List of countries where Arabic is an official language

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Nations in which Arabic is an official language (de facto or de jure). Arabic in countries with more than 50% Arabic-speakers is considered a majority language, otherwise it is a minority language.
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Official as majority language
Official as minority language
Co-official as majority language
Co-official as minority language
Not official as minority language Official Language - Arabic - Close 2.png
Nations in which Arabic is an official language (de facto or de jure). Arabic in countries with more than 50% Arabic-speakers is considered a majority language, otherwise it is a minority language.
  Official as majority language
  Official as minority language
  Co-official as majority language
  Co-official as minority language
  Not official as minority language

Arabic and its different dialects are spoken by around 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world as well as in the Arab diaspora making it one of the five most spoken languages in the world. Currently, 22 countries are member states of the Arab League (as well as 5 countries were granted an observer status) which was founded in Cairo in 1945. Arabic is a language cluster comprising 30 or so modern varieties. [1]

Contents

Arabic is the lingua franca of people who live in countries of the Arab world as well as of Arabs who live in the diaspora, particularly in Latin America (especially Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile and Colombia) or Western Europe (like France, Spain, Germany or Italy).

Cypriot Arabic is a recognized minority language in the EU member state of Cyprus and, along with Maltese, is one of only two extant European varieties of Arabic, though it has its own standard literary form and has no diglossic relationship with Standard Arabic. [2] Maltese is one of the official languages of the EU. Arabic is a majority language of the native population in the United Arab Emirates as the majority of the population is composed of expatriates. [3]

Sovereign states where Arabic is an official language

As of 2018, there are 23 sovereign states where Modern Standard Arabic is an official language. The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Arabic is an official language.

Sovereign states where Arabic is an official language
No.Sovereign statePopulationNotesMember state of the Arab League
1.Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria 41,701,000Co-official language, along with Berber Yes
2.Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain 1,343,000Official languageYes
3.Flag of Chad.svg  Chad 10,329,208Co-official language, along with French Observer status
4.Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros 798,000Co-official language, along with Comorian and FrenchYes
5.Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti 810,179Co-official language, along with FrenchYes
6.Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 102,442,939Official languageYes
7.Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 36,004,552Co-official language, along with Kurdish Yes
8.Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 6,655,000Official languageYes
9.Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait 2,789,000Official languageYes
10.Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 4,965,914Official languageYes
11.Flag of Libya.svg  Libya 6,244,174Official languageYes a
12.Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania 3,359,185Official languageYes
13.Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 35,250,000Co-official language, along with BerberYes
14.Flag of Oman.svg  Oman 4,055,418Official languageYes
15.Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine b4,484,000Official language in the Palestinian territories cYes
16.Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 2,155,446Official languageYes
17.Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 30,770,375Official languageYes
18.Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 10,428,043Co-official language, along with Somali Yes
19.Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan 40,235,000Co-official language, along with English Yes
20.Flag of Syria.svg  Syria  d20,956,000Official languageYes e
21.Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 10,982,754Official languageYes
22.Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 9,346,129Official languageYes
23.Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen 23,833,000Official languageYes f
Σ 23TotalΣ 395,979,000 Arabic Language International Council Arab League
a. Libya's seat is taken by the House of Representatives (Libya) (which is disputed by the Muslim Brotherhood-led General National Congress and Government of National Accord).
b. Out of the 193 member states of the United Nations, 136 member states currently recognize the State of Palestine.

c. The Palestinian territories (also called the Israeli-occupied territories) are occupied by Israel but do not legally belong to the State of Israel according to the Supreme Court of Israel and the International Court of Justice of the United Nations (UN).
d. The Syrian National Coalition is partially recognized as the sole legitimate government of the state Syrian Arab Republic.
e. Syria's seat currently occupied by the Syrian National Coalition, [4] while Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic suspended on 16 November 2011. [5] [6]
f. Yemen's seat is taken by the Cabinet of Yemen (which is disputed by the Houthi Supreme Revolutionary Committee).

States with limited recognition and territories where Arabic is an official language

The following is a list of states with limited recognition as well as territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language.

States/territories where Arabic is an official language
No.State/TerritoryPopulationNotesMember state of the Arab League
1.Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 502,585Co-official language, along with Spanish No
2.Flag of Somaliland.svg  Somaliland 4,500,000Co-official language, along with Somali and English No
3.Flag of Zanzibar.svg  Zanzibar a1,303,569Co-official language, along with Swahili and EnglishNo

a. A semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.

Countries where Arabic is a national/working language or a recognized minority language

As of 2016, there are 7 independent countries where Arabic is a national/working language or a recognized minority language, but not primary language. The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Arabic is a national language or a recognized minority language.

Dispersion of native Arabic speakers as the majority (green) or minority (chartreuse) population Arabic Dispersion.svg
Dispersion of native Arabic speakers as the majority (green) or minority (chartreuse) population
Baggara Arabs belt Baggara Arabs Belt.svg
Baggara Arabs belt
Countries where Arabic is a national/working language
or a recognized minority language
No.CountryPopulationNational/Working language
or minority language
Continent
1.Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus [note 1] 875,900Minority language Asia, Europe
2.Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea 6,380,803Working language Africa
3.Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 83,145,546Minority languageAsia
4.Flag of Mali.svg  Mali 19,973,000National languageAfrica
5.Flag of Niger.svg  Niger 22,314,743National languageAfrica
6.Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 16,209,125National languageAfrica
7.Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 82,003,882Minority languageAsia, Europe
Σ 7TotalΣ 230,027,000

Cyprus

Cypriot Arabic (alongside Armenian) is one of the two recognized minority languages of Cyprus, since 2008. [7] It is spoken by the Maronite community, which is a minority in Cyprus especially in the cities Nicosia, Limassol and Larnaca.

Cypriot Arabic (also known as Cypriot Maronite Arabic) is taught at the Elementary School of St. Maron, which is located in Anthoupolis southern of Nicosia, Cyprus. [8]

Eritrea

Debate exists over the extent of Arabic in Eritrea; the government position is that the language was introduced by the British and is only in use by a professional elite and the Rashaida minority, whereas others have taken the view the language acts as the lingua franca of the country's Muslims. [9] Eritrea is an observer state in the Arab League.

Iran

Arabic is a recognized minority language of Iran. In addition, the constitution recognizes the Arabic language as the language of Islam, giving it a formal status as the language of religion, and regulates its spreading within the Iranian national curriculum. After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Arabic (as the language of Quran) became mandatory for pupils in Iran. Arabic courses are mandatory starting from 6th year of schooling (1st year of Middle School) until the 11th year (penultimate year of High School).

The local dialects of Arabic spoken by Arab minorities in Iran (like Ahwazi Arabs, Khamseh Arabs, Marsh Arabs as well as Arabs in Khorasan) are Khuzestani Arabic and Mesopotamian Arabic, (also known as Iraqi Arabic) mainly in Khuzestan Province as well as Khorasani Arabic especially in Khorasan Province.

There are several TV channels in Arabic language broadcasting from Iran, namely, Al-Alam, Al-Kawthar TV, iFilm, Ahwazna TV, Al Ahwaz TV and Al-Ahvaz TV. Currently, the sole newspaper in Arabic language published in Iran is Kayhan Al Arabi out of 23 Persian dailies and three English dailies newspapers in Iran.

In 2008, the public university Payame Noor University declared that Arabic will be the "second language" of the university, and that all its services will be offered in Arabic, concurrent with Persian. [10]

Mali

Arabic is one of the recognized national languages in Mali. Hassaniya Arabic (a variety of Maghrebi Arabic) is spoken by a minority in Mali especially by the Azawagh Arabs (also known as nomadic Moors) nomadic ethnic Arab-ancestry tribes who are settling mainly in the area of Azawagh which is a dry basin covering what is today northwestern Niger, as well as parts of northeastern Mali and southern Algeria. [11]

Niger

Arabic is one of the recognized national languages in Niger. Arabic is spoken by a minority in Niger especially by the Diffa Arabs (also known as Mahamid Arabs) an Arab nomadic tribespeople who is living in eastern Niger, mostly in the Diffa Region.

Senegal

Arabic is one of the recognized national languages in Senegal. Hassaniya Arabic is spoken by a minority in Senegal. [12]

Turkey

There is an Arab minority in Turkey who speak Arabic as their native language. Therefore, Arabic is a recognized minority language in Turkey.

Historically Arabic was the official language (in the territory which form nowadays the state of Turkey) during the time when this region was a part of the Umayyad Caliphate between 661 and 750 and later when it belonged to the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258).

The national public broadcaster of Turkey the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (also known as TRT) broadcasts TRT Al Arabiya a 24 hours a day TV channel in Arabic language (launched in April 2010).

The Arab Christian (Antiochian Greek Christians) minority has the right to teach Arabic under the Treaty of Lausanne, however they tend to refrain from doing so in order to avoid sectarian tensions as the treaty does not apply to the Muslim majority. [13]

In 2015, the Turkey's Ministry of Education announced that as of the 2016–17 academic year, Arabic language courses (as a second language) will be offered to students in elementary school starting in second grade. The Arabic courses will be offered as an elective language course like German, French and English which are already being offered to elementary school students for a long time. According to a prepared curriculum, second and third graders will start learning the Arabic language by listening-comprehension and speaking, while introduction to writing will join these skills in fourth grade and after fifth grade students will start learning the language in all its four basic skills. [14] [15]

Countries where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution

As of 2018, there are 4 independent countries where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution. The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution.

Countries where Arabic has a special status according to the constitution
No.CountryPopulationOfficial language(s)Other recognized
language(s)
Continent
1.Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 83,145,546 Persian Arabic aAsia
2.Flag of Israel.svg  Israel  b9,149,960 Hebrew Arabic cAsia
3.Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 218,396,000 Urdu, English Arabic dAsia
4.Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 100,981,437 Filipino, English Arabic eAsia
Σ 4TotalΣ 411,672,943
a. ^ The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran recognizes the Arabic language as the language of Islam, giving it a formal status as the language of religion, and regulates its spreading within the Iranian national curriculum. The constitution declares in Chapter II: (The Official Language, Script, Calendar, and Flag of the Country) in Article 16 "Since the language of the Qur`an and Islamic texts and teachings is Arabic, ..., it must be taught after elementary level, in all classes of secondary school and in all areas of study." [16]

b. Out of the 193 member states of the United Nations, 162 member states currently recognize the State of Israel.
c. ^ The Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People (an Israeli Basic Law which specifies the nature of the State of Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish People) states in No. 4 (B) that "The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law." The law declares in No. 4 (C): "This clause does not harm the status given to the Arabic language before this law came into effect." The law was adopted by the Knesset 62 in favor, 55 against and two abstentions on 19 July 2018. [17]
d. ^ The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan states in Article 31 No. 2 that "The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language ..." [18]
e. ^ The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis." [19]

Iran

The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran recognizes the Arabic language as the language of Islam, giving it a formal status as the language of religion, and regulates its spreading within the Iranian national curriculum. The constitution declares in Chapter II: (The Official Language, Script, Calendar, and Flag of the Country) in Article 16 "Since the language of the Qur`an and Islamic texts and teachings is Arabic, ..., it must be taught after elementary level, in all classes of secondary school and in all areas of study." [16]

Israel

Arabic was an official language of Mandatory Palestine and was retained as an official language when the State of Israel was founded in 1948. In 2018, the Knesset upgraded the status of Hebrew from official to State language of Israel, and gave Arabic a special status in the State by adopting the relevant Basic Law. The Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People (an Israeli Basic Law which specifies the nature of the State of Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish People) states in No. 4 (B) that "The Arabic language has a special status in the state; Regulating the use of Arabic in state institutions or by them will be set in law." The law declares in No. 4 (C): "This clause does not harm the status given to the Arabic language before this law came into effect." The law was adopted by the Knesset 62 in favor, 55 against and two abstentions on 19 July 2018. [17]

Arabic is an indigenous language in the territory which form the state of Israel and which is still the lingua franca of Arab citizens of Israel as well as of Arab foreigners (especially Palestinians who have only a Palestinian Authority passport, not recognized by many countries. Thus, they consider Palestinians stateless). In addition, Arabic is spoken by Arab Jews in Israel who immigrated from different Arab countries to Israel (as Aliyah) and got the Israeli citizenship according to the Israeli Nationality Law of 1952.

Arabic name is shown on some Arabic majority cities seal.

It is semi-official and used in ethnically mixed cities including Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv-Yafo, as well as on most highway signage, official websites, and public buildings in areas with significant Arabic-speaking populations.

Pakistan

Historically Arabic was the official language (in the territory which form nowadays the state Islamic Republic of Pakistan) during the time when this region was a part of the Umayyad Caliphate between 651 and 750.

According to the Constitution of Pakistan of 1956 the two languages Urdu (which is very close to Hindi, both also called Hindustani language which were two of the lingua franca of North India and Pakistan that time [20] [21] ) as well as Bengali (at that time the lingua franca in the territory which is today the independent state Bangladesh) became the national languages in the new founded state Islamic Republic of Pakistan. General Ayub Khan the second President of Pakistan advocated the institution of Arabic language teaching as part of national planning. [22] "Ayub`s educational plan emphasized Urdu and English as the primary language of Pakistan, but additionally recommended that Arabic be a secondary language of instruction along with English." [23]

The Arabic language is mentioned in the constitution of Pakistan. It declares in article 31 No. 2 that "The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language ..." [18]

There is also an Arab minority in Pakistan. In addition, a remarkable number of Pakistanis are able to speak Arabic as they were living in the rich GCC Countries for working reasons (in Saudi Arabia around 2.5 million; in UAE around 1.5 million; in Qatar around 650,000; in Kuwait around 430,000; in Oman around 300,000; in Bahrain around 180,000) for a very long time. These overseas Pakistanis who are living in countries of the Arab world are also named Arab Pakistanis or Pakistani Arabs.

The National Education Policy 2017 declares in article 3.7.4 that: “Arabic as compulsory part will be integrated in Islamiyat from Middle to Higher Secondary level to enable the students to understand the Holy Quran.“ Furthermore, it specifies in article 3.7.6: “Arabic as elective subject shall be offered properly at Secondary and Higher Secondary level with Arabic literature and grammar in its course to enable the learners to have command in the language.“ This law is also valid for private schools as it defines in article 3.7.12: “The curriculum in Islamiyat, Arabic and Moral Education of public sector will be adopted by the private institutions to make uniformity in the society. [24]

In 2021, Pakistan's upper house of parliament approved the ‘Compulsory Teaching of the Arabic Language Bill 2020’ which makes the teaching of Arabic mandatory at all primary and secondary schools in the capital, Islamabad. [25] The text of the bill says that Arabic should be taught from the first to the fifth grade and Arabic grammar should be taught from the sixth grade to the eleventh grade. [26] [27] The main reasons are Arabic would open up more job opportunities for Pakistanis in the Middle East and lead to lower unemployment and increased remittances [25] as well as Arabic is the language of the Quran. Making it compulsory at school level will help to improve the understanding of the Holy Quran in its true spirit. [28]

Philippines

The Arabic language is mentioned in the Philippine constitution of 1986. It specifies that "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis." [19]

Arabic is mainly used by some Filipino Muslims in both a liturgical and instructional capacity since the arrival of Islam and establishment of several Sultanates (like Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu and Sultanate of Ranaw) and during Bruneian Empire in the present-day state Philippines. Along with Malay, Arabic was the lingua franca of the Malay Archipelago among Muslim traders and the Malay aristocracy in the history. Arabic is taught for free and is promoted in some Islamic centres predominantly in the southernmost parts of Philippines.

Non-sovereign entities and territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language

The following is a list of non-sovereign entities and autonomous regions as well as territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language.

Non-sovereign entities and territories where Arabic is an official or de facto official language
No.Non-sovereign entity/TerritoryPopulationNotesContinent
1.MNLA flag.svg  Azawad, [29] Flag of the Arab Movement of Azawad.svg Arab Movement of Azawad 1,300,000Co-official language, along with Tuareg Africa
2.Flag of Galmudug.svg  Galmudug 1,230,000Co-official language, along with Somali Africa
3. Hirshabeelle.png Hirshabelle 1,800,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
4.Flag of Kurdistan.svg  Iraqi Kurdistan [30] 5,300,000Co-official language, along with Kurdish Asia
5.AQMI Flag asymmetric.svg  Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant 4,800,000Official languageAsia
6.Flag of Jubaland (Somalia).svg  Jubaland 1,000,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
7.Flag of Khaatumo State of Somalia.svg  Khatumo 2,000,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
8.Flag of Puntland.svg  Puntland 1,285,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
9.De facto SA-NES Flag.svg  Rojava (also called Democratic Federation of Northern Syria)4,600,000Co-official language, along with Kurdish and Syriac Asia
10. Flag of Southwestern Somalia.svg South West State of Somalia 2,000,000Co-official language, along with SomaliAfrica
11.Flag of Syria 2011, observed.svg  Syrian opposition  a [31] 3,500,000Official languageAsia
Σ 11TotalΣ 28,835,000
a. The Syrian National Coalition is partially recognized as the sole legitimate government of the state Syrian Arab Republic.

History

Umayyad Caliphate

The expansion of the first Caliphates:
Expansion under Islamic prophet Muhammad,
622-632 AD/ 1-11 AH
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate,
632-661 AD/ 11-40 AH
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate,
661-750 AD/ 40-129 AH Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg
The expansion of the first Caliphates:
  Expansion under Islamic prophet Muhammad,
622–632 AD/ 1-11 AH
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate,
632–661 AD/ 11-40 AH
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate,
661–750 AD/ 40-129 AH
Expansion of the Abbasid caliphate, 750-1258 AD/ 132-923 AH Abbasids Dynasty 750 - 1258 (AD).PNG
Expansion of the Abbasid caliphate, 750–1258 AD/ 132-923 AH
Expansion of the Omani Empire: 1696-1856 AD Empire of Oman.svg
Expansion of the Omani Empire: 1696–1856 AD

The Muslim conquests (Arabic : الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) and the following Expansion of Islam (Arabic : انتشار الإسلام, Intishar al-Islām) led to the expansion of the Arabic language in Northern Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, the Caucasus, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. Along with the religion of Islam, the Arabic language, Arabic number system and Arab customs spread throughout the entire Arab caliphate. The caliphs of the Arab dynasty established the first schools inside the empire which taught Arabic language and Islamic studies for all pupils in all areas within the caliphate. The result was (in those areas which belonged to the Arab empire) the creation of the society that was mostly Arabic-speaking because of the assimilation of native inhabitants.

During the period of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), the 5th Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik (646–705) established Arabic instead of the local languages as the sole official state language of government across the entire caliphate. [32]

Abbasid Caliphate

While the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258) originally gained power by exploiting the social inequalities against non-Arabs in the Umayyad Empire, during Abbasid rule the empire rapidly was Arabized. As knowledge was shared in the Arabic language throughout the empire, people of different nationalities and religions began gradually to speak Arabic in their everyday lives. Resources from other languages began to be translated into Arabic, and a unique Islamic identity began to form that fused previous cultures with Arab culture, creating a level of civilization and knowledge that was considered a marvel in Europe and the Western world. [33]

Fatimid Caliphate

The Arabic language remained the lingua franca of high culture under the Fatimids (909–1171), Spanish Umayyads (856–1031) in the Iberian Peninsula, and later Muslim dynasties in North Africa and Spain and of the Mamluks (1250–1517) in Egypt and Syria-Palestine. [34]

Al-Andalus

In the history, Andalusian Arabic was the official language in Spain and Portugal, formerly Al-Andalus for more than 700 years until the fall of the last Islamic state in Iberia at Granada in 1492.

Italy and Malta

Siculo-Arabic (or Sicilian Arabic) was a spoken language on the islands of Sicily and neighbouring Malta (at that time Emirate of Sicily (831–1091)) between the end of the ninth century and the end of the twelfth century.

Greece

A form of Arabic was spoken on the Mediterranean island of Crete (Emirate of Crete) from the late 820s (c. 824 or 827/828) until the Byzantine reconquest in 961.

Omani Empire

Arabic was the official language of the Omani Empire (1696–1856). Several Arabic dialects and languages were the lingua francas in the different areas of this emipre, like Omani Arabic, Yemeni Arabic, Persian, Balochi and Swahili.

South Sudan

Arabic (alongside English) was an official language in South Sudan from 1863 (these days a part of Egypt Eyalet (1517–1867)) until 2011 (that time the independent state Republic of South Sudan), when the former government canceled Arabic as an official language. Since 2011 English is the sole official language of South Sudan. The Arabic dialect Juba Arabic is still the lingua franca of the people in South Sudan.

The Gambia

In 2014, Gambian president Yahya Jammeh announced that The Gambia would drop English as the official language because it is a "colonial relic". [35] [36] He replaced Gambia's official language English with Arabic in 2014. [37] However, such change was not enacted.

Israel

The Arabic language (alongside Hebrew) also remained as an official language in the State of Israel for the first 70 years after the proclamation in 1948 until 2018. The Knesset canceled the status of Arabic as an official language by adopting the relevant Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People on 19 July 2018. This Israeli Basic Law states in No. 4 (A) that "The state’s language is Hebrew." [17]

Territories where Arabic was an official or de facto official language and later replaced or repealed

There were several territories (which later became independent states) where Arabic was an official or de facto official language and where it has been replaced by other languages or repealed. The following is a list of territories (which later became independent states) where Arabic was an official or de facto official language in the history.

Territories where Arabic was an official or de facto official language and later replaced or repealed
No.Current countryCurrent
official language(s)
Current
spoken language(s)
Historically
belonged to
Historical
official language(s)
Historical
spoken language(s)
Time
period
Continent
1Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Pashto, Dari Pashto, Dari, various others Umayyad Caliphate ArabicPashto, Dari, Uzbek, Turkmen, Central Asian Arabic 661-750Asia
2Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Armenian Armenian, various others Umayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Armenian661-750Asia
3Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Azeri Azeri, various others Umayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Azeri661-750Asia
4Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Greek, Co-official language, along with Turkish Greek, Turkish, various others Umayyad CaliphateArabic Siculo-Arabic 661-750Asia
5Flag of France.svg  France French French, various others Narbonne and a part of Septimania belonged to the Umayyad CaliphateArabic in the part of France which belonged to the Umayyad Caliphate Frankish, Latin, Vulgar Latin (Gallo-Roman), Gaulish, Arabic719-759Europe
6Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Georgian GeorgianUmayyad CaliphateArabicArabic, Georgian661-750Asia
7Flag of Greece.svg  Greece GreekGreek, various others Emirate of Crete ArabicArabic, Greek, various others 824-961Europe
8Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Persian Persian, various others Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Buyid dynasty ArabicArabic, Persian661-1062Asia
9Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Hebrew Hebrew, Arabic, English, Russian, various others Rashidun Caliphate, several other Muslim dynasties ArabicArabic, Hebrew636-2018Asia
10Flag of Sicily (revised).svg  Sicily [note 2] Italian Italian, various others Emirate of Sicily Arabic Siculo-Arabic, Byzantine Greek, Vulgar Latin 831-1091Europe
11Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Swahili, Co-official language, along with English Swahili, various others Omani Empire Arabic Omani Arabic, Yemeni Arabic, Swahili1696-1856Africa
12Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz Kyrgyz, Uzbek Umayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Kyrgyz651-750Asia
13Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Maltese, Co-official language, along with English Maltese, English, various others Emirate of SicilyArabicSiculo-Arabic, Byzantine Greek, Vulgar Latin831-1091Europe
14Flag of Niger.svg  Niger French Arabic, Hausa, Zarma, various others Sokoto Caliphate Arabic Classical Arabic, Hausa, Zarma 1804-1908Africa
15Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria English English, various others Sokoto Caliphate Arabic Classical Arabic, Hausa, Fula 1804-1908Africa
16Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Urdu, Co-official language, along with EnglishUrdu, various others Umayyad CaliphateArabicUrdu, Central Asian Arabic661-750Asia
17Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Portuguese Portuguese, various others Umayyad Caliphate, Emirate of Córdoba, Caliphate of Córdoba, Taifa of Badajoz, Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate Arabic Andalusian Arabic, Mozarabic, Medieval Hebrew 711-1139Europe
18Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Spanish Spanish, various others Umayyad Caliphate, Emirate of Córdoba, Caliphate of Córdoba, Taifa of Zaragoza, Taifa Kingdom of Seville, Taifa of Córdoba, Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Emirate of Granada ArabicAndalusian Arabic, Mozarabic, Medieval Hebrew711-1492Europe
19Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan English Juba Arabic, various others Egypt Eyalet, Sudan ArabicJuba Arabic1863-2011Africa
20Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan Tajik TajikUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Tajik661-750Asia
21Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Swahili, Co-official language, along with English, Arabic in Zanzibar Swahili, various others; Omani Arabic in Zanzibar Omani Empire Arabic Swahili, Omani Arabic, Yemeni Arabic 1696-1856Africa
22Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey TurkishTurkish, various others Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate Arabic North Mesopotamian Arabic 661-1517Asia
23Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan Turkmen TurkmenUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Turkmen661-750Asia
24Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Uzbek, various others UzbekUmayyad CaliphateArabicCentral Asian Arabic, Uzbek661-750Asia

See also

Notes

  1. Geographically a part of Asia, but geopolitically a part of Europe.
  2. A part of Flag of Italy.svg  Italy.

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The Middle East is a geopolitical term that refers to a region spanning the vast majority of Western Asia and all of Egypt. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions.

Lingua franca Languages used to facilitate trade between groups without a common native language

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Arab world Geographic and cultural region in Africa and the Middle East

The Arab world, formally the Arab homeland, also known as the Arab nation, the Arabsphere, or the Arab states, consists of the 22 Arab countries which are members of the Arab League. A majority of these countries are located in Western Asia, Northern Africa, Western Africa, and Eastern Africa. The region stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The eastern part of the Arab world is known as the Mashriq, and the western part as the Maghreb. Arabic is used as the lingua franca throughout the Arab world.

Languages of Iran

Iran's ethnic diversity means that the languages of Iran come from a number of linguistic origins, although the primary language spoken and used is Persian. The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran asserts that the Persian language alone must be used for schooling and for all official government communications. The constitution also recognizes Arabic as the language of Islam, and assigns it formal status as the language of religion. Although multilingualism is not encouraged, the use of minority languages is permitted in the course of teaching minority-language literature. Different publications have reported different statistics for the languages of Iran; however, the top three languages spoken are consistently reported as Persian, Azeri and Kurdish.

Official language Language given special status in some polity

An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.

Languages of Pakistan Languages of a geographic region

Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu. Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.

Languages of the Philippines Languages spoken in the Philippines

There are some 120 to 187 languages spoken in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification. Almost all are Malayo-Polynesian languages native to the archipelago. A number of Spanish-influenced creole varieties generally called Chavacano are also spoken in certain communities. The 1987 constitution designates Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog, as the national language and an official language along with English. Filipino is regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino and therefore serves as a lingua franca used by Filipinos of various ethnolinguistic backgrounds.

Arabization Process of growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations

Arabization or Arabisation describes both the process of growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by the latter's gradual adoption of the Arabic language and incorporation of Arab culture, as well as the Arab nationalist policies of some governments in modern Arab states toward non-Arab minorities, including Lebanon, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Sudan, Mauritania, Algeria, Libya, and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

A national language is a language that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a nation. There is little consistency in the use of this term. One or more languages spoken as first languages in the territory of a country may be referred to informally or designated in legislation as national languages of the country. National languages are mentioned in over 150 world constitutions.

Official multilingualism is the policy adopted by some states of recognizing multiple languages as official and producing all official documents, and handling all correspondence and official dealings, including court procedure, in these languages. It is distinct from personal multilingualism, the capacity of a person to speak several languages.

A modern language is any human language that is currently in use. The term is used in language education to distinguish between languages which are used for day-to-day communication and dead classical languages such as Latin and Classical Chinese, which are studied for their cultural or linguistic value. SIL Ethnologue defines a living language as "one that has at least one speaker for whom it is their first language".

New Persian

New Persian, also known as Modern Persian and Dari (دری), is the final stage of the Persian language spoken since the 8th to 9th centuries until now in Greater Iran and surroundings. It is conventionally divided into three stages: Early New Persian, Classical Persian, and Contemporary Persian.

Languages of the African Union

The languages of the African Union are languages used by citizens within the member states of the African Union (AU). For languages of the institution, see African Union: Languages.

Persianization, or Persification, is a sociological process of cultural change in which a culture becomes "Persianate", meaning it adapts Persian language, culture, and identity. It is a specific form of cultural assimilation that often includes language shift. The term applies not only to cultures, but also to individuals, as they acclimate to Persian culture and become "Persianized" or "Persified."

The official languages of the Republic of Cyprus are Greek and Turkish. In Northern Cyprus, Turkish was made the only official language by the 1983 constitution. The everyday spoken language (vernacular) of the majority of the population is Cypriot Greek, and that of Turkish Cypriots is Cypriot Turkish. For official purposes, the standard languages are used.

Languages of South Sudan

South Sudan is a multilingual country, with over 60 indigenous languages spoken. The official language of the country is English which was introduced in the region during the colonial era.

Languages in censuses

Many countries and national censuses currently enumerate or have previously enumerated their populations by languages, native language, home language, level of knowing language or a combination of these characteristics.

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Bibliography

Further reading