The following is a list of paintings by the Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer . After two or three early history paintings, he concentrated almost entirely on genre works, typically interiors with one or two figures. His popularity is due less to his subject matter than to the poetic manner in which he portrays his subjects. Vermeer's paintings of the 1660s are generally more popular than his work from the 1670s: in the eyes of some, his later work is colder.
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.
Johannes Vermeer was a Dutch Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. He was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime but evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings.
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style. History paintings usually depict a moment in a narrative story, rather than a specific and static subject, as in a portrait. The term is derived from the wider senses of the word historia in Latin and Italian, meaning "story" or "narrative", and essentially means "story painting". Most history paintings are not of scenes from history, especially paintings from before about 1850.
Today, 36 paintings are firmly attributed to him, with question marks over a further three.This compares to the 74 pictures attributed to him by Thoré-Bürger in 1866. Vermeer's reputation increased greatly during the latter half of the 20th century, a period during which the number of paintings ascribed to him shrank greatly. This is partly because he has been one of the most widely forged artists, and many forgeries have now been identified. No drawings or preparatory paintings are known. Many Vermeer paintings are known by various names, and alternative names are noted below. Years of creation are only estimates for most of the paintings, and sources often give different, though not widely divergent, estimates. In addition to the known paintings listed below, historical documents seem to describe at least six other, lost, works.
Étienne-Joseph-Théophile Thoré was a French journalist and art critic. He is best known today for his rediscovery of the work of painter Johannes Vermeer.
|Christ in the House of Martha and Mary||1654–55|
or c. 1654–56 or c. 1655
|Oil on canvas, 160 × 142 cm||National Gallery of Scotland,|
|Diana and Her Companions||1655–56|
or c. 1653–54
|Oil on canvas, 98.5 × 105 cm||Mauritshuis, The Hague|
|The Procuress||1656 (signed and dated)||Oil on canvas, 143 × 130 cm||Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden|
| Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window |
(also known as Young Woman Reading a Letter at an Open Window )
|1657 (or c. 1657–59 )||Oil on canvas, 83 × 64.5 cm||Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden|
| A Girl Asleep |
(also known as A Maid Asleep )
(or 1656–57 )
|Oil on canvas, 87.6 × 76.5 cm||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|
|The Little Street||1657–58|
or c. 1658 or c. 1658–60
|Oil on canvas, 54.3 × 44 cm||Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam|
| Officer with a Laughing Girl |
(also known as Officer and Laughing Girl)
|c. 1657||Oil on canvas, 50.5 × 46 cm||Frick Collection, New York|
|The Milkmaid||c. 1658 or c. 1657–58||Oil on canvas, 45.5 × 41 cm||Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam|
|The Wine Glass , also known as A Lady Drinking and a Gentleman and The Glass of Wine||1658–60 or 1658–59||Oil on canvas, 39.4 × 44.5 cm||Gemäldegalerie, Berlin|
|The Girl with the Wineglass||c. 1659||Oil on canvas, 78 × 67.5 cm||Herzog Anton-Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig|
|View of Delft||1659–60||Oil on canvas, 98.5 × 117.5 cm||Mauritshuis, The Hague|
|Girl Interrupted at her Music||1660–61 (or 1658–59 )||Oil on canvas, 39.4 × 44.5 cm||Frick Collection, New York|
|Woman Reading a Letter||1663–64 (or 1657–59 )||Oil on canvas, 46.6 × 39.1 cm||Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam|
| The Music Lesson |
(also known as A Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman)
|1662/65||Oil on canvas, 73.3 × 64.5 cm||Royal Collection, Buckingham Palace, England|
|Woman with a Lute||c. 1663–64 or 1662–63||Oil on canvas, 51.4 × 45.7 cm||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|
|Woman with a Pearl Necklace||1662–64||Oil on canvas, 55 × 45 cm||Gemäldegalerie, Berlin|
|Woman with a Water Jug , also known as Young Woman with a Water Pitcher||1660–62 or c. 1662||Oil on canvas, 45.7 × 40.6 cm||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|
|A Woman Holding a Balance , also known as Woman with a Balance||1662–63 or c. 1663–64||Oil on canvas, 42.5 × 38 cm||National Gallery of Art, Washington|
|A Lady Writing a Letter||1665–66||Oil on canvas, 45 × 40 cm||National Gallery of Art, Washington|
| Girl with a Pearl Earring ,|
also known as Girl In A Turban, Head Of Girl In A Turban, The Young Girl With Turban, and Head of a Young Girl.
|c. 1665||Oil on canvas, 46.5 × 40 cm||Mauritshuis, The Hague|
|The Concert||1665–66||Oil on canvas, 72.5 × 64.7 cm||Missing since its theft from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston in 1990|
|Portrait of a Young Woman , also known as Study of a Young Woman||1666–67 or c. 1665–67||Oil on canvas, 44.5 × 40 cm||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|
| The Allegory of Painting,|
also known as The Art of Painting
|1666–67 or c. 1666–68||Oil on canvas, 100 × 120 cm||Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna|
| Mistress and Maid ,|
also known as Lady with her Maidservant Holding a Letter
|1667/68||Oil on canvas, 90.2 × 78.7 cm||Frick Collection, New York|
|Girl with a Red Hat (attribution to Vermeer has been questioned)||1668 or c. 1665–67||Oil on panel, 22.8 × 18 cm||National Gallery of Art, Washington|
|The Astronomer||1668||Oil on canvas, 50.8 × 46.3 cm||Louvre, Paris|
|The Geographer||1668/69||Oil on canvas, 53 × 46.6 cm||Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt am Main|
|The Lacemaker||1669/70||Oil on canvas, 24.5 × 21 cm||Louvre, Paris|
|The Love Letter||1669/70||Oil on canvas, 44 × 38.5 cm||Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam|
|Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid||1670||Oil on canvas, 71.1 × 58.4 cm||National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin|
|The Allegory of Faith , also known as Allegory of the Faith||1671–74 or c. 1670–72||Oil on canvas, 114.3 × 88.9 cm||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|
|The Guitar Player||1672||Oil on canvas, 53 × 46.3 cm||Kenwood House, London|
|Lady Standing at a Virginal , also known as Young Woman Standing at a Virginal||1673–75 or c. 1670–72||Oil on canvas, 51.7 × 45.2 cm||National Gallery, London|
|Lady Seated at a Virginal , also known as Young Woman Seated at a Virginal||1673–75 or c. 1670–72||Oil on canvas, 51.5 × 45.5 cm||National Gallery, London|
|Saint Praxedis||1655||Oil on canvas, 101.6 x 82.6 cm||Private Collection, Tokyo |
On loan to the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
|Girl with a Flute||1665–70||Oil on panel, 20 x 17.8 cm||National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.|
|A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals||c. 1670||Oil on canvas, 25.2 × 20 cm||Leiden Collection, United States|
Historical documents such as auction records suggest that Vermeer painted a number of other works, now presumably destroyed, lost to public view, or possibly wrongly attributed to other artists.While a list of these lost Vermeers must necessarily be tentative, it may include:
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early Renaissance in the mid-15th century that artists can be frequently identified depicting themselves as either the main subject, or as important characters in their work. With better and cheaper mirrors, and the advent of the panel portrait, many painters, sculptors and printmakers tried some form of self-portraiture. Portrait of a Man in a Turban by Jan van Eyck of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait. He painted a separate portrait of his wife, and he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits, already more common among wealthy Netherlanders than south of the Alps. The genre is venerable, but not until the Renaissance, with increased wealth and interest in the individual as a subject, did it become truly popular.
The Little Street is a painting by the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer, executed c. 1657–58. It is exhibited at the Rijksmuseum of Amsterdam, and signed, below the window in the lower left-hand corner, "I V MEER".
Jupiter, also known as Jove, was the god of the sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table is a small Surrealist oil painting by Salvador Dalí. Its full title is The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used as a Table . It makes reference to The Art of Painting by Johannes Vermeer, a famous seventeenth-century work in which a painter, thought to be a self-portrait of Vermeer, is depicted with his back to us, in distinctive costume. It is one of a number of paintings expressive of Dalí's enormous admiration for Vermeer.
The Milkmaid, sometimes called The Kitchen Maid, is an oil-on-canvas painting of a "milkmaid", in fact, a domestic kitchen maid, by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer. It is now in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, which regards it as "unquestionably one of the museum's finest attractions".
A Lady Writing a Letter is an oil painting attributed to 17th century Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. It is believed to have been completed around 1665. The Lady is seen to be writing a letter and has been interrupted, so gently turns her head to see what is happening. She wears twelve pearls.
Girl with a Pearl Earring is an oil painting by Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer, dated c. 1665. Going by various names over the centuries, it became known by its present title towards the end of the 20th century after the large pearl earring worn by the girl portrayed there. The work has been in the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague since 1902 and has been the subject of various literary treatments. In 2006, the Dutch public selected it as the most beautiful painting in the Netherlands.
Saint Praxedis is an oil painting attributed to Johannes Vermeer. This attribution has often been questioned. However, in 2014 the auction house Christie's announced the results of new investigations which in their opinion demonstrate conclusively that it is a Vermeer. The painting is a copy of a work by Felice Ficherelli, and depicts the early Roman martyr, Saint Praxedis or Praxedes. It may be Vermeer's earliest surviving work, dating from 1655.
Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet was a Dutch Golden Age painter remembered mostly for his church interiors.
The Wine Glass is a 1660 painting by Johannes Vermeer now in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It portrays a seated woman and a standing man drinking in an interior setting. The work contains the conventions of genre painting of the Delft School developed by Pieter de Hooch in the late 1650s. It contains figures situated in a brightly lit and spacious interior, while its architectural space is highly defined. The figures are set in the middle ground, rather than positioned in the foreground.
Study of a Young Woman is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, completed between 1665 and 1667, and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Lady Writing a Letter with her Maid is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer, completed in 1670–1671 and held in the National Gallery of Ireland. The work shows a middle-class woman attended by a housemaid who is presumably acting as messenger and go-between for the lady and her lover. The work is seen as a bridge between the quiet restraint and self-containment of Vermeer's work of the 1660s and his relatively cooler work of the 1670s. It may have been partly inspired by Ter Borch's painting Woman Sealing a Letter. The painting's canvas was almost certainly cut from the same bolt used for Woman with a Lute.
The Lacemaker is a painting by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675), completed around 1669–1670 and held in the Louvre, Paris. The work shows a young woman dressed in a yellow shawl, holding up a pair of bobbins in her left hand as she carefully places a pin in the pillow on which she is making her bobbin lace. At 24.5 cm x 21 cm, the work is the smallest of Vermeer's paintings, but in many ways one of his most abstract and unusual. The canvas used was cut from the same bolt as that used for A Young Woman Seated at the Virginals, and both paintings seem to have had identical dimensions originally.
The Allegory of Faith, also known as Allegory of the Catholic Faith, is a painting created by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer in about 1670–72. The painting is currently located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and has been since 1931.
Officer and Laughing Girl, also known as Officer and a Laughing Girl, Officer With a Laughing Girl or De Soldaat en het Lachende Meisje, was painted by the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer between 1655 and 1660. It was painted in oil on canvas, typical of most Dutch artists of the time, and is 50.5 by 46 cm. It now resides in The Frick Collection in New York.
The Geographer is a painting created by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer in 1668–1669, and is now in the collection of the Städelsches Kunstinstitut museum in Frankfurt, Germany. It is closely related to Vermeer's The Astronomer, for instance using the same model in the same dress, and has sometimes been considered a pendant painting to it. A 2017 study indicated that the canvas for the two works came from the same bolt of material.
View of Delft is an oil painting by Johannes Vermeer, painted ca. 1660–1661. The painting of the Dutch artist's hometown is among his most popular, painted at a time when cityscapes were uncommon. It is one of three known paintings of Delft by Vermeer, along with The Little Street and the lost painting House Standing in Delft. The use of pointillism in the work suggests that it postdates The Little Street, and the absence of bells in the tower of the New Church dates it to 1660–1661. Vermeer's View of Delft has been held in the Dutch Royal Cabinet of Paintings at the Mauritshuis in The Hague since its establishment in 1822.
Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window is an oil painting by Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer. Completed in approximately 1657–59, the well-preserved painting is on display at the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden. For many years, the attribution of the painting—which features a young Dutch woman reading a letter before an open window—was lost, with first Rembrandt and then Pieter de Hooch being credited for the work before it was properly identified in 1880. After World War II, the painting was briefly in possession of the Soviet Union.
Diana and Her Companions is a painting by Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer completed in the early to mid-1650s, now at the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague. Although the exact year is unknown, the work may be the earliest painting of the artist still extant, with some art historians placing it before Christ in the House of Martha and Mary and some after.
Woman with a Pearl Necklace by Johannes Vermeer is a seventeenth-century Northern European painting. Painted in oils on canvas, Johannes Vermeer portrayed a young Dutch woman, most likely of upper-class-descent, dressing herself with two yellow ribbons, pearl earrings, and a pearl necklace. As a very popular artist of the 17th century, the Dutch Golden Age, Vermeer depicted many women in similar circumstances within interior, domestic scenes. The same woman also appears in The Love Letter and A Lady Writing a Letter.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. was the curator of the Northern European Art Collection at the National Gallery of Art, in Washington, DC until his retirement in Spring, 2018.
Girl with a Flute is a small painting attributed to the Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer, executed 1665–1670. The work is in possession of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., just as Woman Holding a Balance, A Lady Writing a Letter and Girl with a Red Hat.