List of off-season Pacific hurricanes

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Hurricane Ekeka, the most intense off-season tropical cyclone in the Eastern Pacific basin Ekeka feb 2 1992 0221Z.jpg
Hurricane Ekeka, the most intense off-season tropical cyclone in the Eastern Pacific basin

There have been 25 recorded tropical and subtropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific basin outside the official Pacific hurricane season. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) monitors the area from North America westward to 140°W, while the Central Pacific Hurricane Center is from 140°W to the International date line, north of the equator. [nb 1] The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) currently defines the season as starting May 15 in the eastern Pacific and June 1 for the central Pacific and ending on November 30 for both regions in each calendar year. [1] Occasionally, however, storms develop in late November and persist until December, such as Hurricane Nina of 1957.

Contents

Few off-season tropical cyclones in the east Pacific have affected land, and none of them have made landfall. [2] Only Hurricane Nina caused both property damage and fatalities. The strongest hurricane between December and May was Hurricane Ekeka in 1992, which reached winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). However, after Tropical Storm Paka crossed the International Date Line, it intensified into a typhoon with winds equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. The most recent off-season storm is Tropical Depression One-E in late-April 2020.

The beginning of HURDAT, the official Pacific hurricane database maintained by the NHC, is 1949. Since then, thirteen storms have occurred [2] [3] outside the official bounds of hurricane season in the eastern and central north Pacific, respectively. [1] In addition, the CPHC reports nine off-season storms from 1900–1952 with another off-season tropical cyclone occurring in 1832. [4] [5] There have been documents published in the Monthly Weather Review reporting additional off-season storms within 2,000 mi (3,220 km) off the Mexican coastline, including one in December. [6] [7]

Chronology

Saffir–Simpson scale
TDTSC1C2C3C4C5

The wind speeds listed are maximum one-minute average sustained winds. The category refers to the intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale; TS stands for tropical storm, and TD for tropical depression.

Chronology of off-season Northeastern Pacific tropical cyclones
StormSeasonDuration Peak classification Maximum
sustained winds
Notes
Unnamed 1832 December 1832UnknownUnknown [5]
"Froc Cyclone" 1902 December 23, 1902 – January 2, 1903UnknownUnknown [4]
"Zikawei Cyclone" 1904 November 26 – December 4UnknownUnknown [4]
"Hurd Cyclone" 1904 December 23–30UnknownUnknown [4]
"Gauthier Cyclone" 1906 May 3–10UnknownUnknown [4]
Unnamed 1922 February 1922UnknownUnknown [4]
Unnamed 1925 December 22–26UnknownUnknown [4]
Unnamed 1936 December 4UnknownUnknown [4]
Unnamed 1938 January 2–5UnknownUnknownThe Monthly Weather Review was uncertain if the storm was a tropical cyclone [8]
Nina 1957 November 29 – December 6Category 1 hurricane85 mph (140 km/h)Caused $100,000 in damage and four fatalities in Hawaii [9]
Carmen 1980 April 4–8Tropical storm50 mph (80 km/h) [10]
Winnie 1983 December 4–7Category 1 hurricane90 mph (150 km/h)Strongest east Pacific tropical cyclone in the month of December [2]
Winona 1989 January 9–15Tropical storm45 mph (75 km/h) [3]
Alma 1990 May 12–20Category 1 hurricane85 mph (140 km/h) [11]
Ekeka 1992 January 28 – February 3Category 3 hurricane115 mph (185 km/h)Strongest off-season east Pacific tropical cyclone [2] [12]
Hali 1992 March 28–30Tropical storm50 mph (80 km/h) [12]
One-E 1996 May 13–16Tropical storm50 mph (80 km/h)Assumed to have caused two deaths after the ship Solar Wind was lost at sea [13]
Paka 1997 December 2–7Tropical storm65 mph (100 km/h)Later became a super typhoon in the West Pacific [14]
Omeka 2010 December 18–22Tropical storm60 mph (95 km/h)Was subtropical from December 18 – 20 in central Pacific, was in the western Pacific from December 20 – 22, and tropical on December 22 onward in the central Pacific [15]
Aletta 2012 May 14–19Tropical storm50 mph (80 km/h) [16]
Nine-C 2015 December 31Tropical depression35 mph (55 km/h)Latest formation of a tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific basin. [17]
Pali 2016 January 7–15Category 2 hurricane100 mph (155 km/h)Earliest formation of a tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific basin. [18]
Adrian 2017 May 9–10Tropical storm45 mph (75 km/h) [19]
One-E 2018 May 10–11Tropical depression35 mph (55 km/h) [20]
One-E 2020 April 25–26Tropical depression35 mph (55 km/h)Earliest formation of a tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific basin proper (east of 140°W). [21]

Impact and records

Several off-season tropical cyclones have affected land. Hurricane Nina in early December 1957 prompted evacuations in Hawaii and caused $100,000 (1957  USD) in damage in the state. [22] The storm also killed four people and produced 35 ft (10 m) waves. [23] Hurricane Winnie in December 1983 caused minor rainfall in parts of Mexico. [24] The unnamed tropical storm of 1996 was assumed to have killed two people when it sank a trimaran called the Solar Wind. [13] After becoming a typhoon, Paka caused significant damage in the Marshall Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Overall, Paka caused $580 million (1997 USD) in damage, enough to warrant retirement of the name. [25] None of these impacting systems made landfall. [2]

In the official east Pacific hurricane database, which dates back to 1949, the first storm to occur outside of the current season was Hurricane Nina in 1957. In the database, thirteen tropical cyclones have existed between December and May, most recently Hurricane Pali in 2016. [2] Tropical Storm Winona in January 1989 was not listed in the database, [2] despite forming south of Hawaii. [3] In addition, there were at least eight tropical cyclones before the start of the official database, many of which existed near Hawaii. [4] Storms were most likely to occur in December, followed by January and May. Only one cyclone each was reported in the two months of March and April. [2] Of all off-season tropical cyclones, the "Froc Cyclone" lasted longest, spanning 12 days and two calendar years. [4] The year with the most off-season storms was tied between 1904 and 1992, with a total of two tropical cyclones. No Pacific hurricane season had both a pre-season and post-season storm. [2] [4]

Monthly statistics

See also

Related Research Articles

National Hurricane Center Division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' NOAA/National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Hurricane Kenna Category 5 Pacific hurricane in 2002

Hurricane Kenna was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Eastern Pacific basin, and at the time the third-most intense Pacific hurricane to strike the west coast of Mexico. Kenna was the sixteenth tropical depression, thirteenth tropical storm, seventh hurricane, sixth major hurricane, and third Category 5 hurricane of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season. After forming on October 22 to the south of Mexico from a tropical wave, forecasters consistently predicted the storm to strengthen much less than it actually did. Moving into an area of favorable upper-level conditions and warm sea surface temperatures, Kenna quickly strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph (270 km/h) as a Category 5 hurricane, on October 25, while located about 255 mi (410 km) southwest of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Weakening as it turned to the northeast, the hurricane made landfall near San Blas, Nayarit as a Category 4 hurricane, with sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h), before dissipating on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains.

Pacific hurricane Mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Hurricane Nina was the final tropical storm and hurricane of the 1957 Pacific hurricane season and the last storm to form during the active Central Pacific hurricane season this year. This storm was named "Nina" because during this time, hurricanes in this basin were given names from the typhoon naming lists. This storm was the last to form during a series of typhoons to form in the Pacific in November.

The Hurricane Databases (HURDAT), managed by the National Hurricane Center, are two separate databases that contain details on tropical cyclones, that have occurred within the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific Ocean since either 1851 or 1949.

Hurricane Hiki was the third-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States, behind Hurricane Lane in 2018, and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. It was also considered the first official hurricane in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. The fourth tropical cyclone of the 1950 Pacific hurricane season, Hiki formed as a tropical depression to the southeast of Hawaii on August 12. On the following day, the depression headed northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Hiki. While paralleling the Hawaiian Islands on August 16, Hiki strengthened into a hurricane. Around that time, the storm peaked with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The following day, Hiki curved southwestward on August 17. Two days later, the hurricane resumed moving northwestward and weakened to a tropical storm shortly thereafter. Around midday on August 21, Hiki weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated about six hours later.

Hurricane Newton (1986) Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 1986

Hurricane Newton was one of the few tropical cyclones that were intercepted by Hurricane Hunter flights during the moderately active 1986 Pacific hurricane season. A tropical depression formed near Central America on September 18; two days later, the depression was upgraded into a tropical storm. Moving towards to northwest, Newton strengthened into a hurricane on September 21. After paralleling the coast, Newton move ashore near Cabo San Lucas on September 22. Shortly after entering the Gulf of California, the hurricane attaining its peak intensity of 85 mph (145 km/h). The following day, Newton moved ashore the Mexican mainland. Newton dissipated on September 23. However, the remnants of Newton continued across the United States and eventually emerged into the Atlantic Ocean. While 40 homes lost their roofs, damage in Mexico was fairly minor, and no fatalities were reported in association with Newton, though the remnants produced fairly heavy rains in the Great Plains.

References

  1. 1 2 Dorst, Neal; Hurricane Research Division; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. FAQ: Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones Subject: G1) When is hurricane season? (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2019". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "1989 WINONA (1989010N16212)". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Tropical Cyclones During the Years 1900–1952 (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2007-01-26.
  5. 1 2 3 Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclones in the 1800s". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  6. Tingley, F. G. (1922). "North Pacific Ocean" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. United States Weather Bureau. 50 (3): 99. Bibcode:1929MWRv...57..121H. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1929)57<121:NPO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN   1520-0493 . Retrieved 2010-12-20.
  7. Hurd, Willis E. (1929-04-21). "Eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. United States Weather Bureau. 57 (2): 1–7. Bibcode:1922MWRv...50...98T. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1922)50<98:NPO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN   1520-0493 . Retrieved 2010-12-21.
  8. 1 2 Hurd, Willis E. (January 1938). "North Pacific Ocean, January 1938" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. United States Weather Bureau. 66: 25–26. Bibcode:1938MWRv...66...25H. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1938)66<25:NPOJ>2.0.CO;2. ISSN   1520-0493 . Retrieved 2013-07-26.
  9. Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1957 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  10. Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1980 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-22). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  11. Case, Robert; National Hurricane Center (2002-01-23). Hurricane Alma (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
  12. 1 2 Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-39). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-08.
  13. 1 2 Rappaport, Edward N.; National Hurricane Center (1996-11-07). Unnamed Tropical Storm (formerly Tropical Depression One-E) (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  14. Hablutzel, Benjamin C.; Weyman, James C.; Rosendal, Hans E.; Hoag, Jonathan D.; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. The 1997 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-44). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2012-06-09.
  15. Thomas, Craig A.; Houston, Samuel H. The 2010 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSTM PR-57). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  16. Brown, Daniel P.; National Hurricane Center (2012-08-15). Tropical Storm Aletta (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  17. Sam Houston; Tom Birchard (December 22, 2016). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Depression Nine-C (Report). Honolulu, Hawaii: Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  18. Bob Henson (January 7, 2016). "Rare January Depression in Central Pacific; Atlantic Subtropical Storm Next Week?". Weather Underground. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  19. Doyle Rice (May 9, 2017). "Earliest Pacific tropical depression on record forms". USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  20. Avila, Lixion. "Tropical Depression One-E Advisory Number 5". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  21. David Zelinsky (April 25, 2020). "Tropical Depression ONE-E". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  22. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (2007). 1957 Central Pacific Hurricane Season Summary (Report). Retrieved 2007-03-08.
  23. "Ship At Mercy of Hurricane Calls For Help". San Mateo Times. Associated Press. 1957.
  24. Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Hurricane Winnie – December 4–8, 1983". Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
  25. Padgett, Gary; Beven, Jack; Free, James; Delgado Sandy; Hurricane Research Division; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (2011-05-19). "Subject: B3) What storm names have been retired?". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research. Retrieved 2011-10-17.

Notes

  1. The National Hurricane Center (NHC)'s warning responsibly is often referred to as the "eastern Pacific" while the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC)'s warning zone is often referred to as the "central Pacific", even though, the two areas are combined in datasets like HURDAT and IBTRACS.