There have been 25 recorded tropical and subtropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific basin outside the official Pacific hurricane season. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) monitors the area from North America westward to 140°W, while the Central Pacific Hurricane Center is from 140°W to the International date line, north of the equator. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) currently defines the season as starting May 15 in the eastern Pacific and June 1 for the central Pacific and ending on November 30 for both regions in each calendar year. Occasionally, however, storms develop in late November and persist until December, such as Hurricane Nina of 1957.
Few off-season tropical cyclones in the east Pacific have affected land, and none of them have made landfall. 115 mph (185 km/h). However, after Tropical Storm Paka crossed the International Date Line, it intensified into a typhoon with winds equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. The most recent off-season storm is Tropical Depression One-E in late-April 2020.Only Hurricane Nina caused both property damage and fatalities. The strongest hurricane between December and May was Hurricane Ekeka in 1992, which reached winds of
The beginning of HURDAT, the official Pacific hurricane database maintained by the NHC, is 1949. Since then, thirteen storms have occurred 2,000 mi (3,220 km) off the Mexican coastline, including one in December.outside the official bounds of hurricane season in the eastern and central north Pacific, respectively. In addition, the CPHC reports nine off-season storms from 1900–1952 with another off-season tropical cyclone occurring in 1832. There have been documents published in the Monthly Weather Review reporting additional off-season storms within
The wind speeds listed are maximum one-minute average sustained winds. The category refers to the intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale; TS stands for tropical storm, and TD for tropical depression.
|Storm||Season||Duration||Peak classification|| Maximum|
|"Froc Cyclone"||1902||December 23, 1902 – January 2, 1903||Unknown||Unknown|
|"Zikawei Cyclone"||1904||November 26 – December 4||Unknown||Unknown|
|"Hurd Cyclone"||1904||December 23–30||Unknown||Unknown|
|"Gauthier Cyclone"||1906||May 3–10||Unknown||Unknown|
|Unnamed||1938||January 2–5||Unknown||Unknown||The Monthly Weather Review was uncertain if the storm was a tropical cyclone|
|Nina||1957||November 29 – December 6||Category 1 hurricane||85 mph (140 km/h)||Caused $100,000 in damage and four fatalities in Hawaii|
|Carmen||1980||April 4–8||Tropical storm||50 mph (80 km/h)|
|Winnie||1983||December 4–7||Category 1 hurricane||90 mph (150 km/h)||Strongest east Pacific tropical cyclone in the month of December|
|Winona||1989||January 9–15||Tropical storm||45 mph (75 km/h)|
|Alma||1990||May 12–20||Category 1 hurricane||85 mph (140 km/h)|
|Ekeka||1992||January 28 – February 3||Category 3 hurricane||115 mph (185 km/h)||Strongest off-season east Pacific tropical cyclone|
|Hali||1992||March 28–30||Tropical storm||50 mph (80 km/h)|
|One-E||1996||May 13–16||Tropical storm||50 mph (80 km/h)||Assumed to have caused two deaths after the ship Solar Wind was lost at sea|
|Paka||1997||December 2–7||Tropical storm||65 mph (100 km/h)||Later became a super typhoon in the West Pacific|
|Omeka||2010||December 18–22||Tropical storm||60 mph (95 km/h)||Was subtropical from December 18 – 20 in central Pacific, was in the western Pacific from December 20 – 22, and tropical on December 22 onward in the central Pacific|
|Aletta||2012||May 14–19||Tropical storm||50 mph (80 km/h)|
|Nine-C||2015||December 31||Tropical depression||35 mph (55 km/h)||Latest formation of a tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific basin.|
|Pali||2016||January 7–15||Category 2 hurricane||100 mph (155 km/h)||Earliest formation of a tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific basin.|
|Adrian||2017||May 9–10||Tropical storm||45 mph (75 km/h)|
|One-E||2018||May 10–11||Tropical depression||35 mph (55 km/h)|
|One-E||2020||April 25–26||Tropical depression||35 mph (55 km/h)||Earliest formation of a tropical cyclone in the eastern Pacific basin proper (east of 140°W).|
Several off-season tropical cyclones have affected land. Hurricane Nina in early December 1957 prompted evacuations in Hawaii and caused $100,000 (1957 USD) in damage in the state. The storm also killed four people and produced 35 ft (10 m) waves. Hurricane Winnie in December 1983 caused minor rainfall in parts of Mexico. The unnamed tropical storm of 1996 was assumed to have killed two people when it sank a trimaran called the Solar Wind. After becoming a typhoon, Paka caused significant damage in the Marshall Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Overall, Paka caused $580 million (1997 USD) in damage, enough to warrant retirement of the name. None of these impacting systems made landfall.
In the official east Pacific hurricane database, which dates back to 1949, the first storm to occur outside of the current season was Hurricane Nina in 1957. In the database, thirteen tropical cyclones have existed between December and May, most recently Hurricane Pali in 2016. 1989 was not listed in the database, despite forming south of Hawaii. In addition, there were at least eight tropical cyclones before the start of the official database, many of which existed near Hawaii. Storms were most likely to occur in December, followed by January and May. Only one cyclone each was reported in the two months of March and April. Of all off-season tropical cyclones, the "Froc Cyclone" lasted longest, spanning 12 days and two calendar years. The year with the most off-season storms was tied between 1904 and 1992, with a total of two tropical cyclones. No Pacific hurricane season had both a pre-season and post-season storm.Tropical Storm Winona in January
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' NOAA/National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.
Hurricane Kenna was the fourth-most intense tropical cyclone on record in the Eastern Pacific basin, and at the time the third-most intense Pacific hurricane to strike the west coast of Mexico. Kenna was the sixteenth tropical depression, thirteenth tropical storm, seventh hurricane, sixth major hurricane, and third Category 5 hurricane of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season. After forming on October 22 to the south of Mexico from a tropical wave, forecasters consistently predicted the storm to strengthen much less than it actually did. Moving into an area of favorable upper-level conditions and warm sea surface temperatures, Kenna quickly strengthened to reach peak winds of 165 mph (270 km/h) as a Category 5 hurricane, on October 25, while located about 255 mi (410 km) southwest of Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Weakening as it turned to the northeast, the hurricane made landfall near San Blas, Nayarit as a Category 4 hurricane, with sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h), before dissipating on October 26 over the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains.
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.
Hurricane Nina was the final tropical storm and hurricane of the 1957 Pacific hurricane season and the last storm to form during the active Central Pacific hurricane season this year. This storm was named "Nina" because during this time, hurricanes in this basin were given names from the typhoon naming lists. This storm was the last to form during a series of typhoons to form in the Pacific in November.
The Hurricane Databases (HURDAT), managed by the National Hurricane Center, are two separate databases that contain details on tropical cyclones, that have occurred within the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific Ocean since either 1851 or 1949.
Hurricane Hiki was the third-wettest tropical cyclone on record in the United States, behind Hurricane Lane in 2018, and Hurricane Harvey in 2017. It was also considered the first official hurricane in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands. The fourth tropical cyclone of the 1950 Pacific hurricane season, Hiki formed as a tropical depression to the southeast of Hawaii on August 12. On the following day, the depression headed northwestward and intensified into Tropical Storm Hiki. While paralleling the Hawaiian Islands on August 16, Hiki strengthened into a hurricane. Around that time, the storm peaked with maximum sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h). The following day, Hiki curved southwestward on August 17. Two days later, the hurricane resumed moving northwestward and weakened to a tropical storm shortly thereafter. Around midday on August 21, Hiki weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated about six hours later.
Hurricane Newton was one of the few tropical cyclones that were intercepted by Hurricane Hunter flights during the moderately active 1986 Pacific hurricane season. A tropical depression formed near Central America on September 18; two days later, the depression was upgraded into a tropical storm. Moving towards to northwest, Newton strengthened into a hurricane on September 21. After paralleling the coast, Newton move ashore near Cabo San Lucas on September 22. Shortly after entering the Gulf of California, the hurricane attaining its peak intensity of 85 mph (145 km/h). The following day, Newton moved ashore the Mexican mainland. Newton dissipated on September 23. However, the remnants of Newton continued across the United States and eventually emerged into the Atlantic Ocean. While 40 homes lost their roofs, damage in Mexico was fairly minor, and no fatalities were reported in association with Newton, though the remnants produced fairly heavy rains in the Great Plains.