List of excommunicated cardinals

Last updated
Scale of justice, canon law.svg
Part of a series on the
Canon law of the
Catholic Church
046CupolaSPietro.jpg Catholicismportal

Only a few dozen cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church have been excommunicated. A cardinal is a Roman Catholic priest, deacon, or bishop entitled to vote in a papal election. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals. Excommunicationliterally, the denial of communion means that a person is barred from participating in the Sacraments or holding ecclesiastical office. Ne Romani (1311), promulgated by Pope Clement V during the Council of Vienne, extended suffrage in papal election to excommunicated cardinals in an attempt to limit schisms. [1]

Excommunication Censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community

Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to end or at least regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution who are in normal communion with each other. The purpose of the institutional act is to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular, those of being in communion with other members of the congregation, and of receiving the sacraments.

Priest person authorized to lead the sacred rituals of a religion (for a minister use Q1423891)

A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities. Their office or position is the priesthood, a term which also may apply to such persons collectively.

Deacon ministry in the Christian Church

A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican church, view the diaconate as part of the clerical state.

This list includes only cardinals who have been explicitly excommunicated by a pope or ecumenical council, rather than those who (depending on one's interpretation) may have been excommunicated latae sententiae . For example, several precepts of papal election law prescribed automatic excommunication, such as Licet de vitanda of the Lateran Council which prohibited election by one-third, and Pope Pius X's Commissum Nobis , which made the exercise of the jus exclusivae by any cardinal punishable by excommunication. [2] [3] It also does not include excommunicated quasi-cardinals (cardinals elevated by antipopes) or clerics excommunicated before receiving the red hat.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Ecumenical council conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice

An ecumenical council is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.

Latae sententiae is a Latin phrase, meaning "sentence (already) passed", used in the canon law of the Catholic Church. A latae sententiae penalty is one that follows ipso facto or automatically, by force of the law itself, when a law is contravened.

Many excommunicated cardinals reconciled (most often with the successor of their excommunicator) and had their offices restored. Some would later be elected pope; for example, Formosus and Sergius III.

Pope Formosus pope

Pope Formosus was Cardinal-bishop and Pope, his papacy lasting from 6 October 891 to his death in 896. His brief reign as Pope was troubled, marked by interventions in power struggles over the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the kingdom of West Francia, and the Holy Roman Empire. Formosus's remains were exhumed and put on trial in the Cadaver Synod.

Pope Sergius III pope

Pope Sergius III was Pope from 29 January 904 to his death in 911. He was pope during a period of feudal violence and disorder in central Italy, when warring aristocratic factions sought to use the material and military resources of the Papacy. Because Sergius III had reputedly ordered the murder of his two immediate predecessors, Leo V and Christopher, and allegedly fathered an illegitimate son who later became pope, his pontificate has been variously described as "dismal and disgraceful", and "efficient and ruthless".

9th century

Pope Formosus, who was posthumously exhumed and tried in the Cadaver Synod, had previously been excommunicated by his predecessor as pope; all the participants in the Cadaver Synod themselves were later excommunicated Jean Paul Laurens Le Pape Formose et Etienne VII 1870.jpg
Pope Formosus, who was posthumously exhumed and tried in the Cadaver Synod, had previously been excommunicated by his predecessor as pope; all the participants in the Cadaver Synod themselves were later excommunicated
CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Rodoaldo, bishop of Porto Leo IV 853 Nicholas I 864 Simony [4]
Anastasio il Bibliotecario Leo IV 847 Council of Rome
Council of Ravenna
Council of Rome
December 6, 860
May 29, 853
December 8, 853
Intrigue against the popeReconciled with Nicholas I and Adrian II [4]
Formoso Nicholas I 861 John VIII 867Various chargesReconciled with Marinus I; future Pope Formosus; re-excommunicated posthumously by the Cadaver Synod [4]
Sergio Stephen V ante 897 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod Later reconciled; future Pope Sergius III [4]
Benedetto Formosus ante 896 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod [4]
Martino Formosus ante 896 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod [4]
Giovanni Formosus ante 896 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod [4]
Pasquale Formosus ante 896 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod [4]
Giovanni Formosus ante 896 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod [4]
Leone Formosus ante 896 John IX/Roman SynodApril 898Role in the Cadaver Synod [4]

11th century

Francisco de Borja died before learning of his excommunication. Francisco de Borja.jpg
Francisco de Borja died before learning of his excommunication.
CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Hugh of Remiremont Leo IX 1049 Gregory VII/Roman synod of LetranMarch 3, 1078 Simony Joined Antipope Clement III [5]
Richard Milhau Gregory VII Ante May 7, 1078 Victor III/Council of Benevento August 1087Joined allegiance of Antipope Clement III [6]

12th century

CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Pietro Pierleoni Paschal II ca.1112 Innocent II/Council of Reims October 18, 1131Election as Antipope Anacletus II [7]
Ottaviano de' Monticelli Innocent II 1138 Alexander III 1162 and 1163Election as Antipope Victor IV [7]

13th century

CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Riccardo Innocent IV or Alexander IV Between 1252 and 1256 Alexander IV April 10, 1259He participated in the coronation of Manfred Hohenstauf [8] [9]
Giacomo Colonna Nicholas III March 12, 1278 Boniface VIII May 10, 1297He corresponded secretly with Frederick III of Sicily and with Philip IV of France; and refused to surrender to the pope the fortresses that he possessedRehabilitated by Benedict XI (1303–1304) and reinstated by Clement V on December 17, 1305 [8]
Pietro Colonna Nicholas IV May 16, 1288 Boniface VIII May 10, 1297He corresponded secretly with Frederick III of Sicily and with Philip IV of France; and refused to surrender to the pope the fortresses that he possessedRehabilitated by Benedict XI (1303–1304) and reinstated by Clement V on December 17, 1305 [8]

15th century

CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Louis Aleman Eugene IV Eugene IV December 11, 1440Role in the Council of Basle Reconciled with Nicholas V [10]

16th century

Pope Julius II excommunicated all cardinals who participated in the Council of Pisa (1511). Pope Julius II.jpg
Pope Julius II excommunicated all cardinals who participated in the Council of Pisa (1511).
CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Francisco de Borja Alexander VI September 28, 1500 Julius II October 24, 1511Role in the Council of Pisa Cardinal-nephew; Died before his concillar colleagues reconciled [11]
Federico di Sanseverino Innocent VIII March 9, 1489 Julius II October 24, 1511Role in the Council of PisaReconciled with Leo X [12]
Bernardino López de Carvajal Alexander VI September 20, 1493 Julius II October 24, 1511Role in the Council of PisaReconciled with Leo X [12]
Guillaume Briçonnet Alexander VI January 16, 1495 Julius II October 24, 1511Role in the Council of PisaReconciled with Leo X [12]
René de Prie Julius II December 18, 1506 Julius II October 24, 1511Role in the Council of PisaReconciled with Leo X [12]

18th century

CardinalElevating popeDate of elevationExcommunicating pope or councilDate of excommunicationReasonNotes
Niccolò Coscia Benedict XIII June 11, 1725 Clement XII May 9, 1733Financial irregularitiesReconciled with Clement XII [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

An antipope is a person who, in opposition to the lawful pope, makes a significant attempt to occupy the position of Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church. At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by important factions within the Church itself and by secular rulers.

Pope Celestine IV pope

Pope Celestine IV, born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year after a short reign of sixteen days.

Pope Callixtus II Pope from 1119 to 1124

Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II, born Guy of Burgundy, was pope of the western Christian church from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124. His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms in 1122.

Pope Innocent II 12th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent II, born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Antipope Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned King of the Romans. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.

College of Cardinals body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church

The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its current membership is 213, as of 3 September 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.

The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church is an office of the papal household that administers the property and revenues of the Holy See. Formerly, his responsibilities included the fiscal administration of the Patrimony of Saint Peter. As regulated in the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus of 1988, the camerlengo is always a cardinal, though this was not the case prior to the 15th century. His heraldic arms are ornamented with two keys – one gold, one silver – in saltire, surmounted by an ombrellino, a canopy or umbrella of alternating red and yellow stripes. These also form part of the coat of arms of the Holy See during a papal interregnum. The camerlengo is Cardinal Kevin Joseph Farrell, appointed by Pope Francis on 14 February 2019. The vice camerlengo has been Archbishop Giampiero Gloder since 20 December 2014.

Antipope Gregory VIII Antipope

Gregory VIII, born Mauritius Burdinus, was antipope from 10 March 1118 until 22 April 1121.

Cardinal-nephew Nephew or relative of a pope appointed as a cardinal by him

A cardinal-nephew was a cardinal elevated by a pope who was that cardinal's relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. The last cardinal-nephew was named in 1689 and the practice was extinguished in 1692. The word nepotism originally referred specifically to this practice, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. From the middle of the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem (1692), a pope without a cardinal-nephew was the exception to the rule. Every Renaissance pope who created cardinals appointed a relative to the College of Cardinals, and the nephew was the most common choice, although one of Alexander VI's creations was his own son.

Gerardo Allucingoli was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, who elevated him in 1182.

1342 papal conclave conclave

The papal conclave of 1342 – the papal conclave convened after the death of Pope Benedict XII, it elected Cardinal Pierre Roger, who became the fourth Pope of the period of Avignon Papacy under the name Clement VI.

1370 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1370, held after the death of Pope Urban V, elected as his successor cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who under the name Gregory XI became seventh and the last Pope of the period of Avignon Papacy.

Adelardo Cattaneo was an Italian cardinal and bishop. His first name is also listed as Alardo.

Francisco de Borja Catholic cardinal

Francisco de Borja y Navarro de Alpicat was a Spanish cardinal, and the seventh of ten cardinal-nephews created by Pope Alexander VI.

1088 papal election 1088 election of the Catholic pope

A papal election subsequent to the death of Pope Victor III in 1087 was held on 12 March 1088. Six cardinal-bishops, assisted by two lower-ranking cardinals, elected Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia Odon de Lagery as the new Pope. He assumed the name Urban II.

Imar, O.S.B. Cluny was a French Benedictine abbot, who served as a bishop and cardinal.

1099 papal election

The papal election of 1099 took place upon the death of Pope Urban II, the cardinal-electors with the consent of the lower Roman clergy chose Pope Paschal II as his successor.

1073 papal election 1073 election of the Catholic pope

The papal election of 1073 saw the election of Hildebrand of Sovana as successor to Pope Alexander II.

References

  1. Miranda, S. 1998. "Guide to documents and events". Florida International University.
  2. Miranda, S. 1998. "Guide to documents and events". Florida International University.
  3. Miranda, S. 1998. "Guide to documents and events". Florida International University.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Miranda, S. 1998. "19th Century (795-900)". Florida International University.
  5. Miranda, S. 1998. "11th Century (999-1099)". Florida International University.
  6. Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of 1078 (V)". Florida International University.
  7. 1 2 Miranda, S. 1998. "12th Century (1099-1198)". Florida International University.
  8. 1 2 3 Miranda, S. 1998. "13th Century (1198-1303)". Florida International University.
  9. Klaus Ganzer: Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen 1963, pp. 169-171 no. 86.
  10. Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of December 19, 1449 (IV)". Florida International University.
  11. Miranda, S. 1998. "Consistory of September 28, 1500 (IX)". Florida International University.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Miranda, S. 1998. "Conclaves of the 16th Century (1503-1592)". Florida International University.
  13. Miranda, S. 1998. "18th Century (1700-1799)". Florida International University.