloilios (Κλοίλιος), Claodikus|
|Condrusi||Condrusi||Celtic-Germanic mixed culture||In the 1st century BC in the left bank of the Middle Rhine region||Julius Caesar|
|Crimean Goths||Descendants of the Ostrogoths||From the middle of the 3rd century on the Crimean peninsula|
|Cugerni, Cuberni, Guberni||Cugerni, Cuberni||Tribe of the Rhine-Weser Germanic peoples||In the 1st century in the left bank of the Lower Rhine (Kreis Kleve)|
|Danes||Dani, Danoi (Δανοι)||From the 6th century in Scania and Jutland||Scania and Jutland||Procopius, Jordanes|
|Dulgubnii||Dulgubnii, Dulgitubini, Dulcubuni||In the 1st century, southeast of the Angrivarii and the Chamavi||South of Hamburg in the area of the Lüneburg Heath and all around Celle||Tacitus|
|East Herules, Ostherules|
|Eburones||Eburones||Probably Celtic tribe, counted from Caesar to the Germanic people||Between the Rhine, Meuse, Rhineland, Northern Ardennes and Eifel|
|Elbe Germans||Archaeologically defined group of Germanic tribes (including the Semnones, Hermunduri, Quadi, Marcomanni and Lombards)||From the Elbe estuary on both sides of the river to Bohemia and Moravia|
|Elouaiones||Ailouaiones (Αἰλουαίωνες), Alouiones (Αλουίωνες), Helouaiones ('Ελουαίωνες), Ailouones (Αἰλούονες), Helouones ('Ελουωνες)|
|Eudoses||Eudusii, Eudoses, Eduses, Edures, Eudures|
|Favonae||Favonae, Phauonai (Φαυόναι)|
|Firaesi||Phrisioi (Φρίσιοι), Phiraisoi (Φιραῖσοι)|
|Fosi, Fosii||Fosi||Small neighbouring tribe of the Cherusci, who went under with these||In the 1st century in the headwaters of the Aller|
|Franks||Large tribal union, which integrated numerous Germanic tribes in late antiquity||Right of the Rhine to the mouth of the Rhine estuary, from the 4th century onwards to Roman territory left of the Rhine|
|Frisiavones||Frisiavones, Frisaebones||Rhine delta||Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4,101; CIL 6, 3260 et al.|
|Frisii, Frisians||Frisii||North Sea Germanic tribe, counted from Tacitus to the Ingaevones||In the 1st century from the mouth of the Rhine to about the Ems||Tacitus|
|Frugundiones||East of the Oder||Ptolemy|
|Gambrivii||Gambrivi||Probably near the Weser||Strabo, Tacitus|
|Gautigoths||Gautigoth||Probably in Västergötland||Jordanes|
|Geats||Goutai (Γου̑ται), Geatas, Getae||North Germanic people, often identified with the Goths||Southern Sweden||Ptolemy|
|Gepids||Gepidi, Gebidi, Gipedae||From the middle of the 5th century, empire-building on the middle Danube, possibly related to the Goths||Romania||Jordanes, Procopius|
|Gewisse, Gewissæ||Saxon ethnic group in Britain||At the end of the 5th century on the Upper Thames in England|
|Goths, Gotones, Gutones||Gutones||Split up during the Migration Period into the Visigoths and Ostrogoths, each with their own imperial formations on Roman soil||At the turn of the day, north of the Vistula knee||Jordanes|
|Greuthungi, Greuthungs, Greutungi, Greutungs||Greothingi, Grutungi, Grauthungi, Greutungi||Another name of the Ostrogoths||Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes|
|Harii||Harii||Tribe of the Lugii||Between the Vistula and the Oder||Tacitus|
|Harudes, Charudes, Harothes||Harudes, Charudes (Χαροῦδες), Arudes||In the 1st century BC, allies of the Ariovistus against Caesar||To Ptolemy in the middle of the 2nd century in Jutland||Julius Caesar, Ptolemy|
|Hasdingi, Asdingi, Haddingjar||Tribe of the Vandals||In the 2nd century in Romania and Hungary|
|Helveconae, Helvaeonae, Helvecones, Helvaeones, Helouaiones||Helvecones||Tribe of the Lugii||Between the Vistula and the Oder||Tacitus|
|Herminones, Erminones, Hermiones, Irminones||Herminones||Large group of Germanic people, occupying the middle between the Ingaevones and the Istvaeones||Tacitus, Pliny the Elder, Pomponius Mela|
|Hermunduri, Ermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, Hermonduli||Ermunduri, Hermunduri||Elbe Germanic tribe||Upper reaches of the Elbe|
|Herules, Erules, Heruli, Eruli||Eruli, Erouloi (Ερουλοι)||Participants in the parades of the Goths||From the middle of the 3rd century on the north coast of the Black Sea|
|Incriones, Inkriones||Inkriones (ιγκριονες)||Tribe of the Rhine-Weser Germanic peoples, middle of the 2nd century, neighbours of the Tencteri||Between the Rhine and the Taunus||Ptolemy|
|Ingaevones, Ingvaeones, Ingwaeones, Inguaeones, Inguiones, Ingwines, Guiones||Ingvaeones, Ingaevones, Ingvaenoes, Inguaeones||Large group of Germanic tribes located on the North Sea coast by Tacitus||Tacitus, Pliny the Elder|
|Intuergi||Intouergoi, Intouergoi (Ιντουεργοι)||Between the Rhine and the Taunus||Ptolemy|
|Irminones, Herminones, Hermiones|
|Istvaeones, Istaevones, Istriaones, Istriones, Sthraones||Istvaenoes, Istaevones||Large group of Germanic tribes located on the Rhine by Tacitus||Tacitus|
|Jutes, Eudoses, Eutes, Euthiones||Eurii, Eutii, Eucii, Euthiones||Originally in Jutland, later in the south of Great Britain||Until the 5th century on Jutland|
|Juthungi||Iouthungi, Iuthungi||Probably an Alemannic tribe||From the 3rd to the 5th century, north of the Danube and Altmühl|
|Kampoi, Campi, Campes||Kampoi (Κάμποι)||Group of unclear destination north of the Danube and south of Bohemia in the 2nd century||Ptolemy|
|Landoudioi, Landi||Landi, Landoudioi||From the 1st century on the Lahn in Middle Hesse||Strabo, Ptolemy|
|Lemovii, Lemonii||Lemovii||At Tacitus neighbours of the Rugii and Goths||From the 1st century, southern Baltic Sea coast between the Oder and the Vistula|
|Lentienses, Linzgau||Lentienses||Alemannic tribe||Mid-3rd century between the Danube in the north, Iller in the east and Lake Constance in the south||Ammianus Marcellinus|
|Little Goths||Gothi minores||Group of the Goths, Ulfilas tribe, at the time of the Jordanes in the area of Nicopolis in Moesia||South bank of the lower Danube||Jordanes|
|Lombards, Longobards, Langobards, Winili, Winnili, Winnilers||Langobardi, Langobardoi (Λαγγοβάρδοι)||Part of the Suebi, from the middle of the 6th century founding of the empire in Italy (Kingdom of the Lombards)||In the 1st century BC on the lower Elbe|
|Lugii, Lygii||Lugii, Lúgioi|
|Manimi||Manimi||Tribe of the Lugii||Between the Vistula and the Oder||Tacitus|
|Marcomanni||Marcomanni||Possibly a tribe of the Suebi, from the middle of the 2nd century, opponents of the Romans in the Marcomannic Wars||In the 1st century in Bohemia|
|Marsi, Marsigni||Marsi, Marsoí (Μαρσοί), Marsigni||Destroyed after participation in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in the year 14 by Germanicus||Between the Rhine, Ruhr and Lippe|
|Marvingi||Marouingoi||Lower Saxony/North Rhine-Westphalia||Ptolemy|
|Mattiaci||Mattiaci, Mattiakoi (Ματτιακοί)||Probably a part of the Chatti, Romanised from the 1st century||Around Wiesbaden, in the Taunus and in the Wetterau|
|Menapii, Manapi||Menapii||Celtic-Germanic mixed people, subjugated by Caesar in the 1st century BC in Gallia Belgica||Lower Rhine, Flanders||Julius Caesar|
|Mixi||Called by Jordanes as residents of Scandza||Scandinavia||Jordanes|
|Moselle Franks, Mosellians||Subset of the Franks, separated from the Ripuarian Franks in the 5th century||Upper Rhine and Moselle|
|Myrgingas||East Frisian part of the Frisii, who settled around 700 in Nordfriesland||Nordfriesland, Tönnern, Rungholdt||Widsith|
|Nahanarvali, Naharvali||Nahanarvali, Naharvali||Tribe of the Lugii||Between the Vistula and the Oder||Tacitus|
|Narisci, Naristi, Varisti, Varasci, Varisci||Naristi, Varisti, Varistae||Neighbours of the Marcomanni, Quadi and Armalausi||Upper Palatinate, Upper Franconia and North Bohemia||Tacitus|
|Neckar Suebi||Suebi Nicrenses||Romanised tribe of the Suebi||In the 1st and 2nd century in the area of Ladenburg|
|Nemetes||Nemetai (Νεμῆται)||(Probably Germanic) allies of the Ariovistus||In the 1st century BC on the Rhine between Lake Constance and Palatinate||Julius Caesar|
|Nervii||Nervii||Strongly Celtic Germanic tribe||In the Gallia Belgica between the Meuse and the Scheldt in the north and the west of today's Belgium||Julius Caesar, Tacitus|
|Normans||Collective name for the Northern European Germanic tribes, which undertook raids in the 8th and 11th century to the south (England, Ireland, Francia, the Mediterranean and present-day Russia), also synonymous with the Vikings|
|Ostrogoths||Ostrogothi, Ostrogoti, Ostrogotae, Ostrogothae, Austrogothi||Part of the Goths, first in Pannonia, then empire-building in Italy||Jordanes|
|Paemani, Permani||Paemani, Caemani||Left Rhine Celto-Germanic people||Eifel, Ardennes||Julius Caesar|
|Parmaecampi||Parmaikampoi (Παρμαικαμπο)||See Kampoi||North of the Danube in Bavaria||Ptolemy|
|Peucini||Part of the Bastarnae||Tacitus|
|Phalians||As Germanic "natives" of Westphalia and Eastphalia constructed tribe|
|Quadi||Quadi||Tribe of the Suebi, participants of the Marcomannic Wars||Tacitus|
|Quirounoi?||Possibly a mistaken transliteration of the Greek name Ούίρουνοι = Oúírounoi; O and not Q, mistaken O for a Q? Initial Greek Ou = W; Viruni in Latin; possibly a variant of Varini? Ουαρίνοι - Ouarínoi = Warínoi|
|Raetovari||Raetobarii||Alemannic tribe||Probably in Nördlinger Ries|
|Reudignes, Reudinges, Reudinges, Reudingi, Holstens|
|Ripuarian Franks, Ripuarians, Ripuarii, Rhinefranks, Rhine Franks||Subset of the Franks in the Middle Rhine|
|Rugii, Rygir, Rugians||Rugii||Moved in the Migration Period with the Goths to the south||Originally between the Vistula and the Oder, later empire-building in Lower Austria|
|Salian Franks, Salians||Salii||Part of the Franks||Originally from the Lower Rhine to the Salland on the IJssel, then in North Brabant and later in the Tournai area|
|Saxons||Saxones||West Germanic people's Association of the Chauci, Angrivarii and Cherusci||From the 1st century in northwest Germany and the east of the Netherlands|
|Scordisci||Related to the Bastarnae according to Titus Livy||Šar Mountains to Singidunum in the Balkans||Titus Livy|
|Sedusii||Sedusii||Ally of the Ariovistus, classified by Caesar as Germanic||Julius Caesar|
|Semnones||Semnones (Σεμνόνες)||Part of the Suebi, at Tacitus their tribe||Around 100 between the Elbe and the Oder from the Bohemian border to the Havel||Tacitus|
|Silingi, Silings||Silingae||Part of the Vandals||Silesia, later Andalusia|
|Sitones, Sithones||Neighbours of the Suiones||Probably Scandinavia||Tacitus|
|Skirii, Scirii||Moved with the Bastarnae to the south, in the 5th century short imperial formation in Pannonia|
|Suarines, Suardones||Suarines, Suarmes, Smarines||Tribe of the Suebi||Around Lake Schwerin in Mecklenburg|
|Suebi, Suevi, Suavi, Suevians, Swabians||Suebi, Suewi, Sueboi (Σύηβοι)||Important Germanic tribal group, to which according to Tacitus the Semnones, Marcomanni, Hermunduri, Quadi and Lombards belonged||In the northeast of Germania on the Baltic Sea up to the German Central Uplands||Tacitus|
|Sugambri, Sigambri, Sugambi, Sigambri||Sugambri, Sygambri, Sugambroi (Σύγαμβροι), Sugumbri, Sucambri, Sycambres, Sugameri||7 BC defeated by Tiberius and settled on the left of the Rhine||In the 1st century left-bank areas on the Meuse|
|Suiones, Suones, Sueones, Suehans, Sweones, Swiones, Sviones||Suiones||Northern European sea people described by Tacitus||Possibly Scandinavia|
|Sunuci, Sinuci, Sunici||Sunuci||Possibly precursors of the Ubii||In the 1st and 2nd century in the Rhineland between Aachen and Jülich|
|Swedes, Svear||Svea||North Germanic tribe||Svealand in the region of the Mälaren river valley as well as Uppland, Gästrikland, Västmanland and Södermanland|
|Taifals||Taifali, Taifalae, Theifali||Probably a Germanic tribe in the group of the Visigoths||From the 3rd century in Dacia and Moesia|
|Tencteri, Tenchteri, Tenctheri||Tencteri, Toncteri, Tenkteroi (Τέγκτηροι)||Northern neighbours of the Usipetes, opponents of Caesar||In the 1st century BC on the Lower Rhine|
|Thervingi, Tervingi, Teruingi||Tervingi||See Visigoths|
|Thelir||Thilir, Þilir, teler, telar||The Migration Period and the Viking Age||The region now known as Upper Telemark in modern Norway|
|Teutonoari||Unterelbe (Lower Elbe)|
|Teutons||Teutoni, Teutones||Together with the Cimbri and the Ambrones from the 120 BC invasion of Gaul and Italy||Originally Jutland, south of the Cimbri|
|Thuringii, Thuringians, Turingi, Toringi||Thueringi, Tueringi, Thuringin, Turingi||In the 3rd or 4th century from the Angles, Warini and other originated tribal groups||Between the Thuringian Forest, Werra, Harz and the Elbe|
|Texandri, Texuandri, Taxandri, Toxandrians||Between the rivers Meuse and Scheldt in the Belgian-Dutch border region|
|Treveri, Treviri||Treverii, Treviri, Treveri||Strongly Celtic Germanic tribe||From the Rhine to the land of the Remi||Julius Caesar, Tacitus|
|Triboci, Tribocci||Triboces, Triboci, Tribocci, Tribochi, Tribocchoi (Τριβόκχοι)||In the 1st century BC, allies of the Ariovistus||On the Rhine around Strasbourg and Haguenau||Julius Caesar, Ptolemy|
|Tubantes, Tubanti||Tubanti, Tubantes, Toubantoi (Τούβαντοι)||In the 1st century, opponents of Germanicus||End of the migration period in the eastern Netherlands in the Twente region||Tacitus|
|Tulingi||Possibly Celto-Germanic tribe||Julius Caesar|
|Tungri, Tungrians, Tungrii, Tongri||Tungri, Tongri||Opponents of Caesar in the 1st century BC||Left side of the Rhine around Tongeren||Julius Caesar, Tacitus|
|Turcilingi, Torcilingi, Thorcilingi||Turcilingae|
|Turones, Turoni||Turoni||Possibly Celto-Germanic tribe, south and later southeast of the Chatti (see Thuringii above)||Ptolemy|
|Twihanti, Twihantes, Tuihanti, Tuihantes||Tuihanti|
|Ubii||Ubii||Originally right of the Rhine Germanic, subjected to Caesar and from the early imperial period on the left bank of the Rhine and Romanised||Originally from the Sieg over the Lahn to the lower Main, later in the area of Bonn and Cologne|
|Urugundes||Incursions around 256 into the Roman Empire||Lower Danube||Zosimus|
|Usipetes, Usipii||Usipetes, Usipii, Ousipetai (Ουσιπέται), Ousipioi (Ουσίπιοι)||In the 1st century BC, opponents of Caesar||On the right bank of the Lower Rhine|
|Vagoths||Probably on Gotland|
|Vandals||Vandali, Vanduli, Vandaloi (Οὐανδαλοί), Wandeloi (Βανδῆλοι), Wandiloi (Βανδίλοι)||Originally in the northeastern Germania, during the Migration Period in Spain and North Africa, plunder of Rome 455|
|Vangiones||Vangiones||Affiliation to Celts or Germanic peoples not secured||Area around Worms, Germany (Civitas Vangionum)|
|Varangians||Similar to the Vikings' and Normans' name for the northern European Germanic people, who came on their journeys into contact with Slavic peoples (there also as Rus') and over the Volga and the Black Sea to Byzantium|
|Vidivarii||Vidivarii||According to Jordanes, a mixed people||At the mouth of the Vistula||Jordanes|
|Visburgii||Wisburgi||Between the Upper Oder and the Vistula|
|Visigoths, Thervingi||Visigothi, Wisigothae, Tervingi||Part of the Goths, plunder of Rome 410, Visigothic Kingdom in southwestern Gaul and Spain||Jordanes|
|Vispi||South of Caritner|
|Vistula Veneti, Baltic Veneti, Veneti||Venedi, Venetae, Venedae||Possibly Germanic people in eastern Germania|
|Warini, Varini||Varini, Varinae, Ouarinoi (Ουαρίνοι)||Smaller, after Tacitus unwarlike tribe||Northern Germany||Tacitus|
|West Herules, Westherules||Independent group of the Herules on the Black Sea, which appears as Roman auxiliary troops and in the 5th century as pirates in appearance|
|Winnilers, Winnili, Winili||See Lombards|
Eight tribes or peoples are only mentioned by the Old Mainland Saxon wandering bard, of the Myrgingas tribe, named Widsith - Aenenes; Baningas; Deanas (they are differentiated from the Danes); Frumtingas; Herefaran; Hronas or Hronan; Mofdingas and Sycgas (not to be confused with Secgan , short name for the work in Old English called On the Resting-Places of the Saints about saints' resting places in England).
Many of the authors relating ethnic names of Germanic peoples speculated concerning their origin, from the earliest writers to approximately the Renaissance. One cross-cultural approach over this more than a millennium of historical speculation was to assign an eponymous ancestor of the same name as, or reconstructed from, the name of the people. For example, Hellen was the founder of the Hellenes.
Although some Enlightenment historians continued to repeat these ancient stories as though fact, today they are recognised as manifestly mythological. There was, for example, no Franko, or Francio, ancestor of the Franks. The convergence of data from history, linguistics and archaeology have made this conclusion inevitable. A list of the mythical founders of Germanic peoples follows.
The Angles were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several kingdoms of the Heptarchy in Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the root of the name England. According to Tacitus, writing before their move to Britain, Angles lived alongside Langobards and Semnones in historical regions of Schleswig and Holstein, which are today part of southern Denmark and northern Germany (Schleswig-Holstein).
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were one of the Anglo-Saxon tribes who settled in England after the departure of the Romans. According to Bede, they were one of the three most powerful Germanic nations.
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French. This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, since during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English.
The Suebi were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names such as the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, and Lombards. New groupings formed later such as the Alamanni and Bavarians and two kingdoms in the Migration Period were simply referred to as Suebian.
The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones, were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the 1st century AD expanding into Bavaria, Swabia and Bohemia. Notably this included the large sub-group of the Suevi, that itself contained many different tribal groups, but the Irminones also for example included the Chatti.
The Norsemen were a North Germanic ethnolinguistic group of the Early Middle Ages, during which they spoke the Old Norse language. The language belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages and is the predecessor of the modern Germanic languages of Scandinavia. During the late eighth century, Scandinavians embarked on a large-scale expansion in all directions, giving rise to the Viking Age. In English-language scholarship since the 19th century, Norse seafaring traders, settlers and warriors have commonly been referred to as Vikings. Historians of Anglo-Saxon England distinguish between Norse Vikings (Norsemen) from Norway who mainly invaded and occupied the islands north and north-west of Britain, Ireland and western Britain, and Danish Vikings, who principally invaded and occupied eastern Britain.
The Geats, sometimes called Goths, were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Götaland in modern southern Sweden during the Middle Ages. They are one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Swedes and Gutes. The name of the Geats also lives on in the Swedish provinces of Västergötland and Östergötland, the Western and Eastern lands of the Geats, and in many other toponyms.
The Swedes (Swedish: svear; Old Norse: svíar were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Geats and Gutes. They had their tribal centre in Gamla Uppsala.
Anglia is a small peninsula within the larger Jutland (Cimbric) Peninsula in the region of Southern Schleswig, which constitutes the northern part of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, protruding into the Bay of Kiel of the Baltic Sea.
The Ingaevones[ɪŋɡae̯ˈwoːneːs] were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, and Frisia in classical antiquity. Tribes in this area included the Frisii, Chauci, Saxons, and Jutes.
The Danes are a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, and the Scanian provinces of modern-day southern Sweden, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age. They founded what became the Kingdom of Denmark. The name of their realm is believed to mean "Danish March", viz. "the march of the Danes", in Old Norse, referring to their southern border zone between the Eider and Schlei rivers, known as the Danevirke.
The Chamavi, Chamãves or Chamaboe (Χᾳμαβοί) were a Germanic tribe of Roman imperial times whose name survived into the Early Middle Ages. They first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that lived to the north of the Lower Rhine. Their name probably survives in the region today called Hamaland, which is in the Gelderland province of the Netherlands, between the IJssel and Ems rivers.
The Varini, Warni or Warini were one or more Germanic peoples who originally lived in what is now northeastern Germany, near the Baltic sea.
Old Saxony is the original homeland of the Saxons in the northwest corner of modern Germany and roughly corresponds today to the modern German state of Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Nordalbingia and western Saxony-Anhalt.
The Angles were a dominant Germanic tribe in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, and gave their name to the English, England and to the region of East Anglia. Originally from Angeln, present-day Schleswig-Holstein, a legendary list of their kings has been preserved in the heroic poems Widsith and Beowulf, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
The Pecsætan, also called Peaklanders or Peakrills in modern English, were an Anglo-Saxon tribe who inhabited the central and northern parts of the Peak District area in England. The area was historically the home of the southern clan of the Brigantes, a Brythonic tribe, before the Anglo-Saxon invasion. The very early Derbyshire settlements, in what is now known as the Peak District, were those of the West Angles. This tribe advanced up the valleys of the rivers Derwent and Dove during their northern conquests in the 6th century. They became known locally as the Pecsætan. Later their territory formed the northern division of Mercia, and in 848 the Mercian Witenagemot assembled at Repton.
The Kingdom of the East Angles, today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens. The kingdom formed in the 6th century in the wake of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain. It was ruled by the Wuffingas dynasty in the 7th and 8th centuries, but fell to Mercia in 794, and was conquered by the Danes in 869, to form part of the Danelaw. It was conquered by Edward the Elder and incorporated into the Kingdom of England in 918.
North Germanic peoples, commonly called Scandinavians, Nordic peoples and in a medieval context Norsemen, are a Germanic ethnolinguistic group of the Nordic countries. They are identified by their cultural similarities, common ancestry and common use of the Proto-Norse language from around 200 AD, a language that around 800 AD became the Old Norse language, which in turn later became the North Germanic languages of today.
A number of royal genealogies of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, collectively referred to as the Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies, have been preserved in a manuscript tradition based in the 8th to 10th centuries.