List of epidemics

Last updated
List of epidemics
1607-35 Pesttafel Augsburg anagoria.JPG
Plague panel with the triumph of death. 1607–35, Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin
DurationHuman history

This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease. Widespread and chronic complaints such as heart disease and allergy are not included if they are not thought to be infectious.

Epidemic rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time

An epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.

Allergy immune system response to a substance that most people tolerate well

Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.



Death toll (estimate)LocationDateArticleDiseaseRef.
75,000–100,000 Greece 429–426 BC Plague of Athens unknown, possibly typhus [1]
5 million; 30% of population in some areasEurope, Western Asia, Northern Africa165–180 Antonine Plague unknown, symptoms similar to smallpox [2]
Europe 250–266 Plague of Cyprian unknown, possibly smallpox [3]
25–50 million; 40% of populationEurope, Egypt, West Asia541–542 Plague of Justinian plague [4]
Rome 590 Roman Plague of 590 plague [5]
> 100,000 Ctesiphon, Persia 627 plague [6]
British Isles 664–668 Plague of 664 plague [7] [ page needed ]
British Isles 680–686 plague [7] [ page needed ]
Japan 735–737 735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic Smallpox [8] [9]
Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa746–747 plague [10]
75–200 million; 30–60% of populationEurope, Asia and North Africa1331–1353 Black Death plague
Yersinia pestis Yersinia pestis fluorescent.jpeg
Yersinia pestis


Death toll (estimate)LocationDateArticleDiseaseRef.
5–15 million (80% of population) Mexico 1545–1548 Cocoliztli Epidemic of 1545–1548 Possibly Salmonella enterica [12] [13] [14] [15]
2–2.5 million (50% of population) Mexico 1576 Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 Possibly Salmonella enterica [12] [13] [14] [15]
Seneca nation 1592–1596 measles [16]
Spain 1596–1602 plague [17]
South America 1600–1650 malaria
England 1603 London plague
Egypt 1609 plague
30–90% of population Southern New England, especially the Wampanoag people 1616–1619Unknown cause. Latest research suggests epidemic(s) of leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. [18] [19]
280,000 Italy 1629–1631 Italian plague of 1629–1631 plague [20]
Wyandot people 1630in Ontario smallpox
Thirteen Colonies 1633 Plymouth Colony smallpox
Thirteen Colonies 1634 Connecticut River area smallpox
England 1636 Newcastle plague
China 1641–1644helped end the Ming Dynasty plague [21]
Spain 1647–1652 Great Plague of Seville plague
South America 1648 yellow fever
Italy 1656 Naples plague
Thirteen Colonies 1657 Boston, Massachusetts measles
24,148 [22] Netherlands 1663–1664 Amsterdam plague
100,000 [23] England 1665–1666 Great Plague of London plague [24]
40,000 France 1668 plague
Spain 1676–1685 plague
76,000 Austria 1679 Great Plague of Vienna plague
Thirteen Colonies 1687 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Thirteen Colonies 1690 New York City yellow fever

18th century

Death toll (estimate)LocationDateArticleDiseaseRef.
Canada, New France 1702–1703 smallpox [25]
Sweden 1710–1712 Great Northern War plague outbreak plague
Thirteen Colonies 1713 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Thirteen Colonies 1713–1715 New England and the Great Lakes measles
Canada, New France 1714–1715 measles [26]
France 1720–1722 Great Plague of Marseille plague [27]
Thirteen Colonies 1721–1722 Boston, Massachusetts smallpox [28]
Thirteen Colonies 1729 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Spain 1730 Cadiz yellow fever
Thirteen Colonies 1732–1733 influenza [29]
Canada, New France 1733 smallpox [30]
> 50,000 Balkans 1738 Great Plague of 1738 plague
Thirteen Colonies 1738 South Carolina smallpox
Thirteen Colonies 1739–1740 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Italy 1743 Messina plague
Thirteen Colonies 1747 CT, NY, PA, SC measles
North America 1755–1756 smallpox
North America 1759 measles
North America, West Indies 1761 influenza
North America, present-day Pittsburgh area.1763Native American victims of biological warfare during the Siege of Fort Pitt, part of the French and Indian War. Smallpox
> 50,000 Russia 1770–1772 Russian plague of 1770–1772 plague
Pacific Northwest natives 1770s smallpox [31]
North America 1772 measles
> 2,000,000 Persia 1772 plague [6]
North America 1775particularly in the Northeastunknown cause
England 1775–1776 influenza [32]
Spain 1778 Cadiz dengue fever
Plains Indians 1780–1782 North American smallpox epidemic smallpox [33]
Pueblo Indians 1788 smallpox
United States 1788 Philadelphia and New York City measles
New South Wales, Australia 1789–1790amongst the Aborigines smallpox [34]
United States 1793 Vermont influenza and epidemic typhus
United States 1793 Virginia influenza
United States 1793–1798 Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793, resurgences yellow fever [35]

19th century

Death toll (estimate)LocationDateArticleDiseaseRef.
Spain 1800–1803 yellow fever [36]
Ottoman Empire, Egypt 1801 bubonic plague [37]
United States 1803 New York yellow fever
Egypt 1812 plague
Ottoman Empire 1812 Istanbul plague
Malta 1813 plague
Romania 1813 Bucharest plague
Ireland 1816–1819 typhus
> 100,000 Asia, Europe 1816–1826 first cholera pandemic cholera [38]
United States 1820–1823arising near Schuylkill River fever [ ambiguous ]
Spain 1821 Barcelona yellow fever [39]
New South Wales, Australia 1828amongst the Aborigines smallpox [40]
Netherlands 1829 Groningen epidemic malaria
South Australia 1829 smallpox [41]
Iran 1829–1835 bubonic plague [42]
> 100,000 Asia, Europe, North America 1829–1851 second cholera pandemic cholera [38]
Egypt 1831 cholera [43] [44]
Plains Indians 1831–1834 smallpox
England, France 1832 London, Paris cholera
North America 1832 New York City, Montreal other cities cholera
United States 1833 Columbus, Ohio cholera
United States 1834 New York City cholera
Egypt 1834–1836 bubonic plague [43] [44]
United States 1837 Philadelphia typhus
Great Plains 1837–1838 1837–38 smallpox epidemic smallpox [45]
Dalmatia 1840 plague
South Africa 1840 Cape Town smallpox
United States 1841especially severe in the South yellow fever
> 20,000 Canada 1847–1848 Typhus epidemic of 1847 epidemic typhus [46]
United States 1847 New Orleans yellow fever
worldwide1847–1848 influenza [47]
Egypt 1848 cholera [43] [44]
North America 1848–1849 cholera
United States 1850 yellow fever
North America 1850–1851 influenza
United States 1851 Illinois, the Great Plains, and Missouri cholera
United States 1852 New Orleans yellow fever
1,000,000 Russia 1852–1860 third cholera pandemic cholera [38]
Ottoman Empire 1853what is now Yemen plague [48]
4,737 Copenhagen, Denmark 1853 Cholera epidemic of Copenhagen 1853 cholera [49]
616 England 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak cholera [50]
United States 1855 yellow fever
worldwide1855–1960 Third plague pandemic bubonic plague [51]
Portugal 1857 Lisbon yellow fever
Victoria, Australia1857 smallpox [52]
Europe, North America, South America 1857–1859 influenza [53]
Middle East 1863–1879 fourth cholera pandemic cholera [38]
Egypt 1865 cholera [43] [44]
Russia, Germany 1866–1867 cholera
Australia 1867 Sydney measles
Iraq 1867 plague [54]
Argentina 1852–1871 Buenos Aires yellow fever [55]
Germany 1870–1871 smallpox
40,000 Fiji 1875 Fiji measles [56]
Russian Empire 1877 Baku, now part of Azerbaijan plague [57]
Egypt 1881 cholera [43] [44]
> 9,000 India, Germany 1881–1896 fifth cholera pandemic cholera [38]
3,164 Montreal 1885 smallpox timeline
1,000,000worldwide1889–1890 1889–1890 flu pandemic influenza [58]

20th century

Death toll (estimate)LocationDateArticleDiseaseRef.
Congo Basin 1896–1906 trypanosomiasis [59]
> 800,000 Europe, Asia, Africa 1899–1923 sixth cholera pandemic cholera [38]
113 San Francisco 1900–1904 Third plague pandemic bubonic plague [60]
West Africa 1900 yellow fever
Uganda 1900–1920 trypanosomiasis [61]
Egypt 1902 cholera [43] [44]
India 1903 plague [62]
4 Fremantle 1903 bubonic plague [63]
40,000 China 1910–1912 Harbin, Shenyang bubonic plague [64]
75,000,000worldwide1918–1920 Spanish flu influenza
Spanish Flu Virus Reconstructed Spanish Flu Virus.jpg
Spanish Flu Virus
Russia 1918–1922 typhus
Egypt 1942–1944 malaria [43] [44]
China 1946 Harbin bubonic plague
Egypt 1946 relapsing fever [43] [44]
Egypt 1947 cholera [43] [44]
2,000,000worldwide1957–1958 Asian flu influenza [66]
worldwide1961–1975 seventh cholera pandemic cholera [38]
4 Sweden 1963 smallpox [67] [68]
1,000,000worldwide1968–1969 Hong Kong flu influenza [66]
5 Netherlands 1971 Staphorst, Elspeet and Uddel poliomyelitis [69]
35 Yugoslavia 1972 1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia smallpox
United States 1972–1973London flu influenza [70]
15,000 India 1974 1974 smallpox epidemic of India smallpox
> 30,000,000worldwide
(commenced in Congo Basin)
1960–present HIV/AIDS pandemic HIV/AIDS [71]
South America 1990s cholera
52 India 1994 1994 plague epidemic in Surat plague [72]
West Africa 1996 meningitis
Central America 2000 20th century dengue fever [73]

21st century

Death toll (estimate)LocationDateArticleDiseaseRef.
Nigeria 2001 cholera [74]
South Africa 2001 cholera [75]
775 Asia 2002–2003 SARS SARS coronavirus
Algeria 2003 plague [76]
Afghanistan 2004 Leishmaniasis [77]
Bangladesh 2004 Cholera [78]
Indonesia 2004 dengue fever
Senegal 2004 cholera [79]
Sudan 2004 Ebola
Mali 2005 yellow fever [80]
19 Singapore 2005 2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore dengue fever [81]
Luanda, Angola 2006 cholera [82]
Ituri Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2006 plague
India 2006 malaria [83]
> 50 India 2006 2006 dengue outbreak in India dengue fever [84]
India 2006 Chikungunya outbreaks Chikungunya virus [85]
> 50 Pakistan 2006 2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan dengue fever [86]
Philippines 2006 dengue fever
Democratic Republic of the Congo 2007 Mweka ebola epidemic Ebola [87]
Ethiopia 2007 cholera [88]
49 India 2008 cholera [89]
10 Iraq 2007 2007 Iraq cholera outbreak cholera [90]
Nigeria 2007 Poliomyelitis [91]
Puerto Rico; Dominican Republic; Mexico 2007 dengue fever [92]
Somalia 2007 cholera [93]
Uganda 2007 Ebola
Vietnam 2007 cholera [94]
Brazil 2008 dengue fever
Cambodia 2008 dengue fever [95]
Chad 2008 cholera [96]
China 2008 hand, foot and mouth disease
Madagascar 2008 bubonic plague [97]
Philippines 2008 dengue fever [98]
Vietnam 2008 cholera [99]
4,293 Zimbabwe 2008–2009 2008–2009 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak cholera
18 Bolivia 2009 2009 Bolivian dengue fever epidemic dengue fever
49 India 2009 2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak hepatitis B
Queensland, Australia2009 dengue fever [100]
worldwide2009 Mumps outbreaks in the 2000s mumps
931 West Africa 2009–2010 2009–2010 West African meningitis outbreak meningitis [101]
14,286worldwide2009 2009 flu pandemic influenza [102] [103]
9,985 (May 2017) Hispaniola 2010–present Haiti cholera outbreak cholera [104] [105]
> 4,500 (February 2014) Democratic Republic of the Congo 2011–present measles [106] [107]
170 Vietnam 2011–present hand, foot and mouth disease [108] [109]
> 350 Pakistan 2011–present 2011 dengue outbreak in Pakistan dengue fever
847 (as of 10 January 2013) Darfur Sudan 2012 2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan yellow fever [110]
449 (as of 11 June 2015)Worldwide2012–present 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak Middle East respiratory syndrome [111]
 11,300West Africa2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa Ebola virus disease
Ebola virus virion Ebola virus virion.jpg
Ebola virus virion
[112] [113]
183 Americas 2013–2015 2013–14 chikungunya outbreak Chikungunya [114]
40 Madagascar 2014–present 2014 Madagascar plague outbreak Bubonic plague [115]
36 India 2014–present 2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak primarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A [116]
2,035 India 2015–present 2015 Indian swine flu outbreak Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 [117] [118] [119]
worldwide2015–present 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus
Hundreds (as of 1 April 2016) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola yellow fever [120]
1,614 (as of 4 July 2017) Yemen 2016–present 2016–17 Yemen cholera outbreak cholera
64 (as of 16 August 2017) India 2017–present 2017 Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis outbreak Japanese encephalitis
12 (as of May 2018) India 2018–present 2018 Nipah virus outbreak Nipah virus infection
594 (as of 16 March 2019) Democratic Republic of the Congo Aug. 2018–present 2018 Kivu Ebola outbreak Ebola virus disease [121]

Related Research Articles

Cholera Bacterial infection of the small intestine

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.

Pandemic global epidemic of infectious disease

A pandemic is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. This may include communicable and noncommunicable diseases.

Zoonosis infectious disease that is transmitted between species (sometimes by a vector) from animals other than humans to humans or from humans to other animals

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be naturally transmitted between animals and humans.

Dengue fever tropical disease caused by the dengue virus, transmitted by mosquito

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into severe dengue, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.

Spanish flu influenza pandemic

The 1918 influenza pandemic was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. It infected 500 million people around the world, including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.

The o'nyong'nyong virus (ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, during a large outbreak of a disease in 1959 that resembled dengue fever. ONNV is a togavirus, genus Alphavirus, is closely related to the chikungunya and Igbo Ora viruses, and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. The name was given to the disease by the Acholi tribe during the 1959 outbreak. The name comes from the Nilotic language of Uganda and Sudan and means “weakening of the joints". The virus can infect humans and may cause disease.

Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 subtype of the influenza A virus

Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression. The main role of disease surveillance is to predict, observe, and minimize the harm caused by outbreak, epidemic, and pandemic situations, as well as increase knowledge about which factors contribute to such circumstances. A key part of modern disease surveillance is the practice of disease case reporting.

Health in the United States refers to the overall health of the population of the United States.

1846–1860 cholera pandemic pandemic

The third cholera pandemic (1846–60) was the third major outbreak of cholera originating in India in the nineteenth century that reached far beyond its borders, which researchers at UCLA believe may have started as early as 1837 and lasted until 1863. In Russia, more than one million people died of cholera. In 1853–54, the epidemic in London claimed over 10,000 lives, and there were 23,000 deaths for all of Great Britain. This pandemic was considered to have the highest fatalities of the 19th-century epidemics.

Influenza infectious disease

Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, sneezing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. The cough, however, may last for more than two weeks. In children, there may be diarrhea and vomiting, but these are not common in adults. Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu". Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure.

Social distancing

Social distancing is a term applied to certain nonpharmaceutical infection control actions that are taken by public health officials to stop or slow down the spread of a highly contagious disease. The objective of social distancing is to reduce the probability of contact between persons carrying an infection, and others who are not infected, so as to minimize disease transmission, morbidity and ultimately, mortality.

Influenza prevention involves taking steps that one can use to decrease their chances of contracting flu viruses, such as the Pandemic H1N1/09 virus, responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic.

<i>Zika virus</i> species of virus

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. It is spread by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Ziika Forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. Zika virus is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. From 2007 to 2016, the virus spread eastward, across the Pacific Ocean to the Americas, leading to the 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic.

Ira Longini is an American biostatistician and infectious disease epidemiologist.

Diseases and epidemics of the 19th century Diseases and epidemics of the 19th century reached epidemic proportions in the case of cholera

Diseases and epidemics of the 19th century reached epidemic proportions in the case of one emerging infectious disease: cholera. Other important diseases at that time in Europe and other regions included smallpox, typhus and yellow fewer.

John S. Marr American writer and doctor

John S Marr is an American physician, epidemiologist, and author. His professional life has concerned outbreaks of infectious disease and thus his subsequent writing career has focused on that topic, particularly historical epidemics.

This is a timeline of influenza, briefly describing major events such as outbreaks, epidemics, pandemics, discoveries and developments of vaccines. In addition to specific year/period-related events, there's the seasonal flu that kills between 250,000 and 500,000 people every year, and has claimed between 340 million and 1 billion human lives throughout history.


  1. "Plague of Athens: Another Medical Mystery Solved at University of Maryland". University of Maryland Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2015-12-04. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  2. "Past pandemics that ravaged Europe", BBC News, November 7, 2005
  3. D. Ch. Stathakopoulos Famine and Pestilence in the late Roman and early Byzantine Empire (2007) 95
  4. Rosen, William (2007), Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe. Viking Adult; pg 3; ISBN   978-0-670-03855-8.
  5. Andrew Ekonomou. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Lexington Books, 2007
  6. 1 2 Shahraki, Abdolrazag Hashemi (2016), Plague in Iran: Its history and current status.
  7. 1 2 Adomnan of Iona. Life of St Columba. Penguin books, 1995
  8. Suzuki, A. (2011). "Smallpox and the epidemiological heritage of modern Japan: Towards a total history". Medical History. 55 (3): 313–8. doi:10.1017/S0025727300005329. PMC   3143877 . PMID   21792253.
  9. Kohn, George C. (2002). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Checkmark Books. p. 213. ISBN   978-0816048939.
  10. The Politics of Despair: The Plague of 746–747 and Iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire David Turner The Annual of the British School at Athens Vol. 85 (1990), pp. 419–434
  11. Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world epidemics in a global perspective. University of New Mexico Press. p. 21. ISBN   978-0-8263-2871-7.
  12. 1 2 "American plague". New Scientist. December 19, 2000.
  13. 1 2 Acuna-Soto, R.; Romero, L. C.; Maguire, J. H. (2000). "Large epidemics of hemorrhagic fevers in Mexico 1545-1815". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 62 (6): 733–739. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2000.62.733.
  14. 1 2 Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, D. W.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Therrell, M. D. (2002). "Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (4): 360–362. doi:10.3201/eid0804.010175. PMC   2730237 . PMID   11971767.
  15. 1 2 Vågene, Åshild J.; Herbig, Alexander; Campana, Michael G.; Robles García, Nelly M.; Warinner, Christina; Sabin, Susanna; Spyrou, Maria A.; Andrades Valtueña, Aida; Huson, Daniel; Tuross, Noreen; Bos, Kirsten I.; Krause, Johannes (2018). "Salmonella enterica genomes from victims of a major sixteenth-century epidemic in Mexico". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2 (3): 520–528. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0446-6. PMID   29335577.
  16. American Indian Epidemics Archived 2015-02-14 at the Wayback Machine
  17. "A History of Spain and Portugal" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  18. Marr, John S.; Cathey, John T. (2010). "New Hypothesis for Cause of Epidemic among Native Americans, New England, 1616–1619". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16 (2): 281–286. doi:10.3201/eid1602.090276. PMC   2957993 . PMID   20113559.
  19. Mann, Charles C. (December 2005). "Native intelligence".
  20. Hays, J. N. (2005). Epidemics and pandemics their impacts on human history. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 103. ISBN   978-1851096589.
  21. Timothy Brook (1 September 1999). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. University of California Press. p. 163. ISBN   978-0-520-22154-3 . Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  22. nl:Pestepidemie in Amsterdam
  23. Ross, David. "UK travel and heritage – Britain Express UK travel guide". The London Plague of 1665. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  24. Archives, The National. "Great Plague of 1665–1666 – The National Archives" . Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  25. Desjardins, Bertrand (1996). "Demographic Aspects of the 1702–1703 Smallpox Epidemic in the St. Lawrence Valley". Canadian Studies in Population. 23 (1): 49–67. doi:10.25336/P6459C.
  26. Mazan, Ryan; Gagnon, Alain; Desjardins, Bertrand (2009). "The Measles Epidemic of 1714–1715 in New France". Canadian Studies in Population. 36 (3–4): 295–323. doi:10.25336/P63P5Q.
  27. Devaux, Christian A. (2013). "Small oversights that led to the Great Plague of Marseille (1720–1723): Lessons from the past". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 14: 169–185. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.11.016. PMID   23246639.
  28. "Zabdiel Boylston and inoculation" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  30. Gagnon, Alain; Mazan, Ryan (2009). "Does exposure to infectious diseases in infancy affect old-age mortality? Evidence from a pre-industrial population". Social Science & Medicine. 68 (9): 1609–1616. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.02.008. PMID   19269727.
  31. Greg Lange,"Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s", 23 Jan 2003,, Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, accessed 2 Jun 2008
  32. Prichard, Augustin; Fothergill, John (1894). "Influenza in 1775". The Lancet. 143 (3673): 175–176. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)66026-4.
  33. Houston, C. S.; Houston, S. (2000). "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words". The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 11 (2): 112–5. doi:10.1155/2000/782978. PMC   2094753 . PMID   18159275.
  34. The History of Small-Pox in Australia, 1788–1908, JHL Cumpston, (1914, Government Printer, Melb.)This epidemic is unlikely to have been a natural event. see, Warren (2013) doi : 10.1080/14443058.2013.849750 Archived 2008-06-25 at the Wayback Machine [After Cook] and coinciding with Colonisation Archived 2008-06-25 at the Wayback Machine
  35. Epidemics
  36. "Tiger mosquitoes and the history of yellow fever and dengue in Spain" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  37. Andrew Davidson (1893). Hygiene & diseases of warm climates. Pentland. p. 337. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 J. N. Hays (2005). Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   978-1-85109-658-9 . Retrieved 29 March 2011.[ page needed ]
  39. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Yellow Fever"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 910–911.
  40. "Aboriginal Health History". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  41. Barry Leadbeater. "South Australian History Timeline (19th Century)" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  42. A History of the Human Plague in Iran Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine , Mohammad Azizi, Farzaneh Azizi
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kuhnke, Laverne. Lives at Risk: Public Health in Nineteenth-Century Egypt., Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990.
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Gallagher, Nancy. Egypt's Other Wars: Epidemics and the Politics of Public Health. Syracuse University Press, c1990. Published by the American University in Cairo Press. ISBN   977-424-295-5 [ page needed ]
  45. "Smallpox decimates tribes; survivors join together – Timeline – Native Voices". Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  46. Gallagher, The Reverend John A. (1936). "The Irish Emigration of 1847 and Its Canadian Consequences". Canadian Catholic Historical Association Report, University of Manitoba Web Site. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  47. a s, &NA (1849). "On the Influenza, or Epidemic Catarrhal Fever of 1847–8". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 18 (35): 148–154. doi:10.1097/00000441-184907000-00018. PMC   5277660 .
  48. Practitioner. 1877. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
  49. About Cholera epidemic of Copenhagen 1853
  50. John Snow (1855). On the mode of communication of cholera. John Churchill. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
  51. Pryor, E. G. (1975). "The great plague of Hong Kong". Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 15: 61–70. JSTOR   23881624. PMID   11614750.
  52. "Australian Medical Pioneers Index (AMPI) – Colonial Medical Life" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  53. Beveridge, W.I.B. Influenza, the Last Great Plague (Heinemann, London, 1977)[ page needed ]
  54. "" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  55. Cited in: Howlin, Diego (2004). "Vómito Negro, Historia de la fiebre amarilla, en Buenos Aires de 1871", Revista Persona.
  56. "Death of Forty Thousand Fijians from Measles". Liverpool Mercury. 29 Sep 1875. Retrieved 9 Nov 2012.
  57. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Plague"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 693–705.
  58. Great Britain. Local Government Board (1893). Further report and papers on epidemic influenza, 1889–92: with an introduction by the medical officer of the Local Government Board. Eyre. Retrieved 29 March 2011.[ page needed ]
  59. African trypanosomiasis, WHO
  60. Echenberg, Myron (2007). Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague: 1894–1901. Sacramento: New York University Press. p. 231. ISBN   978-0-8147-2232-9.
  61. Reanalyzing the 1900–1920 sleeping sickness epidemic in Uganda
  62. Texas Department of State Health Services, History of Plague
  63. Blackburne, George Hugh Spencer; Anderson, T. L. (1903). Report on the outbreak of plague at Fremantle  via Wikisource.
  64. In Memory of the 1910 Harbin Plague
  65. Patterson, K. D.; Pyle, G. F. (1991). "The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 65 (1): 4–21. PMID   2021692.
  66. 1 2 William E. Paul (1 May 2008). Fundamental immunology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN   978-0-7817-6519-0 . Retrieved 29 March 2011.
  67. Spross, Åke (21 January 2018). "Så kan vaccin utrota sjukdomar" (in Swedish). Uppsala Nya Tidning . Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  68. "Sjukdomsinformation om smittkoppor" (in Swedish). Public Health Agency of Sweden. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  69. Geschiedenis 24 – Polio in Staphorst. (2010-11-17). Retrieved on 2014-05-12.
  70. "New, Deadly Flu Strain Detected in Albany Co". Schenectady Gazette. Associated Press. January 24, 1975. p. 3. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  71. UNAIDS (2010) report on the global AIDS epidemic' [ permanent dead link ]
  72. Dutt, Ashok (2006). "Surat Plaque of 1994 re-examined" (PDF). Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 37 (4): 755–60. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  73. Dengue in the Americas: The Epidemics of 2000
  74. "Nigeria cholera outbreak kills 400". 2001-11-26. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  75. "Cholera Spreads Through South Africa Townships" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  76. Bertherat, Eric; Bekhoucha, Souad; Chougrani, Saada; Razik, Fathia; Duchemin, Jean B.; Houti, Leila; Deharib, Larbi; Fayolle, Corinne; Makrerougrass, Banaouda; Dali-Yahia, Radia; Bellal, Ramdan; Belhabri, Leila; Chaieb, Amina; Tikhomirov, Evgueni; Carniel, Elisabeth (2007). "Plague Reappearance in Algeria after 50 Years, 2003". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (10): 1459–1462. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070284. PMC   2851531 . PMID   18257987.
  77. "World Health Organization action in Afghanistan aims to control debilitating leishmaniasis" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  78. Faruque, S. M.; Islam, M. J.; Ahmad, Q. S.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Sack, D. A.; Nair, G. B.; Mekalanos, J. J. (2005). "Self-limiting nature of seasonal cholera epidemics: Role of host-mediated amplification of phage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (17): 6119–6124. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.6119F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502069102. PMC   1087956 . PMID   15829587.
  79. Staff Reporter. "Cholera epidemic takes hold in Senegal". The M&G Online. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  80. Mali: Yellow fever epidemic in Kayes
  81. Koh, B. K.; Ng, L. C.; Kita, Y.; Tang, C. S.; Ang, L. W.; Wong, K. Y.; James, L.; Goh, K. T. (2008). "The 2005 dengue epidemic in Singapore: Epidemiology, prevention and control" (PDF). Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 37 (7): 538–45. PMID   18695764.
  82. Worst cholera outbreak in Angola, BBC
  83. Malaria Epidemic Sweeps Northeast India
  84. "Dengue epidemic threatens India's capital". 2 October 2006. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  85. "WHO - Chikungunya in India" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  86. Khan, E.; Siddiqui, J.; Shakoor, S.; Mehraj, V.; Jamil, B.; Hasan, R. (2007). "Dengue outbreak in Karachi, Pakistan, 2006: Experience at a tertiary care center". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 101 (11): 1114–1119. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.06.016. PMID   17706259.
  87. "Mourners die as fever grips Congo." Sydney Morning Herald, August 30, 2007
  88. Xan Rice (2007-02-22). "Fatal outbreak not a cholera epidemic, insists Ethiopia". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  89. Cholera death toll in India rises, BBC News
  90. Cholera outbreak in Iraq growing, Associated Press
  91. Vaccine-linked polio hits Nigeria, BBC News
  92. Dengue fever epidemic hits Caribbean, Latin America, Reuters
  93. "Somalia cholera death fears grow". 2007-04-28. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  94. Cholera epidemic losing its sting Archived 2008-06-26 at the Wayback Machine
  95. Cambodia suffers worst dengue epidemic, 407 dead, Reuters
  96. Cholera epidemic in western Chad kills 123
  97. Madagascar: eighteen dead from Bubonic Plague, five in hospital since 1 January 2008 Archived 9 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  98. "Dengue cases in Philippines rise by 43 percent: government" . Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  99. Vietnam PM urges action against diarrhea outbreak, Thanh Nien Daily
  100. McCredie, J. (2009). "Dengue fever epidemic hits northern Australia". BMJ. 338: b967. doi:10.1136/bmj.b967. PMID   19273518.
  101. Odigwe, C. (2009). "West Africa has worst meningitis epidemic for 10 years". BMJ. 338: b1638. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1638. PMID   19383759.
  102. "First Global Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Mortality Released by CDC-Led Collaboration". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012-06-25.
  103. "2009 Swine-Flu Death Toll 10 Times Higher Than Thought". Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  104. Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population official cholera report [ full citation needed ]
  106. "". MSF USA. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  107. "Democratic Republic of Congo: More measles vaccinations needed". Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) International. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  108. Vietnam on alert as common virus kills 81 children – Yahoo News. (2011-08-19). Retrieved on 2014-05-12.
  109. Nguyen, Ngoc TB; Pham, Hau V.; Hoang, Cuong Q.; Nguyen, Tien M.; Nguyen, Long T.; Phan, Hung C.; Phan, Lan T.; Vu, Long N.; Tran Minh, Nguyen N. (2014). "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2011". BMC Infectious Diseases. 14: 341. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-341. PMC   4068316 . PMID   24942066.
  110. Yuill, Thomas M.; Woodall, John P.; Baekeland, Susan (2013). "Latest outbreak news from ProMED-mail. Yellow fever outbreak—Darfur Sudan and Chad". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 17 (7): e476–e478. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2013.03.009.
  111. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia. World Health Organisation (2015-06-11). Retrieved on 2015-06-20.
  112. Situation summary Latest available situation summary, 26 June 2015. World Health Organisation (2015-06-19). Retrieved on 2015-06-20.
  113. Gignoux, Etienne; Idowu, Rachel; Bawo, Luke; Hurum, Lindis; Sprecher, Armand; Bastard, Mathieu; Porten, Klaudia (2015). "Use of Capture–Recapture to Estimate Underreporting of Ebola Virus Disease, Montserrado County, Liberia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21 (12): 2265–2267. doi:10.3201/eid2112.150756. PMC   4672419 . PMID   26583831.
  114. "Número de casos informados de artritis epidémica chikungunya en las Américas – SE 5 (February 6, 2015)". Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  115. "Plague – Madagascar". WHO. World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  116. "Odisha grapples with jaundice outbreak". Deccan Herald . 17 February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  117. Press Trust of India (March 21, 2015). "Swine flu deaths at 1895; number of cases near 32K mark". The Indian Express . Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  118. "India struggles with deadly swine flu outbreak". BBC News . 20 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  119. "Death toll Gujarat". Business Standard . 15 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  120. "Yellow fever – countries with dengue: alert 2016-03-28 20:39:56 Archive Number: Archive Number: 20160328.4123983". ProMED-mail. International Society for Infectious Diseases. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  121. "EBOLA RDC - Evolution de la riposte contre l'épidémie d'Ebola dans les provinces du Nord Kivu et de l'Ituri au Samedi 16 mars 2019". Retrieved 16 March 2019.

Further reading

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology, and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge.