List of emperors of the Han dynasty

Last updated

Western Han miniature pottery infantry (foreground) and cavalry (background); in 1990, when the tomb complex of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157 - 141 BC) and his wife Empress Wang Zhi (d. 126 BC) was excavated north of Yangling, over 40,000 miniature pottery figures were unearthed. All of them were one-third life size, smaller than the 8,000-some fully life size soldiers of the Terracotta Army buried alongside the First Emperor of Qin. Smaller miniature figurines, on average 60 centimeters (24 in) in height, have also been found in various royal Han tombs where they were placed to guard the deceased tomb occupants in their afterlife. Western Han soldiers 4.jpg
Western Han miniature pottery infantry (foreground) and cavalry (background); in 1990, when the tomb complex of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157 – 141 BC) and his wife Empress Wang Zhi (d. 126 BC) was excavated north of Yangling, over 40,000 miniature pottery figures were unearthed. All of them were one-third life size, smaller than the 8,000-some fully life size soldiers of the Terracotta Army buried alongside the First Emperor of Qin. Smaller miniature figurines, on average 60 centimeters (24 in) in height, have also been found in various royal Han tombs where they were placed to guard the deceased tomb occupants in their afterlife.

The emperors of the Han dynasty were the supreme heads of government during the second imperial dynasty of China; the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) followed the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and preceded the Three Kingdoms (220–265 AD). The era is conventionally divided between the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and Eastern Han (25–220 AD) periods.

Contents

The Han dynasty was founded by the peasant rebel leader (Liu Bang), known posthumously as Emperor Gao (r. 202 –195 BC) or Gaodi. The longest reigning emperor of the dynasty was Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC), or Wudi, who reigned for 54 years. The dynasty was briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang, but he was killed during a rebellion on 6 October 23 AD. [2] The Han dynasty was reestablished by Liu Xiu, known posthumously as Emperor Guangwu (r. 25–57 AD) or Guangwu Di, who claimed the throne on 5 August 25 AD. [3] [4] The last Han emperor, Emperor Xian (r. 189–220 AD), was a puppet monarch of Chancellor Cao Cao (155–220 AD), who dominated the court and was made King of Wei. [5] On 11 December 220, Cao's son Pi usurped the throne as Emperor Wen of Wei (r. 220–226 AD) and ended the Han dynasty. [6]

The emperor was the supreme head of government. [7] He appointed all of the highest-ranking officials in central, provincial, commandery, and county administrations. [8] He also functioned as a lawgiver, the highest court judge, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and high priest of the state-sponsored religious cults. [9]

Naming conventions

Emperor

Emperor Guangwu of Han (r. 25-57 AD), as depicted by the Tang artist Yan Liben (600-673 AD) Han Guangwu Di.jpg
Emperor Guangwu of Han (r. 25–57 AD), as depicted by the Tang artist Yan Liben (600–673 AD)
A gilded bronze handle (with traces of red pigment) in the shape of a dragon's head, made during the Eastern Han; depending on circumstance, the dragon could be a symbol of either good or bad omen for the Han emperors. Gilded Bronze Handle of a Dragon, Eastern Han.JPG
A gilded bronze handle (with traces of red pigment) in the shape of a dragon's head, made during the Eastern Han; depending on circumstance, the dragon could be a symbol of either good or bad omen for the Han emperors.

In ancient China, the rulers of the Shang (c. 1600 – c. 1050 BC) and Zhou (c. 1050 – 256 BC) dynasties were referred to as kings (王 wang). [11] By the time of the Zhou dynasty, they were also referred to as Sons of Heaven (天子 Tianzi). [11] By 221 BC, the King of Qin, Ying Zheng, conquered and united all the Warring States of ancient China. To elevate himself above the Shang and Zhou kings of old, he accepted the new title of emperor (皇帝 huangdi) and is known to posterity as the First Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang). The new title of emperor was created by combining the titles for the Three Sovereigns (Sanhuang) and Five Emperors (Wudi) from Chinese mythology. [12] This title was used by each successive ruler of China until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911. [13]

Posthumous, temple, and era names

From the Shang to Sui (581–618 AD) dynasties, Chinese rulers (both kings and emperors) were referred to by their posthumous names in records and historical texts. [13] Temple names, first used during the reign of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 BC), were used exclusively in later records and historical texts when referring to emperors who reigned during the Tang (618–907 AD), Song (9601279 AD), and Yuan (1271–1368 AD) dynasties. [14] During the Ming (1368–1644 AD) and Qing (1644–1911 AD) dynasties, a single era name was used for each emperor's reign and became the preferred way to refer to Ming and Qing emperors in historical texts. [14]

Use of the era name was formally adopted during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC), yet its origins can be traced back further. The oldest method of recording years—which had existed since the Shang—set the first year of a ruler's reign as year one. [14] When an emperor died, the first year of a new reign period would begin. [14] This system was changed by the 4th century BC when the first year of a new reign period did not begin until the first day of the lunar New Year following a ruler's death. [14] When Duke Huiwen of Qin assumed the title of king in 324 BC, he changed the year count of his reign back to the first year. [14] For his newly adopted calendar established in 163 BC, Emperor Wen of Han (r. 180–157 BC) also set the year count of his reign back to the beginning. [15]

Since six was considered a lucky number, Han Emperors Jing and Wu changed the year count of their reigns back to the beginning every six years. [15] Since every six-year period was successively marked as yuannian (元年), eryuan (二元), sanyuan (三元), and so forth, this system was considered too cumbersome by the time it reached the fifth cycle wuyuan sannian (五元三年) in 114 BC. [15] In that year a government official suggested that the Han court retrospectively rename every "beginning" with new characters, a reform Emperor Wu accepted in 110 BC. [16] Since Emperor Wu had just performed the religious feng (封) sacrifice at Mount Taishan, he named the new era yuanfeng (元封). This event is regarded as the formal establishment of era names in Chinese history. [16] Emperor Wu changed the era name once more when he established the 'Great Beginning' (太初 Taichu) calendar in 104 BC. [17] From this point until the end of Western Han, the court established a new era name every four years of an emperor's reign. By Eastern Han there was no set interval for establishing new era names, which were often introduced for political reasons and celebrating auspicious events. [17]

Regents and empress dowagers

The story of Jin Midi. Wu Liang shrines, Jiaxiang, Shandong province, China, 2nd century AD; an ink rubbing of an Eastern-Han stone-carved relief Story of Jin Midi.JPG
The story of Jin Midi . Wu Liang shrines, Jiaxiang, Shandong province, China, 2nd century AD; an ink rubbing of an Eastern-Han stone-carved relief

At times, especially when an infant emperor was placed on the throne, a regent, often the empress dowager or one of her male relatives, would assume the duties of the emperor until he reached his majority. Sometimes the empress dowager's faction—the consort clan—was overthrown in a coup d'état. For example, Empress Lü Zhi (d. 180 BC) was the de facto ruler of the court during the reigns of the child emperors Qianshao (r. 188–184 BC) and Houshao (r. 184–180 BC). [18] Her faction was overthrown during the Lü Clan Disturbance of 180 BC and Liu Heng was named emperor (posthumously known as Emperor Wen). [19] Before Emperor Wu died in 87 BC, he had invested Huo Guang (d. 68 BC), Jin Midi (d. 86 BC), and Shangguan Jie (上官桀)(d. 80 BC) with the power to govern as regents over his successor Emperor Zhao of Han (r. 87–74 BC). Huo Guang and Shangguan Jie were both grandfathers to Empress Shangguan (d. 37 BC), wife of Emperor Zhao, while the ethnically-Xiongnu Jin Midi was a former slave who had worked in an imperial stable. After Jin died and Shangguan was executed for treason, Huo Guang was the sole ruling regent. Following his death, the Huo-family faction was overthrown by Emperor Xuan of Han (r. 74–49 BC), in revenge for Huo Guang poisoning his wife Empress Xu Pingjun (d. 71 BC) so that he could marry Huo's daughter Empress Huo Chengjun (d. 54 BC). [20]

Since regents and empress dowagers were not officially counted as emperors of the Han dynasty, they are excluded from the list of emperors below.

List of emperors

Below is a complete list of emperors of the Han dynasty, including their personal, posthumous, and era names. Excluded from the list are de facto rulers such as regents and empress dowagers.

Han dynasty sovereigns
SovereignPersonal nameReigned fromReigned until Posthumous name [lower-alpha 1] Era name Range of years [lower-alpha 2]
Western Han dynasty (202 BC–9 AD)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang劉邦28 February [22]
202 BC
1 June [23]
195 BC [24]
Emperor Gao高皇帝Did not exist [25]
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying劉盈23 June [26]
195 BC
26 September [27]
188 BC [28]
Emperor Xiaohui孝惠皇帝Did not exist [25]
Emperor Qianshao of Han Liu Gong劉恭19 October [27]
188 BC
15 June [29]
184 BC [30]
Did not existDid not exist [25]
Emperor Houshao of Han Liu Hong劉弘15 June [29]
184 BC
14 November [31]
180 BC [30]
Did not existDid not exist [25]
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng劉恆14 November [26]
180 BC
6 July [32]
157 BC [33]
Emperor Xiaowen孝文皇帝Qianyuan前元179–164 BC [34]
Houyuan後元163–156 BC [34]
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi劉啟14 July [35]
157 BC
9 March [36]
141 BC [33]
Emperor Xiaojing孝景皇帝Qianyuan前元156–150 BC [37]
Zhongyuan中元149–143 BC [37]
Houyuan後元143–141 BC [37]
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che劉徹10 March [26]
141 BC
29 March [38]
87 BC [39]
Emperor Xiaowu孝武皇帝Jianyuan建元141–135 BC [40]
Yuanguang元光134–129 BC [40]
Yuanshuo元朔128–123 BC [40]
Yuanshou元狩122–117 BC [40]
Yuanding元鼎116–111 BC [40]
Yuanfeng元封110–105 BC [40]
Taichu太初104–101 BC [40]
Tianhan天漢100–97 BC [40]
Taishi太始96–93 BC [40]
Zhenghe征和92–89 BC [40]
Houyuan後元88–87 BC [40]
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling劉弗陵30 March [35]
87 BC
5 June [35]
74 BC [41]
Emperor Xiaozhao孝昭皇帝Shiyuan始元86–80 BC [42]
Yuanfeng元鳳80–75 BC [42]
Yuanping元平74 BC [42]
Marquis of Haihun Liu He劉賀18 July [35]
74 BC
14 August [35]
74 BC [30]
Did not existYuanping元平74 BC [43]
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Bingyi劉病已10 September [35]
74 BC
10 Juanary [32]
49 BC [41]
Emperor Xiaoxuan孝宣皇帝Benshi本始73–70 BC [44]
Dijie地節69–66 BC [44]
Yuankang元康65–61 BC [44]
Shenjue神爵61–58 BC [44]
Wufeng五鳳57–54 BC [44]
Ganlu甘露53–50 BC [44]
Huanglong黃龍49 BC [44]
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi劉奭29 January [35]
49 BC
8 July [45]
33 BC [46]
Emperor Xiaoyuan孝元皇帝Chuyuan初元48–44 BC [47]
Yongguang永光43–39 BC [47]
Jianzhao建昭38–34 BC [47]
Jingning竟寧33 BC [47]
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao劉驁4 August [48]
33 BC
17 April [49]
7 BC [46]
Emperor Xiaocheng孝成皇帝Jianshi建始32–28 BC [50]
Heping河平28–25 BC [50]
Yangshuo陽朔24–21 BC [50]
Hongjia鴻嘉20–17 BC [50]
Yongshi永始16–13 BC [50]
Yuanyan元延12–9 BC [50]
Suihe綏和8–7 BC [50]
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin劉欣7 May [51]
7 BC
15 August [49]
1 BC [46]
Emperor Xiao'ai孝哀皇帝Jianping建平6–3 BC [52]
Yuanshou元壽2–1 BC [52]
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan劉衎17 October [53]
1 BC
3 February [54]
6 AD [46]
Emperor Xiaoping孝平皇帝Yuanshi元始1–5 AD [55]
Ruzi Ying [lower-alpha 3] Liu Ying劉嬰17 April [56]
6 AD
10 January [56]
9 AD [46]
Did not existJushe居攝6–8 AD [57]
Chushi初始9 AD
Xin dynasty (9–23 AD)
Continuation of Han dynasty
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan劉玄11 March [58]
23 AD
November [58]
25 AD [59]
Did not existGengshi更始23–25 AD [60]
Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu劉秀5 August [61]
25 AD
29 March [62]
57 AD [63]
Emperor Guangwu光武皇帝Jianwu建武25–56 AD [64]
Jianwu-
zhongyuan
建武中元56–57 AD [64]
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang劉莊29 March [61]
57 AD
5 September [62]
75 AD [65]
Emperor Xiaoming孝明皇帝Yongping永平57–75 AD [66]
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da劉炟5 September [61]
75 AD
9 April [62]
88 AD [67]
Emperor Xiaozhang孝章皇帝Jianchu建初76–84 AD [68]
Yuanhe元和84–87 AD [68]
Zhanghe章和87–88 AD [68]
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao劉肇9 April [61]
88 AD
13 February [62]
106 AD [69]
Emperor Xiaohe孝和皇帝Yongyuan永元89–105 AD [70]
Yuanxing元興105 AD [71]
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long劉隆13 February [61]
106 AD
21 September [62]
106 AD [72]
Emperor Xiaoshang孝殤皇帝Yanping延平106 AD [73]
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu劉祜23 September [61]
106 AD
30 April [62]
125 AD [74]
Emperor Xiao'an孝安皇帝Yǒngchū永初107–113 AD [75]
Yuanchu元初114–120 AD [75]
Yongning永寧120–121 AD [75]
Jianguang建光121–122 AD [75]
Yanguang延光122–125 AD [75]
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi劉懿18 May [61]
125 AD
10 December [62]
125 AD [76]
Did not existYanguang延光125 AD [77]
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao劉保16 December [61]
125 AD
20 September [62]
144 AD [78]
Emperor Xiaoshun孝順皇帝Yongjian永建126–132 AD [79]
Yangjia陽嘉132–135 AD [79]
Yonghe永和136–141 AD [79]
Han'an漢安142–144 AD [79]
Jiankang建康144 AD [79]
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing劉炳20 September [61]
144 AD
15 February [62]
145 AD [80]
Emperor Xiaochong孝沖皇帝Yongxi永熹145 AD [81]
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan劉纘6 March [61]
145 AD
26 July [62]
146 AD [80]
Emperor Xiaozhi孝質皇帝Benchu本初146 AD [81]
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi劉志1 August [61]
146 AD
25 January [62]
168 AD [82]
Emperor Xiaohuan孝桓皇帝Jianhe建和147–149 AD [83]
Heping和平150 AD [83]
Yuanjia元嘉151–153 AD [83]
Yongxing永興153–154 AD [83]
Yongshou永壽155–158 AD [83]
Yanxi延熹158–167 AD [83]
Yongkang永康167 AD [83]
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong劉宏17 February [61]
168 AD
13 May [62]
189 AD [84]
Emperor Xiaoling孝靈皇帝Jianning建寧168–172 AD [85]
Xiping熹平172–178 AD [85]
Guanghe光和178–184 AD [85]
Zhongping中平184–189 AD [85]
Liu Bian Liu Bian劉辯15 May [61]
189 AD
28 September [62]
189 AD [76]
Did not existGuangxi光熹189 AD [86]
Zhaoning昭寧189 AD [86]
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie劉協28 September [61]
189 AD
11 December [lower-alpha 4]
220 AD [87]
Emperor Xiaoxian孝獻皇帝Yonghan永漢189 AD [88]
Chuping初平190–193 AD [88]
Xingping興平194–195 AD [88]
Jian'an建安196–220 AD [88]
Yankang延康220 AD [88]

Timeline

Emperor Xian of HanLiu BianEmperor Ling of HanEmperor Huan of HanEmperor Zhi of HanEmperor Chong of HanEmperor Shun of HanMarquess of BeixiangEmperor An of HanEmperor Shang of HanEmperor He of HanEmperor Zhang of HanEmperor Ming of HanEmperor Guangwu of HanLiu PenziGengshi EmperorRuzi YingEmperor Ping of HanEmperor Ai of HanEmperor Cheng of HanEmperor Yuan of HanEmperor Xuan of HanMarquis of HaihunEmperor Zhao of HanEmperor Wu of HanEmperor Jing of HanEmperor Wen of HanEmperor Houshao of HanEmperor Qianshao of HanEmperor Hui of HanEmperor Gaozu of HanList of emperors of the Han dynasty

Legend:

See also

Notes

  1. Besides Liu Bang and Liu Xiu, the word Xiao (孝 "filial") was prefixed to all posthumous names, altought it is usually omitted by scholars. The word huangdi (皇帝 emperor) is also abbreviated. Commonly only the second character is used; e.g., Wudi (武帝, Emperor Wu) for Xiaowu Huangdi (孝). [21]
  2. The years of the Chinese lunisolar calendar do not correspond exactly with the years given in the column for era names. Some years given in the table also belong to two reign periods because some era names were adopted before the beginning of the following year.
  3. Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6 AD to 9 AD.
  4. de Crespigny, Rafe (2010). A Biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. Brill. p. 450. ISBN   9789004188303. On 11 December [...] Cao Cao's son and successor Cao Pi received the abdication of the last emperor of Han. [...] Some authorities give the date of abdication as 25 November [...] This is the date upon which Emperor Xian issued an edict acalling upon Cao Pi to take the throne, but the ceremonial transfer of sovereignty was carried out two weeks later

    Footnotes

    1. Paludan 1998, pp. 34–36.
    2. de Crespigny 2006, p. 568.
    3. Hymes 2000, p. 36.
    4. Beck 1990, p. 21.
    5. Beck 1990, pp. 354–355.
    6. Hymes 2000, p. 16.
    7. de Crespigny 2006; Bielenstein 1980, p. 143; Hucker 1975, pp. 149–150.
    8. Wang 1949, pp. 141–142.
    9. Wang 1949, pp. 141–143; Ch'ü 1972, p. 71; de Crespigny 2006, pp. 1216–1217.
    10. de Visser 2003, pp. 43–49.
    11. 1 2 Wilkinson 1998, p. 105.
    12. Wilkinson 1998, pp. 105–106.
    13. 1 2 Wilkinson 1998, p. 106.
    14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wilkinson 1998.
    15. 1 2 3 Wilkinson 1998, p. 177; Sato 1991, p. 278.
    16. 1 2 Wilkinson 1998, p. 177; Sato 1991, pp. 278–279.
    17. 1 2 Wilkinson 1998, p. 178.
    18. Loewe & Twitchett 1986, p. 135; Hansen 2000, pp. 115–116.
    19. Loewe & Twitchett 1986, pp. 136–137; Torday 1997, p. 78.
    20. Loewe & Twitchett 1986, pp. 174–187; Huang 1988, p. 44–46.
    21. Dubs 1945, p. 29.
    22. Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xix–xx; Hulsewé 1995, pp. 226–230.
    23. Grand Scribe's Records, p. 108.
    24. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998) , p. 28
    25. 1 2 3 4 Bo Yang 1977, pp. 433–443.
    26. 1 2 3 Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xix–xx; Hulsewé 1995, pp. 226–230; Vervoorn 1990, pp. 311–312.
    27. 1 2 Grand Scribe's Records, pp. 114–115.
    28. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998) , p. 28, 31
    29. 1 2 Grand Scribe's Records, p. 122.
    30. 1 2 3 Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Loewe & Twitchett (1986) , p. xxxix
    31. Grand Scribe's Records, pp. 136.
    32. 1 2 Vervoorn 1990, p. 312.
    33. 1 2 Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 33.
    34. 1 2 Bo Yang (1977), 444–447.
    35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xix–xx; Vervoorn 1990, p. 312.
    36. Grand Scribe's Records, p. 213.
    37. 1 2 3 Bo Yang (1977), 447–452.
    38. Hymes 2000, p. 11; Hulsewé 1995, pp. 226–230.
    39. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 36 and Loewe (2000), 273–280.
    40. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Bo Yang (1977), 452–471.
    41. 1 2 Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 40.
    42. 1 2 3 Bo Yang (1977), 471–473.
    43. Bo Yang (1977), 473.
    44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bo Yang (1977), 473–480.
    45. Loewe & Twitchett 1986, p. 225.
    46. 1 2 3 4 5 Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 40, 42.
    47. 1 2 3 4 Bo Yang (1977), 481–484.
    48. Loewe & Twitchett 1986, p. 225; Vervoorn 1990, p. 313; Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xx.
    49. 1 2 Loewe & Twitchett 1986, p. 227; Vervoorn 1990, p. 313.
    50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bo Yang (1977), 485–489.
    51. Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xx; Vervoorn 1990, p. 312.
    52. 1 2 Bo Yang (1977), 490.
    53. Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xx; Hymes 2000, p. 12; Vervoorn 1990, p. 313.
    54. Hymes 2000, p. 13; Vervoorn 1990, p. 313.
    55. Bo Yang (1977), 495. While traditional sources do not give a exact date when the Yuanshi era was announced, it was implied that the first year of Yuanshi did not start until the first month of the lunar calendar — ergo, in 1 AD. See, e.g., Ban Gu, Book of Han , vol. 12.
    56. 1 2 Loewe & Twitchett 1986, p. 231; Vervoorn 1990, p. 313.
    57. Bo Yang (1977), 495–496.
    58. 1 2 Loewe & Twitchett 1986, pp. 246–251; Vervoorn 1990, p. 313.
    59. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from de Crespigny (2007), 558–560.
    60. Bo Yang (1977) 500–501.
    61. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Barbieri-Low & Yates 2015, pp. xx; de Crespigny 2006, p. xxxiii; Loewe & Twitchett 1986, pp. xl–xli.
    62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Loewe & Twitchett 1986, pp. xl–xli; de Crespigny 2006, p. xxxiii.
    63. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44 and de Crespigny (2006), 557–566.
    64. 1 2 Bo Yang (1977), 501–509.
    65. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44, 49 and de Crespigny (2007), 604–609.
    66. Bo Yang (1977), 509–513.
    67. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44, 49 and de Crespigny (2007), 495–500.
    68. 1 2 3 Bo Yang (1977), 514–516.
    69. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 588–592.
    70. Bo Yang (1977), 517–523.
    71. Bo Yang (1977), 523.
    72. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 531.
    73. Bo Yang (1977), 524.
    74. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 580–583.
    75. 1 2 3 4 5 Bo Yang (1977), 524–529.
    76. 1 2 Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Twitchett and Loewe (1986), xl.
    77. Bo Yang (1977), 529.
    78. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51 and de Crespigny (2007), 473–478.
    79. 1 2 3 4 5 Bo Yang (1977), 530–534.
    80. 1 2 Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51.
    81. 1 2 Bo Yang (1977), 535.
    82. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51 and de Crespigny (2007), 595–603
    83. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bo Yang (1977), 535–541.
    84. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50, 52 and de Crespigny (2007), 511–517.
    85. 1 2 3 4 Bo Yang (1977), 541–547.
    86. 1 2 Bo Yang (1977), 547
    87. Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50, 55.
    88. 1 2 3 4 5 Bo Yang (1977), 547–564.

    Related Research Articles

    Year 106 (CVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Commodus and Civica. The denomination 106 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

    Three Kingdoms Period of Chinese history (220–280 AD) dominated by the Wei, Shu-Han, and Wu kingdoms

    The Three Kingdoms from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division of China among the states of Wei, Shu, and Wu. The Three Kingdoms period started with the end of the Han dynasty and was followed by the Jin dynasty. The short-lived Yan kingdom on the Liaodong Peninsula, which lasted from 237 to 238, is sometimes considered as a "4th kingdom".

    Han dynasty Imperial dynasty in China (202 BC to 220 AD)

    The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, established by Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty and a warring interregnum known as the Chu–Han contention, it was briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty established by the usurping regent Wang Mang, and was separated into two periods—the Western Han and the Eastern Han (25–220 AD)—before being succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period. Spanning over four centuries, the Han dynasty is considered a golden age in Chinese history, and influenced the identity of the Chinese civilization ever since. Modern China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han people", the Sinitic language is known as "Han language", and the written Chinese is referred to as "Han characters".

    Emperor Wen of Han Emperor of Han-dynasty China (r. 180–157 BCE)

    Emperor Wen of Han, born Liu Heng, was the emperor of the Western Han dynasty in China from 180 to his death in 157 BCE. The son of Emperor Gao and Consort Bo, his reign provided a much needed stability after the unstable and violent regency of Empress Lü. The prosperous reigns of Wen and his son Emperor Jing are highly regarded by historians, being referred to as the Rule of Wen and Jing.

    Wuhuan Proto-Mongolic nomadic people of northern China

    The Wuhuan were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.

    Huan Tan was a Chinese philosopher, poet, and politician of the Western Han and its short-lived interregnum between AD 9 and 23, known as the Xin Dynasty.

    Government of the Han dynasty Governance during the Chinese Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD)

    The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, following the Qin dynasty. It was divided into the periods of Western (Former) Han and Eastern (Later) Han, briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of Wang Mang. The capital of Western Han was Chang'an, and the capital of Eastern Han was Luoyang. The emperor headed the government, promulgating all written laws, serving as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and presiding as the chief executive official. He appointed all government officials who earned a salary of 600 bushels of grain or more with the help of advisors who reviewed each nominee. The empress dowager could either be the emperor's actual or symbolic mother, and was in practice more respected than the emperor, as she could override his decisions. The emperor's executive powers could also be practiced by any official upon whom he bestowed the Staff of Authority. These powers included the right to execute criminals without the imperial court's permission.

    Sang Hongyang

    Sang Hongyang was a Chinese politician. He was a prominent official of the Han Dynasty, who served Emperor Wu of Han and his successor Emperor Zhao. He is famous for his economic policies during the reign of Emperor Wu, the best known of which include the state monopolies over iron and salt - systems which would be imitated by other dynasties throughout Chinese history. Due to political conflict, he was executed in 80 BC by Huo Guang.

    Xianbei state Nomadic North Asian state (c.93-234)

    The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156 to 234. Like most ancient peoples known through Chinese historiography, the ethnic makeup of the Xianbei is unclear.

    History of the Han dynasty Aspect of Chinese history

    The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China. It followed the Qin dynasty, which had unified the Warring States of China by conquest. It was founded by Liu Bang. The dynasty is divided into two periods: the Western Han and the Eastern Han, interrupted briefly by the Xin dynasty of Wang Mang. These appellations are derived from the locations of the capital cities Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively. The third and final capital of the dynasty was Xuchang, where the court moved in 196 CE during a period of political turmoil and civil war.

    Economy of the Han dynasty Economic aspects of the dysasty (206 BCE–220 CE)

    The economy of Han dynasty of ancient China experienced upward and downward movements in its economic cycle, periods of economic prosperity and decline. It is normally divided into three periods: Western Han, the Xin dynasty, and Eastern Han. The Xin regime, established by the former regent Wang Mang, formed a brief interregnum between lengthy periods of Han rule. Following the fall of Wang Mang, the Han capital was moved eastward from Chang'an to Luoyang. In consequence, historians have named the succeeding eras Western Han and Eastern Han respectively.

    Society and culture of the Han dynasty Overview of the society and culture of the Han dynasty

    The Han dynasty was a period of Imperial China divided into the Western Han and Eastern Han periods, when the capital cities were located at Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively. It was founded by Emperor Gaozu of Han and briefly interrupted by the regime of Wang Mang who usurped the throne from a child Han emperor.

    Han conquest of Nanyue

    The Han conquest of Nanyue was a military conflict between the Han Empire and the Nanyue kingdom in modern Guangdong, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam. During the reign of Emperor Wu, the Han forces launched a punitive campaign against Nanyue and conquered it in 111 BC.

    Han campaigns against Minyue Han military campaigns against Minyue

    The Han campaigns against Minyue were a series of three Han military campaigns dispatched against the Minyue state. The first campaign was in response to Minyue's invasion of Eastern Ou in 138 BC. In 135 BC, a second campaign was sent to intervene in a war between Minyue and Nanyue. After the campaign, Minyue was partitioned into Minyue, ruled by a Han proxy king, and Dongyue. Dongyue was defeated in a third military campaign in 111 BC and the former Minyue territory was annexed by the Han Empire.

    Han conquest of Dian 2nd century BC conflicts between the Han dynasty and the Dian Kingdom

    The Han conquest of Dian was a series of military campaigns and expeditions by the Chinese Han dynasty recorded in contemporary textual sources against the Kingdom of Dian in modern Yunnan. Dian was placed under Han rule in 109 BC, after Emperor Han Wudi dispatched an army against the kingdom as the empire expanded southward.

    The Ministry of Ceremonies was one of the nine ministries of the Chinese Han dynasty. The Minister of Ceremonies, also known as Grand Master of Ceremonies, was the chief official in charge of religious rites, rituals, prayers, and the maintenance of ancestral temples and altars. The role's title was changed to Upholder of Ceremonies from 195 to 144 BC before reverting to the original title. Although his main concern was to link the emperor with the supernatural world and Heaven, he was also given the task of setting educational standards for the Imperial University and the academic chairs who specialized in the Five Classics, the canon of Confucianism.

    Timeline of the Han dynasty Timeline of the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD)

    This is a timeline of the Han dynasty.

    Military of the Han dynasty Imperial Chinese army

    The military of the Han dynasty was the military apparatus of China from 202 BC to 220 AD, with a brief interregnum by the reign of Wang Mang and his Xin dynasty from 9 AD to 23 AD, followed by two years of civil war before the refounding of the Han.

    The Yang clan of Hongnong (弘農楊氏) was a prominent Chinese clan known for producing many high-ranking officials and imperial concubines. Their ancestral home was Hongnong Commadery (農楊郡).It is noted the Yang clan of Hongnong may originate from Yangshe clan (羊舌氏).

    References