List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign

Last updated

Elizabeth II, the current and longest-reigning monarch, has reigned since 6 February 1952. Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg
Elizabeth II, the current and longest-reigning monarch, has reigned since 6 February 1952.

The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801), the Kingdom of England (871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542).

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1927

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

Kingdom of England historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.


Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother Victoria. [1] [2] On 6 February 2017 she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating 65 years on the throne.

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms

Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.


These are the ten longest reigning monarchs in the British Isles for whom there is reliable recorded evidence.

FromToDaysYears, days
1 QEII.png Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 6 February 1952Present24,55967 years, 87 days
2 Queen victoria.jpg Victoria of the United Kingdom 20 June 183722 January 190123,22663 years, 216 days
3 Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg George III of the United Kingdom 25 October 176029 January 182021,64459 years, 96 days
4 James I of England Schloss Ambras.jpg James VI of Scotland 24 July 156727 March 162521,06657 years, 246 days
5 Henry III funeral head.jpg Henry III of England 28 October 121616 November 127220,47356 years, 19 days
6 Edward III of England (Order of the Garter).jpg Edward III of England 25 January 132720 June 137718,41050 years, 147 days
7 William the Lion portrait.jpg William I of Scotland 9 December 11654 December 121417,89248 years, 360 days
8 Llywelyn the Great.JPG Llywelyn of Gwynedd 119511 April 124016,173–16,902c. 44–45 years
9 Elizabeth I in coronation robes.jpg Elizabeth I of England 17 November 155824 March 160316,19844 years, 127 days
10 David II of Scotland by Sylvester Harding 1797.jpg David II of Scotland 7 June 132922 February 137115,23541 years, 260 days

The longest claim by a pretender was that of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"), who was the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland for 64 years, 3 months, and 16 days (17 September 1701 – 1 January 1766).

Pretender someone who claims a relation to a throne

A pretender is one who maintains or is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent, or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority. Most often, it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished.

James Francis Edward Stuart British prince

James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688 until, just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the English then, subsequently, British throne.

Jacobite succession Wikimedia list article

The Jacobite succession is the line through which the crown in pretence of England, Scotland and Ireland has descended since the flight of James II & VII from London at the time of the "Glorious Revolution". James and his Jacobite successors were traditionally toasted as "The King over the Water". After the death of James's grandson, Henry Benedict Stuart, in 1807, none of the notional Jacobite "successors" have claimed the thrones of England and Scotland or incorporated the arms of England and Scotland in their coats-of-arms.

Elizabeth II: the longest-reigning monarch

On 9 September 2015 (at the age of 89 years, 141 days), Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning female monarch in world history. [3] [4] On 23 May 2016 (at the age of 90 years, 32 days), her reign surpassed the claimed reign of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"). [5] On 13 October 2016 (at the age of 90 years, 175 days), she became the world's longest-reigning current monarch (and the world's longest-serving current head of state) after the death of Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), King of Thailand. [6] [7]

Bhumibol Adulyadej King of Thailand

Bhumibol Adulyadej, conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX. Reigning since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world's longest-reigning head of state, the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history and the longest-reigning monarch having reigned only as an adult, reigning for 70 years, 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha.

If she is still reigning on 

A platinum jubilee is a celebration held to mark an anniversary. Among monarchies, it usually refers to a 70th anniversary.

Louis XIV of France King of France and Navarra, from 1643 to 1715

Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Unitary monarchy

United Kingdom

On 1 January 1801 the Kingdom of Great Britain united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by Act of Parliament in 1927 [11] following the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922.

Kingdom of Ireland Historical kingdom on the island of Ireland between 1542 and 1801

The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and then of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and then of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms. The kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, peerage, legal system, and state church.

Irish Free State Sovereign state in northwest Europe (1922–1937), Dominion status to 1922, succeeded by Ireland

The Irish Free State was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and British Crown forces.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
Elizabeth II 6 February 1952Present24,55967 years, 87 days [12]
Victoria 20 June 183722 January 190123,22663 years, 216 days
George V 6 May 191020 January 19369,39025 years, 259 days
George III [13] 1 January 180129 January 18206,96719 years, 28 days
George VI 11 December 19366 February 19525,53515 years, 57 days
George IV 29 January 182026 June 18303,80110 years, 148 days
Edward VII 22 January 19016 May 19103,3919 years, 104 days
William IV 26 June 183020 June 18372,5516 years, 359 days
Edward VIII 20 January 193611 December 1936326326 days

Great Britain

On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England united with the Kingdom of Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
George III [13]
25 October 17601 January 180114,67740 years, 68 days
George II 22 June 1727 N.S. 25 October 176012,16833 years, 114 days
George I 1 August 171411 June 17274,69712 years, 314 days
Anne [14] 1 May 17071 August 17142,6497 years, 92 days



Includes English monarchs from the installation of Alfred the Great as King of Wessex in 871 to Anne (House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
Henry III 28 October 121616 November 127220,47356 years, 19 days
Edward III 25 January 132721 June 137718,41050 years, 147 days
Elizabeth I 17 November 155824 March 160316,19844 years, 127 days
Henry VI [15] 1 September 1422
31 October 1470
4 March 1461
11 April 1471
Total: 14,226
38 years, 184 days
162 days
38 years, 347 days
Æthelred II [15] 18 March 978
3 February 1014
25 December 1013
23 April 1016
Total: 13,875
35 years, 282 days
2 years, 80 days
37 years, 362 days
Henry VIII 22 April 150928 January 154713,79537 years, 281 days
Charles II [16] 30 January 16496 February 168513,15636 years, 7 days
Henry I 5 August 11001 December 113512,90135 years, 118 days
Henry II
(co-ruler with Henry the Young King)
25 October 11546 July 118912,67334 years, 254 days
Edward I 20 November 12727 July 130712,64634 years, 229 days
Alfred the Great 24 April 87126 October 89910,41228 years, 185 days
Edward the Elder 27 October 89917 July 9249,02924 years, 264 days
Charles I [17] 27 March 162530 January 16498,71023 years, 309 days
Henry VII 22 August 148521 April 15098,64223 years, 242 days
Edward the Confessor 8 June 10425 January 10668,61223 years, 211 days
Richard II 22 June 137729 September 13998,13422 years, 99 days
James I [18] 24 March 160327 March 16258,03922 years, 3 days
Edward IV [15] 4 March 1461
11 April 1471
3 October 1470
9 April 1483
Total: 7,881
9 years, 213 days
11 years, 363 days
21 years, 211 days
William I 12 December 10669 September 10877,56320 years, 258 days
Edward II 8 July 130720 January 13277,13619 years, 196 days
Cnut 30 November 101612 November 10356,92118 years, 347 days
Stephen [15] 22 December 1135
1 November 1141
7 April 1141
25 October 1154
Total: 6,674
5 years, 106 days
12 years, 358 days
18 years, 99 days
John 6 April 119919 October 12166,40617 years, 196 days
Edgar I 1 October 9598 July 9755,75915 years, 280 days
Æthelstan 2 August 924
(or 925)
27 October 9395,564
or 5,199
15 years, 86 days
or 14 years, 86 days
Henry IV 30 September 139920 March 14134,91913 years, 171 days
William III [19]
(co-ruler with Mary II)
13 February 16898 March 17024,77013 years, 23 days
Henry the Young King
(co-ruler with Henry II)
14 June 117011 June 11834,74512 years, 362 days
William II 26 September 10872 August 11004,69312 years, 310 days
Richard I 6 July 11896 April 11993,5619 years, 274 days
Eadred 26 May 94623 November 9553,4689 years, 181 days
Henry V 21 March 141331 August 14223,4509 years, 163 days
Edmund I 27 October 93926 May 9462,4036 years, 211 days
Edward VI 28 January 15476 July 15532,3516 years, 159 days
Mary II [20]
(co-ruler with William III)
13 February 168928 December 16942,1445 years, 318 days
Mary I
19 July 155317 November 15581,9475 years, 121 days
Anne [14]
(also Kingdom of Great Britain)
8 March 170230 April 17071,8795 years, 53 days
Eadwig 23 November 9551 October 9591,4083 years, 312 days
James II [21] 6 February 168511 December 16881,4043 years, 309 days
Edward the Martyr 9 July 97518 March 9789842 years, 253 days
Harold I 12 November 103717 March 10408562 years, 126 days
Harthacnut 17 March 10408 June 10428132 years, 83 days
Richard III 26 June 148322 August 14857882 years, 57 days
Harold II 5 January 106614 October 1066282282 days
Edmund II 23 April 101630 November 1016221221 days
Matilda (disputed)7 April 11411 November 1141208208 days
Edward V 9 April 148326 June 14837878 days
Edgar II 15 October 106617 December 10666363 days
Sweyn Forkbeard 25 December 10133 February 10144040 days
Jane (disputed)10 July 155319 July 155399 days


Includes Scottish monarchs from the installation of Kenneth I (House of Alpin) in 848 to Anne (House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
James VI [18] 24 July 156727 March 162521,06657 years, 246 days
William I 9 December 11654 December 121417,89248 years, 360 days
Constantine II 900943c. 15,500c. 43 years
David II 7 June 132922 February 137115,23541 years, 260 days
Alexander III 6 July 124919 March 128613,40536 years, 256 days
Malcolm III 17 March 105813 November 109313,02535 years, 241 days
Alexander II 4 December 12146 July 124912,63334 years, 214 days
James I 4 April 140621 February 143711,28130 years, 323 days
Malcolm II 25 March 100525 November 103410,83729 years, 245 days
James V 9 September 151314 December 154210,68829 years, 96 days
David I 23 April 112424 May 115310,62329 years, 31 days
James III 3 August 146011 June 148810,17427 years, 313 days
Charles II [16] 30 January 1649
29 May 1660
3 September 1651
6 February 1685
Total: 9,965
2 years, 216 days
24 years, 253 days
27 years, 104 days
James IV 11 June 14889 September 15139,22025 years, 90 days
Mary I 14 December 154224 July 15678,98824 years, 222 days
Charles I [17] 27 March 162530 January 16498,71023 years, 309 days
Kenneth II 971995c. 8,700c. 23-24 years
James II 21 February 14373 August 14608,56423 years, 164 days
Edward Balliol (disputed)24 September 133220 January 13568,51823 years, 118 days
Robert I 25 March 13067 June 13298,47523 years, 74 days
Robert II 22 February 137119 April 13906,99619 years, 56 days
Alexander I 8 January 110723 April 11246,31517 years, 106 days
Macbeth 14 August 104015 August 10576,21017 years, 1 day
Robert III 19 April 13904 April 14065,82815 years, 350 days
Constantine I 862877c. 5,400c. 15 years
Kenneth MacAlpin 84313 February 858c. 5,100c. 14 years
William II [19] 11 May 16898 March 17024,68312 years, 301 days
Malcolm IV 24 May 11539 December 11654,58212 years, 199 days
(co-ruler with Eochaid?)
878889c. 4.000c. 11 years
Donald II 889900c. 4,000c. 11 years
Malcolm I 943954c. 3,600c. 10-11 years
Edgar 10978 January 1107c. 3,600c. 10 years
Kenneth III 99725 March 1005c. 2,900c. 8 years
Indulf 954962c. 2,700c. 8 years
Duncan I 25 November 103414 August 10402,0895 years, 263 days
Mary II [20] 11 April 168928 December 16942,0875 years, 261 days
Amlaíb 971977c. 2,000c. 5-6 years
Anne [14]
(also Kingdom of Great Britain)
8 March 170230 April 17071,8795 years, 53 days
Dub 962c. 966-967c. 1,800c. 5 years
Cuilén c. 966-967971c. 1,800c. 5 years
Domnall mac Ailpín 85813 April 862c. 1.300c. 4 years
James VII [22] 6 February 168511 December 1688
(claimed until 16 September 1701.)
3 years, 309 days
claimed 16 years, 222 days
Margaret 25 November 128626 September 12901,4013 years, 305 days
John Balliol 17 November 129210 July 12961,3313 years, 236 days
Donald III 13 November 10931097c. 1,000c. 3-4 years
Constantine III 10951097c. 700c. 2 years
Áed mac Cináeda 877878c. 365c. 1 year
Lulach 15 August 105717 March 1058212212 days
Duncan II May 109412 November 1094c. 195"less than 7 months"


The High King of Ireland (846–1198) was primarily a titular title (with the exception of Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair who was regarded as the first "King of Ireland"). The later Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800) came into being under the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, the long title of which was "An Act that the King of England, his Heirs and Successors, be Kings of Ireland". In 1801 the Irish crown became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair 11661193c. 26-27 years
Edward Bruce (disputed)June 131514 October 1318c. 3 years, 100 days
Brian Ua Néill (disputed)12581260c. 1-2 years



The Principality (or Kingdom) of Gwynedd (5th century–1216) was based in northwest Wales, its rulers were repeatedly acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or Saxon and Norman invasions. In 1216 it was superseded by the title Principality of Wales, although the new title was not first used until the 1240s.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
Gruffudd ap Cynan 10811137c. 55-56 years
Llywelyn the Great 119511 April 1240>16,172c. 44-45 years
Owain Gwynedd 11371170>11,688c. 33 years
Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd 11701195>8,766c. 25 years
Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd 11701170<1 year


The Principality of Wales (1216–1542) was a client state of England for much of its history, except for brief periods when it was de facto independent under a Welsh Prince of Wales (see House of Aberffraw). From 1301 it was first used as a title of the English (and later British) heir apparent. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 formally incorporated all of Wales within the Kingdom of England.

FromTo(days)(years, days)
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd 125311 December 1282>10,572c. 29 years
Owain Glyndŵr (disputed)16 September 1400c. 1416>5,585c. 16 years
Owain Goch ap Gruffydd 25 February 12461255>3,000c. 9 years
Owain Lawgoch (disputed)May 1372July 1378>2,221c. 6 years
Dafydd ap Llywelyn 12 April 124025 February 12462,1455 years, 319 days
Dafydd ap Gruffydd 11 December 12823 October 1283296296 days

Charles, Prince of Wales, is the longest-serving Prince of Wales, with a tenure of 60 years, 282 days since his proclamation as such in 1958.

See also

Related Research Articles

Monarchy of the United Kingdom Function and history of the British monarchy

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952.

History of the Constitution of the United Kingdom Wikimedia history article

The Constitution of the United Kingdom has evolved over a long period of time beginning in the predecessor states to the United Kingdom and continuing to the present day. The relative stability of the British polity over centuries, progressing without a revolution or regime change that lasted, has obviated the need to write a constitution from first principles, in contrast to many other countries. What Britain has instead is an accumulation of various statutes, judicial precedents, convention, treaties and other sources which collectively can be referred to as the British Constitution. It is thus more accurate to describe Britain's constitution as an ‘uncodified’ constitution, rather than an ‘unwritten’ one.

Monarchy of Ireland

A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until—for what became the Republic of Ireland—the early twentieth century. Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, remains under a monarchical system of government. The Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland ended with the Norman invasion of Ireland, when the kingdom became a fief of the Holy See under the Lordship of the King of England. This lasted until the Parliament of Ireland conferred the crown of Ireland upon King Henry VIII of England during the English Reformation. The monarch of England held the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union. The Union of the Crowns in 1603 expanded the personal union to include Scotland. The personal union between England and Scotland became a political union with the enactments of the Acts of Union 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The crowns of Great Britain and Ireland remained in personal union until it was ended by the Acts of Union 1800, which united Ireland and Great Britain into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from January 1801 until December 1922.

Duke of Rothesay

Duke of Rothesay is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. It was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall and Prince of Wales, which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, Argyll and Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.

Succession to the British throne Law governing who can become British monarch

Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex, legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless sovereign's nearest collateral line. The Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are in "communion with the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible.

The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years. The present style is officially proclaimed in two languages:

English claims to the French throne Wikimedia list article

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

Royal Arms of Scotland coat of arms

The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century. With the Union of the Crowns in 1603, James VI inherited the thrones of England and Ireland and thus his arms in Scotland were now quartered with the arms of England with an additional quarter for Ireland also added. Though the kingdoms of England and Scotland would share the same monarch, the distinction in heraldry used in both kingdoms was maintained. When the kingdoms of Scotland and England were united under the Acts of Union 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain, no single arms were created and instead, the royal arms as used in either Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom would continue to differ.

History of the formation of the United Kingdom

The formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has involved personal and political union across Great Britain and the wider British Isles. The United Kingdom is the most recent of a number of sovereign states that have been established in Great Britain at different periods in history, in different combinations and under a variety of polities. Norman Davies has counted sixteen different states over the past 2,000 years.

British queen mothers Wikimedia list article

Queen mother is defined as "a queen dowager who is the mother of the reigning sovereign". The term has been used in English since at least 1560.


  1. Patricia Treble (30 December 2014). "Palace calculations: Queen Elizabeth II set to lap Victoria". Maclean's. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  2. "Official Website of the British Monarchy" . Retrieved 5 September 2015. On 9 September 2015, The Queen will become the longest reigning British Monarch, surpassing Queen Victoria.
  3. Warren Gaebel. "Longest Reigning British Monarch". Warren Gaebel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  4. "Elizabeth is about to become Britain's longest-reigning queen. Here's how she's changed monarchy". The Spectator. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  5. "Famous Stewarts". Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  6. "Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej dies at 88". BBC News. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  7. By PA  Oct 13, 2016. "Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies". Retrieved 13 October 2016.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. "Queen Elizabeth II becomes longest-reigning British monarch". Deutsche Welle. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  9. Victoria Arbiter (9 September 2015). "Queen Elizabeth II: The platinum monarch?". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  10. Elledge, Jonn (9 September 2015). "Queen Elizabeth II is about to become Britain's longest reigning monarch so here are some charts". New Statesman.
  11. "Royal And Parliamentary Titles Act 1927". Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  12. Updated daily according to UTC.
  13. 1 2 George III, King of Great Britain, became King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801.
  14. 1 2 3 Anne, Queen of England and Queen of Scots, became Queen of Great Britain on 1 May 1707.
  15. 1 2 3 4 Monarch's total length of reign is the sum of the two reigns displayed.
  16. 1 2 Charles II King of England and King of Scots concurrently from 30 January 1649 to 6 February 1685.
  17. 1 2 Charles I was King of England and King of Scots concurrently.
  18. 1 2 James VI, King of Scots, became James I, King of England, in 1603.
  19. 1 2 William of Orange became William III, King of England, on 13 February 1689 and William II, King of Scots, on 11 May 1689.
  20. 1 2 Mary II became Queen of England on 13 February 1689 and Queen of Scots on 11 May 1689.
  21. James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scots, concurrently.
  22. James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scotland, concurrently.