List of cervids

Last updated
Eight cervid species (counterclockwise from top left): the red deer (Cervus elaphus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira), elk (Cervus canadensis), and southern pudu (Pudu puda) Cervidae1.jpg
Eight cervid species (counterclockwise from top left): the red deer (Cervus elaphus), sika deer (Cervus nippon), barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira), elk (Cervus canadensis), and southern pudú (Pudu puda)

Cervidae is a family of hoofed ruminant mammals in the order Artiodactyla. A member of this family is called a deer or a cervid. They are widespread throughout North and South America, Europe, and Asia, and are found in a wide variety of biomes. Cervids range in size from the 60 cm (24 in) long and 32 cm (13 in) tall pudú to the 3.4 m (11.2 ft) long and 3.4 m (11.2 ft) tall moose. Most species do not have population estimates, though the roe deer has a population size of approximately 15 million, while several are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 200. One species, Père David's deer, is extinct in the wild, and one, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938.

Contents

The fifty-four species of Cervidae are split into eighteen genera within three subfamilies: Capreolinae (New World deer), Cervinae (Old World deer), and Hydropotinae (water deer). Extinct species have also been placed into Capreolinae and Cervinae. More than one hundred extinct Cervidae species have been discovered, though due to ongoing research and discoveries the exact number and categorization is not fixed. [1]

Conventions

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX  Extinct (1 species)
 EW  Extinct in the wild (1 species)
 CR  Critically Endangered (2 species)
 EN  Endangered (6 species)
 VU  Vulnerable (16 species)
 NT  Near threatened (4 species)
 LC  Least concern (14 species)
Other categories
 DD  Data deficient (9 species)
 NE  Not evaluated (1 species)

Conservation status codes listed follow the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Range maps are provided wherever possible; if a range map is not available, a description of the cervid's range is provided. Ranges are based on the IUCN Red List for that species unless otherwise noted. All extinct species or subspecies listed alongside extant species went extinct after 1500 CE, and are indicated by a dagger symbol "Dagger-14-plain.png".

Classification

The family Cervidae consists of 53 extant species belonging to 18 genera in 3 subfamilies and divided into dozens of extant subspecies. This does not include hybrid species or extinct prehistoric species. Additionally, one species, Schomburgk's deer, went extinct in 1938. [2]

Cervidae   
Cervinae   

Elaphodus

Muntiacus

Dama

Rusa

Cervus

Elaphurus

Rucervus

Axis

Capreolinae   

Rangifer

Mazama

Odocoileus

Blastocerus

Hippocamelus

Ozotoceros

Pudu

Capreolus

Alces

Hydropotinae   

Hydropotes

Cervids

The following classification is based on the taxonomy described by Mammal Species of the World (2005), with augmentation by generally accepted proposals made since using molecular phylogenetic analysis. This includes merging the two moose species of Alces into one and splitting out the genus Hyelaphus from Axis . There are several additional proposals which are disputed, such as splitting out the monotypic Panolia genus from Rucervus , combining the monotypic subfamily Hydropotinae with Capreolinae, or the addition of the fair brocket to the Mazama genus, which are not included here. [3] [4]

Subfamily Capreolinae

Genus Alces (Gray, 1821) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Moose

Moose superior.jpg

A. alces
Linnaeus, 1758

Nine subspecies
  • A. a. alces (European elk)
  • A. a. americanus (Eastern moose)
  • A. a. andersoni (Western moose)
  • A. a. buturlini (Chukotka elk)
  • A. a. caucasicus (Caucasian moose)Dagger-14-plain.png
  • A. a. cameloides (Ussuri elk)
  • A. a. gigas (Alaskan moose)
  • A. a. pfizenmayeri (Yakutia elk)
  • A. a. shirasi (Shiras' moose)
North America, Europe, and Asia
Moose distribution.png
Size: 230–340 cm (91–134 in) long, plus 8–12 cm (3–5 in) tail; up to 230 cm (91 in) tall at shoulder [5]

Habitat: Forest and inland wetlands [6]

Diet: Vegetative parts of trees, as well as shrubs, herbs, and aquatic plants [6]
 LC 


2,000,000 [6] [7] Increase2.svg [6]

Genus Blastocerus (Wagner, 1844) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Marsh deer

Cervo do pantano.jpg

B. dichotomus
Illiger, 1815
Scattered parts of central South America (former range in red)
Distribuicao cervo do pantanal atual.png
Size: 153–191 cm (60–75 in) long, plus 12–16 cm (5–6 in) tail; 110–127 cm (43–50 in) tall at shoulder [8]

Habitat: Savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands [9]

Diet: Grasses, reeds and aquatic plants, as well as shrubs and vines [9]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [9]

Genus Capreolus (Gray, 1821) – two species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Roe deer

Capreolus capreolus 2 Jojo.jpg

C. capreolus
Linnaeus, 1758

Four subspecies
  • C. c. canus
  • C. c. capreolus
  • C. c. caucasicus
  • C. c. italicus
Europe
Areale Capreolus capreolus.jpg
Size: 104–124 cm (41–49 in) long, plus 2–3 cm (1–1 in) tail; 66–84 cm (26–33 in) tall at shoulder [10]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [11]

Diet: Wide variety of plants [11] [10]
 LC 


15,000,000 Increase2.svg [11]

Siberian roe deer

Siberian roe deer.jpg

C. pygargus
Pallas, 1771

Four subspecies
  • C. p. bedfordi
  • C. p. mantschuricus
  • C. p. ochraceus
  • C. p. pygargus
Central and northeastern AsiaSize: 95–140 cm (37–55 in) long, plus 20–40 cm (8–16 in) tail; 65–95 cm (26–37 in) tall at shoulder [12]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [13]

Diet: Grasses [13]
 LC 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [13]

Genus Hippocamelus (Leuckart, 1816) – two species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
South Andean deer

Reserva Cerro Castillo.JPG

H. bisulcus
Molina, 1782
Southern Andes mountains
Hippocamelus bisulcus distribution.svg
Size: 144–156 cm (57–61 in) long, plus 12–13 cm (5–5 in) tail; 80–90 cm (31–35 in) tall at shoulder [14]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, rocky areas, and desert [15]

Diet: Varied range of grasses and other plants [15]
 EN 


1,000–1,500 Decrease2.svg [15]

Taruca

Huemul.jpg

H. antisensis
d'Orbigny, 1834
Andes mountains
Hippocamelus antisensis distribution.svg
Size: 69–77 cm (27–30 in) tall at shoulder [16]

Habitat: Shrubland, grassland, rocky areas, and other [17]

Diet: Sedges and grasses [16] [17]
 VU 


4,200–5,700 Decrease2.svg [17]

Genus Mazama (Rafinesque, 1817) – nine species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Amazonian brown brocket

Mazama nemorivaga.jpg

M. nemorivaga
F. Cuvier, 1817
Northern and central South America
Mazama nemorivaga distribution.png
Size: 75–100 cm (30–39 in) long, plus 6–11 cm (2–4 in) tail; 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder [18]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland [19]

Diet: Fruit, as well as leaves and shoots [18]
 LC 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [19]

Central American red brocket

Cabro de monte. Mazama temama. Tapanti. Costa Rica.jpg

M. temama
Kerr, 1792

Three subspecies
  • M. t. cerasina
  • M. t. reperticia
  • M. t. temama
Central America
Mazama temama distribution.png
Size: 80–110 cm (31–43 in) long, plus 10–14 cm (4–6 in) tail; 60–70 cm (24–28 in) tall at shoulder [18]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [20]

Diet: Fruit, as well as seeds, grass, shoots, vines, and sometimes crops such as beans [18]
 DD 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [20]

Dwarf brocket M. chunyi
Hershkovitz, 1959
Central Andes mountains
Mazama chunyi distribution.png
Size: About 70 cm (28 in) long; about 38 cm (15 in) tall at shoulder [21]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [22]

Diet: Fruit and shrubs [22]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [22]

Gray brocket

Brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira Santa fe do Sul 1.jpg

M. gouazoubira
Fischer von Waldheim, 1814

Eleven subspecies
  • M. g. cita
  • M. g. gouazoubira
  • M. g. medemi
  • M. g. mexianae
  • M. g. murelia
  • M. g. nemorivaga
  • M. g. permira
  • M. g. sanctaemartae
  • M. g. rondoni
  • M. g. superciliaris
  • M. g. tschudii
Eastern South America
Mazama gouazoubira distribution.png
Size: 85–105 cm (33–41 in) long [18]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, and inland wetlands [23]

Diet: Wide variety of plants as well as fruit [23]
 LC 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [23]

Little red brocket

Mazama rufina1.JPG

M. rufina
Bourcier, Pucheran, 1852
Northern Andes mountains
Mazama rufina distribution.png
Size: About 78 cm (31 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail; about 45 cm (18 in) tall at shoulder [24]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [25]

Diet: Herbs as well as other plants [25]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [25]

Mérida brocket M. bricenii
Thomas, 1908
Northern Andes mountains
Mazama bricenii distribution.png
Size: 80–95 cm (31–37 in) long, plus 8–9 cm (3–4 in) tail; 45–50 cm (18–20 in) tall at shoulder [18]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and rocky areas [26]

Diet: Fruit and shrubs [26]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [26]

Pygmy brocket

Mazama nana.jpg

M. nana
Hensel, 1872
Southeastern South America (possible range in yellow)
Mazama nana distribution.png
Size: About 78 cm (31 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail; less than 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder [24]

Habitat: Forest [27]

Diet: Unknown [18] [27]
 VU 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [27]

Red brocket

Red Brocket (Mazama americana) male (28091090800).jpg

M. americana
Erxleben, 1777

Twelve subspecies
  • M. a. americana
  • M. a. carrikeri
  • M. a. gualea
  • M. a. jucunda
  • M. a. rosii
  • M. a. rufa
  • M. a. sarae
  • M. a. sheila
  • M. a. trinitatis
  • M. a. whitelyi
  • M. a. zamora
  • M. a. zetta
Northern and central South America
Mazama americana distribution.png
Size: 103–146 cm (41–57 in) long, plus 8–15 cm (3–6 in) tail; 65–80 cm (26–31 in) tall at shoulder [28]

Habitat: Forest [29]

Diet: Fruit and shrubs [29]
 DD 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [29]

Small red brocket

Veado-mateiro-pequeno.jpg

M. bororo
Duarte, 1996
Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil (possible range in yellow)
Mazama bororo distribution.png
Size: 85 cm (33 in) long, plus 11–14 cm (4–6 in) tail; 50–60 cm (20–24 in) tall at shoulder [18]

Habitat: Forest [30]

Diet: Fruit, leaves, and sprouts [18]
 VU 


8,500 Decrease2.svg [30]

Genus Odocoileus (Rafinesque, 1832) – three species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Mule deer

Mule buck doe elk creek r myatt (5489811074).jpg

O. hemionus
Rafinesque, 1817

Ten subspecies
  • O. h. californicus (California mule deer)
  • O. h. cerrosensis (Cedros Island mule deer)
  • O. h. columbianus (Black-tailed deer)
  • O. h. eremicus (desert mule deer)
  • O. h. fuliginatus (southern mule deer)
  • O. h. hemionus (Rocky Mountain mule deer)
  • O. h. inyoensis (Inyo mule deer)
  • O. h. peninsulae (peninsular mule deer)
  • O. h. sheldoni (Tiburon Island mule deer)
  • O. h. sitkensis (Sitka deer)
Western North America
Odocoileus hemionus map.svg
Size: 152–203 cm (60–80 in) long; 80–106 cm (31–42 in) tall at shoulder [31]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, desert, and intertidal marine [32]

Diet: Leaves, twigs, acorns, legume seeds, and fleshy fruits [31] [32]
 LC 


Unknown Steady2.svg [32]

Yucatan brown brocket

Mazama-pandora2.jpg

O. pandora
Merriam, 1901
Yucatán Peninsula
Mazama pandora distribution.png
Size: About 105 cm (41 in) long, plus 8 cm (3 in) tail [33]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [34]

Diet: Fruit, as well as other plants [18]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [34]

White-tailed deer

White-tailed deer.jpg

O. virginianus
Rafinesque, 1832

38 subspecies
  • O. v. acapulcensis
  • O. v. borealis (northern white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. cariacou
  • O. v. carminis (Carmen Mountains white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. chiriquensis
  • O. v. clavium (Key deer)
  • O. v. couesi (Coues' white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. curassavicus
  • O. v. dacotensis (Dakota white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. goudotii
  • O. v. gymnotis (South American white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. hiltonensis (Hilton Head white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. leucurus (Columbian white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. macrourus (Kansas white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. margaritae
  • O. v. mcilhennyi (Avery Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. mexicanus
  • O. v. miquihuanensis
  • O. v. nelsoni
  • O. v. nemoralis (Nicaraguan white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. nigribarbis (Blackbeard Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. oaxacensis
  • O. v. ochrourus (northwestern white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. osceola (Florida coastal white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. peruvianus (South American white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. rothschildi
  • O. v. seminolus (Florida white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. sinaloae
  • O. v. taurinsulae (Bulls Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. texanus (Texas white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. thomasi
  • O. v. toltecus
  • O. v. tropicalis
  • O. v. ustus
  • O. v. venatorius (Hunting Island white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. veraecrucis
  • O. v. virginianus (Virginia white-tailed deer)
  • O. v. yucatanensis
North America and northern South America
Odocoileus virginianus map.svg
Size: 150–200 cm (59–79 in) long, plus 10–28 cm (4–11 in) tail [35]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, desert, neritic marine, intertidal marine, and coastal marine [36]

Diet: Wide variety of vegetation and grasses [36]
 LC 


Unknown Steady2.svg [36]

Genus Ozotoceros (Ameghino, 1891) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Pampas deer

O. bezoarticus buck.jpg

O. bezoarticus
Linnaeus, 1758

Five subspecies
  • O. b. arerunguaensis
  • O. b. bezoarticus
  • O. b. celer
  • O. b. leucogaster
  • O. b. uruguayensis
Scattered central South America
Ozotoceros bezoarticus map.svg
Size: 110–140 cm (43–55 in) long; 70–75 cm (28–30 in) tall at shoulder [37]

Habitat: Savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands [38]

Diet: Grasses and shrubs [37] [38]
 NT 


20,000–80,000 Decrease2.svg [38]

Genus Pudu (Gray, 1852) – two species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Northern pudú P. mephistophiles
Winton, 1896
Northern Andes mountains
Pudu mephistophiles map.png
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long plus 3–5 cm (1–2 in) tail; 32–35 cm (13–14 in) tall at shoulder [39] [40]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [41]

Diet: Leaves of ferns, trees, vines, herbs and shrubs [41] [42]
 DD 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [41]

Southern pudú

Southern Pudu, Edinburgh Zoo.jpg

P. puda
Molina, 1782
Southern Andes mountains
Pudu puda Range.png
Size: 60–85 cm (24–33 in) long plus 3–5 cm (1–2 in) tail; 35–45 cm (14–18 in) tall at shoulder [39] [40]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland [43]

Diet: Leaves of ferns, trees, vines, herbs and shrubs [42] [43]
 NT 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [43]

Genus Rangifer (H. Smith, 1827) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Reindeer

Reinbukken pa frisk gront beite. - panoramio.jpg

R. tarandus
Linnaeus, 1758

Fourteen subspecies
Arctic North America, Europe, and Asia
Rangifer tarandus map.png
Size: 150–230 cm (59–91 in) long; up to 120 cm (47 in) tall at shoulder [44]

Habitat: Forest and grassland [45]

Diet: Lichen, forbs, sedges, grasses, and shrubs [45]
 VU 


2,890,000 Decrease2.svg [45]

Subfamily Cervinae

Genus Axis (H. Smith, 1827) – four species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Chital

A chital stag 1.JPG

A. axis
Erxleben, 1777
Indian subcontinent
Chital range map.png
Size: 70 cm (28 in) long plus 20 cm (8 in) tail; 35–38 cm (14–15 in) tall at shoulder [46] [47]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland [48]

Diet: Wide variety of grasses as well as fallen leaves, flowers, and fruit [48]
 LC 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [48]

Calamian deer

Axis calamianensis.jpg

A. calamianensis
Heude, 1888
Calamian Islands of the Philippines Size: 100–175 cm (39–69 in) long, plus 12–38 cm (5–15 in) tail; 60–100 cm (24–39 in) tall at shoulder [49]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland [50]

Diet: Leaves [50]
 EN 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [50]

Bawean deer

Adult male Bawean deer Axis kuhlii.JPG

A. kuhlii
Temminck, 1836
Bawean island of Indonesia
Axis kuhlii range map.png
Size: 100–175 cm (39–69 in) long [51]

Habitat: Forest and grassland [52]

Diet: Herbs and grasses, as well as young leaves and twigs [52]
 CR 


200–500 Steady2.svg [52]

Indian hog deer

Indian hog deer.jpg

A. porcinus
Zimmermann, 1780
Southern and southeast Asia
Axis porcinus range map.png
Size: 105–115 cm (41–45 in) long, plus 20 cm (8 in) tail; 60–72 cm (24–28 in) tall at shoulder [53]

Habitat: Savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [54]

Diet: Young grasses, as well as herbs, flowers, fruit, and shrubs [54]
 EN 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [54]

Genus Cervus (Linnaeus, 1758) – five species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Thorold's deer

CervusAlbirostris2.jpg

C. albirostris
Przhevalsky, 1883
Central ChinaSize: 155–210 cm (61–83 in) long, plus 10–13 cm (4–5 in) tail; 115–140 cm (45–55 in) tall at shoulder [55]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [56]

Diet: Grass, herbs, lichens, leaves, and bark of trees and bushes [56]
 VU 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [56]

Elk

Jasper.Wapiti-Hirsch.P1033401.jpg

C. canadensis
Erxleben, 1777

Thirteen subspecies
North America and Asia (former range in light green)
Wapiti.png
Size: 210–280 cm (83–110 in) long plus 10–22 cm (4–9 in) tail; 120–175 cm (47–69 in) tall at shoulder [57] [58]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [59]

Diet: Shrub and tree shoots, as well as grasses, sedges, and shrubs [59]
 LC 


Unknown Increase2.svg [59]

Red deer

Cervus elaphus Luc Viatour 6.jpg

C. elaphus
Linnaeus, 1758

Nine subspecies
Europe and western Asia (former range in light green)
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) reconstructed and recent.png
Size: 160–270 cm (63–106 in) long; 75–150 cm (30–59 in) tall at shoulder [60]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and rocky areas [61]

Diet: Shrub and tree shoots, as well as grasses, sedges, shrubs, fruit, and seeds [61]
 LC 


Unknown Increase2.svg [61]

Central Asian red deer

Bukhara Deer stag at Speyside Wildlife Park - geograph.org.uk - 1002574.jpg

C. hanglu
Wagner, 1844

Three subspecies
Central AsiaSize:

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [62]

Diet: Branches of young deciduous trees [62]
 LC 


2,000-2,500+ Increase2.svg [62]

Sika deer

Cervus nippon 002.jpg

C. nippon
Temminck, 1838

Sixteen subspecies
East AsiaSize: 95–180 cm (37–71 in) long plus 7–13 cm (3–5 in) tail; 64–109 cm (25–43 in) tall at shoulder [63]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [64]

Diet: Grass, as well as shrubs and fruit [64]
 LC 


Unknown Increase2.svg [64]

Genus Dama (Frisch, 1775) – two species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
European fallow deer

Fallow deer in field.jpg

D. dama
Linnaeus, 1758
Europe and west Asia; introduced scattered areas worldwide (in teal)
Dama dama map.png
Size: 130–175 cm (51–69 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder [65]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [66]

Diet: Grasses, mast, and shrubs, as well as leaves, buds, shoots, and bark [65] [66]
 LC 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [66]

Persian fallow deer

Persian Fallow Deer 1.jpg

D. mesopotamica
Brooke, 1875
Iran and IsraelSize: 130–175 cm (51–69 in) long, plus 15–23 cm (6–9 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder [65]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and shrubland [67]

Diet: Grasses, mast, and shrubs, as well as leaves, buds, shoots, and bark [67]
 EN 


Unknown Increase2.svg [67]

Genus Elaphodus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1872) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Tufted deer

Elaphodus cephalophus Side view Columbus Zoo 2010-05-21.JPG

E. cephalophus
H. Milne-Edwards, 1872

Four subspecies
  • E. c. cephalophus
  • E. c. fociensis
  • E. c. ichangensis
  • E. c. michianus
Central China and northeastern MyanmarSize: 110–160 cm (43–63 in) long, plus 7–16 cm (3–6 in) tail; 50–70 cm (20–28 in) tall at shoulder [68]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland [69]

Diet: Grass, as well as shrubs, fruits, bamboo, and herbs [69]
 NT 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [69]

Genus Elaphurus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1872) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Père David's deer

Pere David Deer - Woburn Deer Park (5115883164).jpg

E. davidianus
Milne-Edwards, 1866
ChinaSize: 183–216 cm (72–85 in) long, plus 22–36 cm (9–14 in) tail [70]

Habitat: Grassland, inland wetlands, and intertidal marine [71]

Diet: Grass, reeds, and bush leaves [71]
 EW 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [71]

Genus Muntiacus (Rafinesque, 1815) – eleven species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Bornean yellow muntjac M. atherodes
Groves, Grubb, 1982
Borneo Size: 90–100 cm (35–39 in) long, plus 14–20 cm (6–8 in) tail; 65 cm (26 in) tall at shoulder [72] [73]

Habitat: Forest [74]

Diet: Herbs, seeds, grass, buds, leaves, and fruit [72]
 NT 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [74]

Fea's muntjac

The deer of all lands (Muntiacus feae).jpg

M. feae
Thomas, Doria, 1889
Southern Myanmar and Thailand
Muntiacus feae map.png
Size: 90–100 cm (35–39 in) long, plus 10–17 cm (4–7 in) tail; 50–60 cm (20–24 in) tall at shoulder [72]

Habitat: Forest [75]

Diet: Fruit and leaves, as well as grass and shoots [72]
 DD 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [75]

Giant muntjac M. vuquangensis
Tuoc, Dung, Dawson, Arctander, & Mackinnon, 1994
Northern Vietnam and Laos
Muntiacus vuquangensis distribution.svg
Size: 110–115 cm (43–45 in) long, plus 17 cm (7 in) tail; 65–70 cm (26–28 in) tall at shoulder [72]

Habitat: Forest [76]

Diet: Fruit and leaves [72]
 CR 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [76]

Gongshan muntjac M. gongshanensis
Ma, 1990
South-central China
Muntiacus gongshanensis.png
Size: 95–105 cm (37–41 in) long, plus 9–16 cm (4–6 in) tail; 55–57 cm (22–22 in) tall at shoulder [77]

Habitat: Forest [78]

Diet: Unknown [72] [78]
 DD 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [78]

Hairy-fronted muntjac

2011 Muntjak-4.jpg

M. crinifrons
P. L. Sclater, 1885
Southeastern ChinaSize: 98–113 cm (39–44 in) long, plus 21 cm (8 in) tail [79]

Habitat: Forest and shrubland [80]

Diet: Wide variety of tree leaves and twigs, forbs, grass, and fruit [80]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [80]

Indian muntjac

Muntiacus sp - Hai Hong Karni.jpg

M. muntjak
Zimmermann, 1780

Eleven subspecies
  • M. m. annamensis
  • M. m. aureus
  • M. m. curvostylis
  • M. m. guangdongensis
  • M. m. malabaricus
  • M. m. menglalis
  • M. m. montanus (Sumatran muntjac)
  • M. m. muntjak
  • M. m. nigripes
  • M. m. vaginalis
  • M. m. yunnanensis
Southern and Southeast Asia
Muntjac distribution map.gif
Size: 89–135 cm (35–53 in) long, plus 13–23 cm (5–9 in) tail; 40–65 cm (16–26 in) tall at shoulder [81]

Habitat: Forest [82]

Diet: Fruit, buds, tender leaves, flowers, herbs, and young grass [82]
 LC 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [82]

Leaf muntjac M. putaoensis
Amato, Egan & Rabinowitz, 1999
MyanmarSize: 77–83 cm (30–33 in) long, plus 8–12 cm (3–5 in) tail; 50 cm (20 in) tall at shoulder [83]

Habitat: Forest [84]

Diet: Fruit and a range of plant materials [84]
 DD 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [84]

Pu Hoat muntjac M. puhoatensis
Trai, 1997
VietnamSize: Small and similar to the Truong Son muntjac, but specific measurements not available [72]

Habitat: Forest [85]

Diet: Unknown [72] [85]
 DD 


Unknown Blue question mark (italic).svg [85]

Reeves's muntjac

Chinesischer Muntjak Muntiacus reevesi Zoo Augsburg-04.jpg

M. reevesi
Ogilby, 1839

Three subspecies
  • M. r. jiangkouensis
  • M. r. micrurus
  • M. r. reevesi
Eastern China; introduced to Britain and JapanSize: 70–113 cm (28–44 in) long, plus 10 cm (4 in) tail; 43–45 cm (17–18 in) tall at shoulder [86]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [87]

Diet: Bamboo, seeds, bark, fruit and foliage, as well as eggs, carrion, small mammals, and ground-nesting birds [86] [87]
 LC 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [87]

Roosevelt's muntjac M. rooseveltorum
Osgood, 1932

Muntiacus rooseveltorum.png
Size: Small with shoulder height estimated at about 40 cm (16 in), but specific measurements not available [72]

Habitat: Forest [88]

Diet: Leaves and fruit [72]
 DD 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [88]

Truong Son muntjac M. truongsonensis
Giao, Tuoc, Dung, Wikramanayake, Amato, Arctander, & Mackinnon, 1997
Southern VietnamSize: Small with shoulder height estimated at about 40 cm (16 in), but specific measurements not available [72]

Habitat: Forest [89]

Diet: Leaves and fruit [72]
 DD 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [89]

Genus Rucervus (Hodgson, 1838) – three species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Barasingha

The barasingha.jpg

R. duvaucelii
Cuvier, 1823

Three subspecies
  • R. d. branderi (Southern swamp deer)
  • R. d. duvaucelii (Western swamp deer)
  • R. d. ranjitsinhi (Eastern swamp deer)
Scattered parts of south Asia (historical range in yellow)
Rucervus duvaucelii range map.png
Size: About 180 cm (71 in) long; 119–124 cm (47–49 in) tall at shoulder [90]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, grassland, and inland wetlands [91]

Diet: Grass and aquatic plants [91]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [91]

Eld's deer

Panolia eldii thamin.jpg

R. eldii
McClelland, 1842

Three subspecies
  • R. e. eldii (Sangai)
  • R. e. siamensis (Burmese brow-antlered deer)
  • R. e. thamin (Thai brow-antlered deer)
Scattered parts of southeast AsiaSize: Males 160–170 cm (63–67 in) long, plus 22–25 cm (9–10 in) tail; 115–130 cm (45–51 in) tall at shoulder.

Females 140–150 cm (55–59 in) long, plus 22–25 cm (9–10 in) tail; 90–100 cm (35–39 in) tall at shoulder. [92]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [93]

Diet: A variety of grasses, fruit, and herbaceous and wetland plants [94] [93]

 EN 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [93]

Schomburgk's deer Dagger-14-plain.png

SchomburgksDeer-Berlin1911.jpg

R. schomburgki
Blyth, 1863
Central Thailand Size: Unknown

Habitat: Grassland and inland wetlands [95]

Diet: Unknown [95]
 EX 


0 Steady2.svg [95]

Genus Rusa (H. Smith, 1827) – four species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Visayan spotted deer

Visayan Spotted Deer (Rusa alfredi).jpg

R. alfredi
P. L. Sclater, 1870
Philippines Size: 120–130 cm (47–51 in) long, plus 8–13 cm (3–5 in) tail; 60–80 cm (24–31 in) tall at shoulder [96]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, and grassland [97]

Diet: Cogon grass and young leaves and buds [97]
 EN 


700 Decrease2.svg [97]

Philippine deer

Philippine Deer - Rusa marianna - Ninoy Aquino Parks & Wildlife Center 02.jpg

R. marianna
Desmarest, 1822

Four subspecies
  • R. m. barandana
  • R. m. marianna
  • R. m. nigella
  • R. m. nigricans
Philippines Size: 100–151 cm (39–59 in) long; 55–70 cm (22–28 in) tall at shoulder [98]

Habitat: Forest and grassland [99]

Diet: Grass [99]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [99]

Javan rusa

Javan Deer couple - Baluran NP - East Java (29505339513).jpg

R. timorensis
Blainville, 1822

Seven subspecies
  • R. t. djonga
  • R. t. floresiensis (Flores rusa deer)
  • R. t. macassaricus (Celebes rusa deer)
  • R. t. moluccensis (Moluccan rusa deer)
  • R. t. renschi
  • R. t. russa (Javan rusa deer)
  • R. t. timorensis (Timor rusa deer)
Indonesia and East Timor
Rusa timorensis natural range-map.png
Size: 142–185 cm (56–73 in) long, plus 10–30 cm (4–12 in) tail; 80–110 cm (31–43 in) tall at shoulder [100]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, and grassland [101]

Diet: Grass, herbs, the leaves and bark of shrubs, and seaweed [101]
 VU 


10,000 Decrease2.svg [101]

Sambar deer

Sambar (Cervus unicolor unicolor) male.jpg

R. unicolor
Kerr, 1792

Seven subspecies
  • R. u. brookei (Bornean sambar)
  • R. u. cambojensis (Mainland Southeast Asian sambar)
  • R. u. dejeani (South China sambar)
  • R. u. equina (Malayan sambar)
  • R. u. hainana (Hainan sambar)
  • R. u. swinhoii (Formosan sambar)
  • R. u. unicolor (Sri Lankan sambar)
South and Southeast Asia including Southern China
Rusa unicolor.png
Size: 160–270 cm (63–106 in) long, plus 25–30 cm (10–12 in) tail; 102–160 cm (40–63 in) tall at shoulder [102]

Habitat: Forest, savanna, shrubland, grassland, and inland wetlands [103]

Diet: Wide variety of plants [103]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [103]

Subfamily Hydropotinae

Genus Hydropotes (R. Swinhoe, 1870) – one species
Common nameScientific name and subspeciesRangeSize and ecologyIUCN status and estimated population
Water deer

Hydropotes inermis male.JPG

H. inermis
Swinhoe, 1870

Two subspecies
  • H. i. argyropus (Korean water deer)
  • H. i. inermis (Chinese water deer)
East China and Korean peninsulaSize: 89–103 cm (35–41 in) long, plus 6–7 cm (2–3 in) tail; 45–57 cm (18–22 in) tall at shoulder [104]

Habitat: Forest, shrubland, grassland, inland wetlands, and intertidal marine [105]

Diet: Reeds, coarse grasses, vegetables, and beets [105] [106]
 VU 


Unknown Decrease2.svg [105]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Truong Son muntjac or Annamite muntjac is a species of muntjac deer. It is one of the smallest muntjac species, at about 15 kg (33 lb), half the size of the Indian muntjac. It was discovered in the Truong Son mountain range in Vietnam in 1997.

The leaf muntjac, leaf deer or Putao muntjac is a small species of muntjac. It was documented in 1997 by biologist Alan Rabinowitz during his field study in the isolated Naungmung Township in Myanmar. Rabinowitz discovered the species by examining the small carcass of a deer that he initially believed was the juvenile of another species; however, it proved to be the carcass of an adult female. He managed to obtain specimens, from which DNA analysis revealed a new cervid species. Local hunters knew of the species and called it the leaf deer because its body could be completely wrapped by a single large leaf. It is found in Myanmar and India.

Gongshan muntjac Species of deer

The Gongshan muntjac is a species of muntjac living in the Gongshan mountains in northwestern Yunnan, southeast Tibet, Northeast India and northern Myanmar.

Roosevelts muntjac Species of deer

A single specimen of the Roosevelt's muntjac or Roosevelt's barking deer was presented to the Field Museum in 1929 following the Kelley-Roosevelts expedition organized by Theodore (Jnr) and Kermit Roosevelt. The specimen is slightly smaller than the common muntjac and DNA testing has shown it to be distinct from recently discovered muntjac species. It is a subspecies of Fea's muntjac, whose home range is mountains further northwest separated by lower land. However, without further evidence, the exact position of Roosevelt's muntjac cannot be stated. Berlin Zoo supposedly held this species between 1961 and 1972 but it could have been an Indian muntjac, subspecies annamensis.

The Bornean yellow muntjac is a muntjac species endemic to the moist forests of Borneo.

<i>Callosciurus</i> Genus of "beautiful" squirrels from Asia

Callosciurus is a genus of squirrels collectively referred to as the "beautiful squirrels". They are found mainly in Southeast Asia, though a few species also occur in Nepal, northeastern India, Bangladesh and southern China. Several of the species have settled on islands. In total, the genus contains 15 species and numerous varieties and subspecies. The genera Glyphotes, Rubrisciurus, and Tamiops have sometimes been included in Callosciurus.

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