List of political entities in the 19th century

Last updated

This is a list of political entities that existed between 1801 and 1900. It includes both sovereign states, self-declared unrecognized states, and any political predecessors of current sovereign states.

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state.

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states. A successor state is a sovereign state over a territory and populace that was previously under the sovereignty of another state. The theory has its root in 19th-century diplomacy. A successor state often acquires a new international legal personality, which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations.


Political entities

NameCapital(s)State typeExistedLocation
Flag Portugal sea (1830).svg Portuguese Angola Luanda Colony, Portuguese1575–1975Africa: Central
Flag of the Kingdom of Kongo.svg Kingdom of Kongo São SalvadorKingdom/client1390–1914Africa: Central
Anziku Kingdom Kingdom17th century–1875Africa: Central
Kingdom of Baguirmi Kingdom1522–1897Africa: Central
Flag of Deutsch-Kamerun.svg Kamerun Colony (Germany)1884–1916Africa: Central
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg French Chad Colony, French1900–1960Africa: Central
Flag of Congo Free State.svg  Congo Free State Kingdom1885–1908Africa: Central
Kuba Kingdom Kingdomc.1600–19th centuryAfrica: Central
Flag of France (1794-1958).svg French Congo Colony, French1882–1910Africa: Central
Kingdom of Orungu Kingdomc.1700–1927Africa: Central
Kasanje Kingdom Kingdom1620–1910Africa: Central
Kazembe chiefdom Chiefdom1740–1904Africa: Central
Kingdom of Loango Flag.jpg Kingdom of Loango Kingdomc.1550–c.1883Africa: Central
Kingdom of Luba Kingdom1585–1889Africa: Central
Kingdom of Lunda Kingdomc.1665–1887Africa: Central
Ouaddai Empire Empire1635–1909Africa: Central
Flag Portugal sea (1830).svg Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe Colony, Portuguese1470–1975Africa: Central
Wadai Empire Empire1635–1909Africa: Central
Yeke Kingdom Bunkeya Kingdom1856–1891Africa: Central
Sultans of the Comoros Sultanate15th century–c.1912Africa: East
Flag of the Merina Kingdom.svg Merina Kingdom Antananarivo Kingdom1540–1897Africa: East
Flag of Ankole.svg Ankole Kingdomlate 15th century–1967Africa: East
Flag of Buganda.svg  Buganda Kampala Kingdomearly 14th century–1967Africa: East
Flag of Bunyoro, Uganda.svg Bunyoro Kingdom16th century–1967Africa: East
New Flag of the Shilluk Kingdom.svg Shilluk Kingdom FashodaKingdomc.1490–1865Africa: East
Medri Bahri DebarwaKingdom1137–1890Africa: East, Horn
Red Red.svg Aussa Sultanate Asaita Sultanate1734–1902Africa: East, Horn
Ethiopian Pennants.svg  Ethiopian Empire Addis Ababa Empire1137–1935; 1942–1974Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Garo Kingdom1567–1883Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Gomma Kingdomc.1780–1886Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Gumma Kingdomc.1770–1902Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Janjero Kingdom15th century–1894Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Jimma Kingdom1790–1932Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Kaffa Kingdomc.1390–1897Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Limmu-Ennarea Kingdom1801–1891Africa: East, Horn
Kingdom of Welayta Kingdomc.1250–1894Africa: East, Horn
Flag of British Somaliland (1952-1960).svg  British Somaliland Colony, British1884–1940; 1941–1960Africa: East, Horn
Majeerteen sultanate flag.jpg Sultanate of Hobyo Sultanate1878–1926Africa: East, Horn
Majeerteen sultanate flag.jpg Majeerteen Sultanate Sultanatec.1600–1924Africa: East, Horn
Warsangali Sultanate Sultanate1218–1886Africa: East, Horn
Flag of Burundi (1962 to 1966).svg  Kingdom of Burundi Kingdom1680–1966Africa: East, Lakes
Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar (1963).svg Sultanate of Zanzibar Sultanate1856–1964Africa: East, Lakes
Flagge Witu 1890 laut Voeltzkow.jpg Wituland 1858–1885Africa: East, Lakes
Flag of Rwanda (1959-1961).svg  Kingdom of Rwanda Kingdom11th century–1962Africa: East, Lakes
Flag of Egypt (1882-1922).svg Khedivate of Egypt Khedivate1867–1914Africa: Northeast
Sennar (sultanate) Sultanate1504–1821Africa: Northeast
Flag of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.svg Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Colony, British/Egyptian1899–1956Africa: Northeast
Flag of Darfur.svg Sultanate of Darfur Sultanate1603–1874; 1898–1916Africa: Northeast
Flag of France (1794-1958).svg French Algeria Colony, French1830–1962Africa: Northwest
Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg Ottoman Algeria Territory, Ottomanc.1517–1830Africa: Northwest
Flag of Morocco 1666 1915.svg  Morocco Sultanate1664–1912; 1956–presentAfrica: Northwest
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Spanish Sahara Territory, Spanish1884–1975Africa: Northwest
Flag of Barotseland.svg Barotseland 17th century–1900Africa: South
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bechuanaland Protectorate Protectorate1885–1966Africa: South
Flag of the Dutch East India Company.svg  Dutch Cape Colony Kaapstad Colony, Dutch1652–1795; 1803–1806Africa: South
Gaza Empire Empire1824–1895Africa: South
Unofficial Basutoland Ensign.svg Basutoland 1884–1966Africa: South
Maravi Late 15th century–1870Africa: South
Angoche Sultanate Angoche, MomaSultanate1485–1910Africa: South
Flag Portugal sea (1830).svg Portuguese Mozambique Colony, Portuguese1498–1975Africa: South
Mthethwa Paramountcy Empirec.1780–1817Africa: South
Mthwakazi 1830s–1889Africa: South
Flaggenentwurf 7 Sudwestafrika 1914.svg German South-West Africa Colony, German1884–1915Africa: South
Flag of the Natal Colony (1875-1910).svg Colony of Natal Colony, British1843–1910Africa: South
Nieuwe Republiek Republiek1884–1888Africa: South
Rozwi Empire Empire1660–1866Africa: South
Flag of the United Kingdom.svgFlag of the Cape Colony (1876-1910).svg  British Cape Colony Cape Town Colony, British1795–1910Africa: South
Flag of the Orange Free State.svg Orange Free State 1854–1902Africa: South
Flag of Transvaal.svgSouth African Burgers Flag.svgFlag of Transvaal.svg Transvaal Republic1856–1877; 1881–1902; 1914–1915Africa: South
Flag of Swaziland 1894.svg Swaziland 1745–1906; 1968–presentAfrica: South
Transvaal Colony Colony, British1877–1881; 1902–1910Africa: South
Company rule in Rhodesia Company rule1890–1924Africa: South
Zulu Kingdom Kingdom1816–1897Africa: South
Baol Kingdom1555–1874Africa: West
Flag of the Benin Empire.svg Benin Empire Benin CityEmpire1180–1897Africa: West
Dahomey Kingdomc.1600–1904Africa: West
French West Africa Colony, French1895–1958Africa: West
Bornu flag of vallseca 1439.jpg Bornu Empire NgazargamuEmpire1380–1893Africa: West
Mossi Kingdoms Kingdoms11th century–1896Africa: West
Flag Portugal sea (1830).svg Portuguese Cape Verde Colony, Portuguese1462–1975Africa: West
Cayor Kingdom1549–1879Africa: West
Imamate of Futa Jallon Imamate1725–1896Africa: West
Imamate of Futa Toro Imamate1776–1861Africa: West
Gambia Colony and Protectorate Colony, British1821–1965Africa: West
Flag of Ashanti.svg Ashanti Empire Empire1670–1902; 1935–1957Africa: West
Gyaaman 1450–1895Africa: West
Fante Confederacy Confederation1868–1874Africa: West
Wassoulou Empire Empire1878–1898Africa: West
Baté Empire Empireuntil 1879Africa: West
Flag Portugal sea (1830).svg Portuguese Guinea Colony, Portuguese1474–1974Africa: West
Kingdom of Jolof Kingdom1549–1875Africa: West
Kaabu Kingdom1537–1867Africa: West
Kénédougou Kingdom Kingdomc.1650–1898Africa: West
Khasso Kingdom17th century–1880Africa: West
Kong Empire Empire1710–1898Africa: West
Kingdom of Koya Kingdom1505–1896Africa: West
Flag of Liberia.svg Liberia Republic1847–presentAfrica: West
Bamana Empire Empire1712–1861Africa: West
Kaarta 1753–1890Africa: West
Pashalik of Timbuktu 1591–1833Africa: West
Toucouleur Empire Empire1848–1893Africa: West
Massina Empire Empirec.1818–1862Africa: West
Sultanate of Damagaram Sultanate1731–1851Africa: West
Dendi Kingdom Kingdom1591–1901Africa: West
Omu Aro flag.jpgFlag of the Aro Confederacy.svg Aro Confederacy Confederation1690–1902Africa: West
Kano flag.svg Kano Emirate Emirate1807–1903Africa: West
Kingdom of Nri Igbo-UkwuKingdom948–1911Africa: West
Flag of the Sokoto Caliphate.svg Sokoto Caliphate Caliphate1804–1903Africa: West
Oyo Empire Oyo-IleKingdomc.1400–1896Africa: West
Bundu 17th century–1858Africa: West
Kingdom of Sine Kingdom1350–1969Africa: West
Colonial Sierra Leone Colony, British1800–1961Africa: West
Togoland 1884–1916Africa: West
Colony of the Bahamas Colony, British1648–1973Americas: Caribbean
Captaincy General of Cuba Territory, Spanish1607–1898Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic Republic1844–1861; 1865–presentAmericas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
First Empire of Haiti Empire1804–1806Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Flag of Haiti (civil).svg Haiti 1859–presentAmericas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Flag of Haiti 1806.svg Kingdom of Haiti Kingdom1811–1820Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Flag of Haiti 1806.svg State of Haiti 1806–1811Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
Saint-Domingue Colony, French1625–1804Americas: Caribbean, Greater Antilles
List of Governors of Antigua Colony, British1632–1981Americas: Caribbean, Leeward Is.
Colonial Dominica Colony, British1715–1978Americas: Caribbean, Leeward Is.
History of Barbados 1627–1958; 1962–1966Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
Colonial Saint Lucia Colony, British1762–1979Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
Colonial Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Colony, British1763–1979Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
Colonial Trinidad and Tobago Colony, British1889–1962Americas: Caribbean, Windward Is.
British Honduras Colony, British1862–1981Americas: Central
United Provinces of Central America Republic1823–1838Americas: Central
Bandera de Costa Rica de 1848.svg Costa Rica 1823–presentAmericas: Central
Greater Republic of Central America Republic1896–1898Americas: Central
Flag of El Salvador (1875-1877).svg El Salvador 1841–presentAmericas: Central
Federal Republic of Central America Republic1823–1838Americas: Central
Captaincy General of Guatemala Territory, Spanish1609–1821Americas: Central
Flag of Guatemala (1924).svg Guatemala 1823–presentAmericas: Central
Flag of Honduras (1866-1898).svg Honduras 1838–presentAmericas: Central
Mosquito Coast 1838–1894Americas: Central
Flag of Nicaragua (1896-1908).svg Nicaragua 1894–presentAmericas: Central
Royal Greenland Trading Department Company rule1774–1908Americas: North
Canadian Red Ensign (1868-1921).svg Dominion of Canada Kingdom1867–presentAmericas: North, Canada
Republic of Manitoba Republic1867–1870Americas: North, Canada
Chan Santa Cruz c.1850–1901Americas: North, Mexico
First Mexican Empire Empire1821–1823Americas: North, Mexico
Flag of Mexico (1893-1916).svg Mexico Republic1867–presentAmericas: North, Mexico
Republic of the Rio Grande Republic1840–1840Americas: North, Mexico
Second Mexican Empire Empire1864–1867Americas: North, Mexico
Republic of Sonora Republic1854–1854Americas: North, Mexico
Republic of Yucatán Republic1823; 1841–1848Americas: North, Mexico
1stBearFlag.svg California Republic Republic1846–1846Americas: North, United States
Cherokee Nation 1794–1907Americas: North, United States
Flag of the Confederate States of America (March 1861 - May 1861).svgFlag of the Confederate States of America (May 1861 - July 1861).svgFlag of the Confederate States of America (July 1861 - November 1861).svgFlag of the Confederate States of America (1861-1863).svgFlag of the Confederate States of America (1863-1865).svgFlag of the Confederate States of America (1865).svg  Confederate States Confederation1861–1865Americas: North, United States
Republic of Indian Stream Republic1832–1835Americas: North, United States
Flag of the Republic of Maryland.svg Republic of Maryland Republic1854–1857Americas: North, United States
Flag of the Creek Nation.svg State of Muskogee 1799–1803Americas: North, United States
Flag of Texas.svg  Texas Republic1836–1846Americas: North, United States
Flag of the United States (1795-1818).svgFlag of the United States (1818-1819).svgFlag of the United States (1819-1820).svgFlag of the United States (1820-1822).svgFlag of the United States (1822-1836).svgFlag of the United States (1836-1837).svgFlag of the United States (1837-1845).svgFlag of the United States (1845-1846).svgFlag of the United States (1846-1847).svgFlag of the United States (1847-1848).svgFlag of the United States (1848-1851).svgFlag of the United States (1851-1858).svgFlag of the United States (1858-1859).svgFlag of the United States (1859-1861).svgFlag of the United States (1861-1863).svgFlag of the United States (1863-1865).svgFlag of the United States (1865-1867).svgFlag of the United States (1867-1877).svgFlag of the United States (1877-1890).svgFlag of the United States (1890-1891).svgFlag of the United States (1891-1896).svgFlag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States Washington, D.C. Republic1776–presentAmericas: North, United States
Bonnieblue.svg Republic of West Florida Republic1810–1810Americas: North, United States
Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia Kingdom1860–1862Americas: South
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1861–presentAmericas: South
Flag of the Argentine Confederation.svg  Argentine Confederation Confederation1831–1861Americas: South
Flag of Argentina (alternative).svg United Provinces of the River Plate 1810–1831Americas: South
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Territory, Spanish1776–1810Americas: South
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia 1839–presentAmericas: South
First Flag of Acre.png Republic of Acre Republic1899-1900; 1903Americas: South
Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg First Brazilian Republic Republic1889–1930Americas: South
Captaincy General of Chile Territory, Spanish1541–1818Americas: South
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Republic1818–presentAmericas: South
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 1886–presentAmericas: South
United States of Colombia 1863–1886Americas: South
Flag of the Gran Colombia (1819-1820).svg Gran Colombia 1821–1831Americas: South
Granadine Confederation Confederation1858–1863Americas: South
Republic of New Granada Republic1831–1858Americas: South
Flag of New Granada (1811-1814).svg United Provinces of New Granada Republic1810–1816Americas: South
Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador 1830–presentAmericas: South
British Guiana Colony, British1814–1966Americas: South
Flag of Paraguay (1812-1826).svgFlag of Paraguay (1842-1954).svg Paraguay 1811–presentAmericas: South
Flag of Peru (1825-1950).svg Peru 1839–presentAmericas: South
Viceroyalty of Peru Territory, Spanish1542–1824Americas: South
Peru–Bolivian Confederation Confederation1836–1839Americas: South
Flag United Kingdom Portugal Brazil Algarves.svg Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves Kingdom1815–1822/1825Americas: South
Surinam (Dutch colony) Colony, Dutch1667–1954Americas: South
Liga Federal Federation1815–1820Americas: South
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay 1828–presentAmericas: South
Flag of Venezuela (1863-1905).svg United States of Venezuela 1864–1953Americas: South
Viceroyalty of New Granada Territory, Spanish1717–1819Americas: South, Central
Flag of the Abdali Afghan Tribes.pngFlag of Afghanistan (1880-1901).svg Emirate of Afghanistan Emirate1823–1926; 1929Asia: Central
Flag of the Durrani Empire.svg Durrani Empire Empire1747–1826Asia: Central
Kazakh Khanate Khanate1456–1847Asia: Central
Khanate of Kokand Khanate1709–1876Asia: Central
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg Emirate of Bukhara Emirate1747–1826Asia: Central
Bandera de Khiva abans 1917.svg Khanate of Khiva Khanate1511–1920Asia: Central
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1862-1889).svgFlag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg Great Qing Peking Monarchy1644–1912Asia: East, China
Republic of Formosa Republic1895Asia: East, China
Republic of Ezo Republic1869Asia: East, Japan
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Empire of Japan Empire1868–1947Asia: East, Japan
Flag of Ryukyu.svg Ryukyu Kingdom Kingdom1429–1879Asia: East, Japan
Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg Tokugawa shogunate Shogunate1600–1868Asia: East, Japan
Flag of the king of Joseon.svgFlag of Korea (1856).pngFlag of Korea (1882-1910).svgFlag of Korea (1888, Denny Taegukgi).svg Joseon Hanseong Kingdom1392–1897Asia: East, Korea
Flag of Korea (1888, Denny Taegukgi).svg Korean Empire Hanseong Empire1897–1910Asia: East, Korea
Drapeau AliRajpur.png Alirajpur State Princely state (subsidiary alliance)1437–1948Asia: South
Alwar flag.svg Alwar State Princely state (subsidiary alliance)1296–1949Asia: South
Athgarh Princely state (subsidiary alliance)1178–1949Asia: South
Theocratic Bhutan Kingdom1616–1907Asia: South
Bhutan Kingdom1650–1905Asia: South
Kingdom of Cochin VariousKingdom12th century–1947Asia: South
Hyderabad State 1803–1948Asia: South
Jammu-Kashmir-flag.svg Kashmir and Jammu Kingdom1846-1953Asia:South
Ahom insignia plain.svg Ahom kingdom Kingdom1228–1826Asia: South
Drapeau Ajaigarh.png Ajaigarh State 1765–1949Asia: South
Alipura State 1757–1950Asia: South
Garhwal Kingdom VariousKingdom888–1949Asia: South
British India Colony, British1858–1947Asia: South
Company rule in India Company rule1757–1858Asia: South
Jaisalmer State JaisalmerPrincipality1156–1947Asia: South
Mughal Empire Empire1526–1540; 1555–1857Asia: South
Sirmoor State SirmürPrincipality1095–1948Asia: South
Kharan Princely state (subsidiary alliance)1697–1948Asia: South
Las Bela Princely state (subsidiary alliance)1742–1948Asia: South
Makran Princely state (subsidiary alliance)18th century–1948Asia: South
Huraa dynasty Monarchy1757–1952; 1954–1968Asia: South
Flag of the Maldives until 1903.png Sultanate of the Maldives Sultanate1117–1952; 1954–1968Asia: South
Flag placeholder.svg Manipur Princely state (subsidiary alliance)1110–1949Asia: South
Maratha Empire Empire1674–1820Asia: South
Kingdom of Mysore Mysore, SrirangapatnaKingdom1399–1947Asia: South
Flag of Nepal (19th century-1962).svg Kingdom of Nepal Kingdom1768–2008Asia: South
Sikh Empire Flag.png Sikh Empire Empire1799–1849Asia: South
Flag of Sikkim (1967-1975).svg Kingdom of Sikkim Kingdom1642–1975Asia: South
British Ceylon Colony, British1815–1948Asia: South
Travancore 1729–1949Asia: South
Old Flag of Brunei.svg Bruneian Empire VariousEmpire7th century–1888Asia: Southeast
Middle Period Cambodia Kingdomearly 15th century–1863Asia: Southeast
Dutch East Indies Colony, Dutch1800–1942; 1945–1949Asia: Southeast
Lanfang Republic Republic1777–1884Asia: Southeast
Flag of the Aceh Sultanate.png Aceh Sultanate Sultanate1496–1903Asia: Southeast
Sultanate of Banten Sultanate1527–1813Asia: Southeast
Kingdom of Champasak Kingdom1713–1946Asia: Southeast
Federated Malay States 1895–1942; 1945–1946Asia: Southeast
Flag of Pahang.svg Sultanate of Pahang Sultanate1470–1896Asia: Southeast
Flag of Perak.svg Sultanate of Perak Sultanate1528–1896Asia: Southeast
Flag of Selangor.svg Sultanate of Selangor Sultanate1745–1896Asia: Southeast
British rule in Burma Colony, British1824–1942; 1945–1948Asia: Southeast
Flag of the Alaungpaya Dynasty of Myanmar.svg Konbaung Dynasty Monarchy1752–1885Asia: Southeast
Flag of Maguindanao.svg Sultanate of Maguindanao Sultanate1500–1888Asia: Southeast
Spanish East Indies Colony, Spanish1565–1898Asia: Southeast
Flag of Thailand 1855.svg Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam Kingdom1782–1932Asia: Southeast
Annam (French protectorate) Protectorate, French1884–1945; 1945–1949Asia: Southeast
Champa Indrapura, Vijaya, PandurangaKingdom192–1832Asia: Southeast
Cochinchina Colony, French1862–1945; 1945–1949Asia: Southeast
Nguyen dynasty Monarchy1802–1945Asia: Southeast
Kingdom of Sedang Kingdom1888–c.1890Asia: Southeast
Tây Sơn dynasty Monarchy1778–1802Asia: Southeast
Tonkin 1884–1945; 1945–1949Asia: Southeast
North Borneo 1882–1941Asia: Southeast
Kingdom of Sarawak Kingdom1841–1941; 1945–1946Asia: Southeast
18th Century Flag of Sulu.svg Sultanate of Sulu VariousSultanate/client1405–1915Asia: Southeast
Johor Sultanate Sultanate1528–c.1949Asia: Southeast
Pattani kingdom Kingdom1516–1902Asia: Southeast
Straits Settlements Territory, British1826–1942; 1945–1946Asia: Southeast
Amir Kabir Flag.svgEarly 20th Century Qajar Flag.svg Qajar dynasty of the Persia Monarchy1789–1925Asia: West
Flag of the Emirate of Soran.svg Soran Emirate Emirate1530s–1835Asia: West
Sheikhdom of Kuwait Sheikhdom1752–1961Asia: West
Muscat and Oman 1820–1970Asia: West
Emirate of Nejd Emirate1812–1891Asia: West
Oman proper Imamate751–1970Asia: West
Emirate of Diriyah Emirate1744–1818Asia: West
Flag of the Emirate of Ha'il.svg Emirate of Jabal Shammar (Arabia) Emirate1836–1921Asia: West
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ottoman Empire Empire1299–1923Asia: West
Trucial States 1820–1971Asia: West
Flag of Beihan.svg Emirate of Beihan Emirate17th century–1967Asia: West
Flag of Dhala.svg Emirate of Dhala Emirate15th century–1967Asia: West
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom Sheikhdom18th century–1967Asia: West
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Sultanate18th century–1967Asia: West
Flag of the State of Upper Yafa.svg Upper Yafa Sultanatec.1800–1967Asia: West
Flag of Wahidi Balhaf.svg Wahidi Balhaf c.1640–1967Asia: West
Flag of Wahidi Haban.svg Wahidi Haban c.1640–1967Asia: West
Kingdom of Imereti Kingdom1260–1810Eurasia: Caucasus
Principality of Bulgaria Principality1878–1908Europe: Balkans
Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Kingdom of Greece Kingdom1832–1924; 1935–1941; 1944–1974Europe: Balkans
Flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands.svg United States of the Ionian Islands 1815–1864Europe: Balkans
Flag of the Septinsular Republic.svg Septinsular Republic Republic1800–1815Europe: Balkans
First Hellenic Republic Republic1828–1832Europe: Balkans
Flag of Croatia Landesfarben.gif Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) Kingdom1527–1868Europe: Balkans
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Kingdom1868–1918Europe: Balkans
Illyrian Provinces Protectorate, French1809–1816Europe: Balkans
Republic of Ragusa RagusaRepublic1358–1807Europe: Balkans
Kosovo Vilayet 1877–1913Europe: Balkans
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro2.svg Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro Prince-Bishopric1696–1852Europe: Balkans
Flag of the Principality of Montenegro.svg Principality of Montenegro Principality1852–1910Europe: Balkans
Serbian flag 1807.svgState Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom1882–1918Europe: Balkans
Principality of Serbia Principality1815–1882Europe: Balkans
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland London Kingdom1801–1922Europe: British Isles, UK
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary Monarchy1867–1918Europe: Central
Flag of Austria.svg Archduchy of Austria Archduchy1453–1806/1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Austrian Empire Empire1804–1867Europe: Central
Habsburg Monarchy Composite monarchy1526–1804Europe: Central
Kingdom of Hungary VariousKingdom1000–1918Europe: Central
Flag of Bohemia.svg Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom1198–1918Europe: Central
Duchy of Anhalt Duchy1806–1918Europe: Central
Flag of Anhalt Duchies.png Anhalt-Bernburg Monarchy1252–1468; 1603–1863Europe: Central
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg Anhalt-Dessau Monarchy1396–1561; 1603–1863Europe: Central
Flag of Anhalt Duchies.png Anhalt-Köthen Monarchy1396–1561; 1603–1853Europe: Central
Banner of the Electorate of Mainz.svg Principality of Aschaffenburg Principality1803–1810Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Baden Grand Duchy1806–1918Europe: Central
Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom1805–1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Berg (1806-1808).svg Grand Duchy of Berg Grand Duchy1806–1813Europe: Central
Bremen City-state republic1806–1867Europe: Central
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg Duchy of Brunswick BraunschweigDuchy1815–1918Europe: Central
Free City of Frankfurt City-state republic1372–1806; 1816–1866Europe: Central
Grand Duchy of Frankfurt Client Grand Duchy1810–1813Europe: Central
German Confederation Confederation1815–1866Europe: Central
Flag of the German Empire.svg German Empire Empire1871–1918Europe: Central
Flag of Hamburg.svg Free Imperial City of Hamburg City-state1806–1867Europe: Central
Flag of Hanover (1692).svg Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg Electorate1692–1807Europe: Central
Flag of Hanover (1692).svg Kingdom of Hanover Kingdom1814–1866Europe: Central
Flag of Hesse.svg Electorate of Hesse Monarchy1803–1807; 1813–1866Europe: Central
Flagge Grossherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg Grand Duchy of Hesse Grand Duchy1806–1918Europe: Central
Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate1567–1806Europe: Central
Hessen HG flag.svg Hesse-Homburg Landgraviate1622–1866Europe: Central
Flag of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Sigmaringen.png Hohenzollern-Hechingen Monarchy1576–1850Europe: Central
Flag of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Sigmaringen.png Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Monarchy1576–1850Europe: Central
Holstein Arms.svg Duchy of Holstein Duchy1474–1864Europe: Central
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Holy Roman Empire No officialEmpire962–1806Europe: Central
Flag of the Principality of Leyen (1806-1813).svg Principality of Leyen Client Principality1806–1814Europe: Central
Flagge Furstentum Lippe.svg Principality of Lippe Principality1123–1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Free City of Lubeck.svg Free City of Lübeck City-state1226–1811; 1815–1937Europe: Central
Banner of the Electorate of Mainz.svg Electorate of Mainz Monarchy780–1803Europe: Central
Flagge Grossherzogtumer Mecklenburg.svg Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Duchy1379–1815Europe: Central
Flagge Grossherzogtumer Mecklenburg.svg Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Grand Duchy1815–1918Europe: Central
Flagge Grossherzogtumer Mecklenburg.svg Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Duchy1701–1815Europe: Central
Flagge Grossherzogtumer Mecklenburg.svg Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Grand Duchy1815–1918Europe: Central
Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg Duchy of Nassau Duchy1806–1866Europe: Central
North German Confederation Confederation1867–1871Europe: Central
Oldenburg Flagge.jpg Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Grand Duchy1814–1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1750-1801).svg Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom1701–1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg Prussia Kingdom1525–1947Europe: Central
Flag of the Principality of Regensburg.svg Principality of Regensburg Principality1803–1810Europe: Central
Reuss c.1010–1778/1806Europe: Central
Flagge Furstentum Reuss jungere Linie.svg Reuss-Ebersdorf Monarchy1678–1824Europe: Central
Flagge Furstentum Reuss jungere Linie.svg Principality of Reuss-Gera Principality1806–1918Europe: Central
Flagge Furstentum Reuss altere Linie.svg Principality of Reuss-Greiz Principality1778–1918Europe: Central
Flag of Reuss-Lobenstein.svg Reuss-Lobenstein Monarchy1425–1547; 1647–1824Europe: Central
Confederation of the Rhine Confederation1806–1813Europe: Central
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg Duchy1602–1672; 1826–1920Europe: Central
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Duchy1826–1918Europe: Central
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Duchy1699–1825Europe: Central
VlagSGA.png Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Duchy1680–1826Europe: Central
Saxe-Hildburghausen Duchy1680–1826Europe: Central
Saxe-Lauenburg Duchy1296–1803; 1814–1876Europe: Central
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen.svg Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen Duchy1680–1918Europe: Central
Flagge Grossherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1813-1897).svg Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Grand Duchy1809–1918Europe: Central
Flagge Konigreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg  Saxony Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom1806–1918Europe: Central
Flagge Furstentum Lippe.svg Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe Principality1643–1918Europe: Central
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Flag 1815.png Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Principality1599–1919Europe: Central
Flagge Furstentumer Schwarzburg.svg Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Principality1599–1920Europe: Central
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Waldeck Principality1180–1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Kingdom of Westphalia.svg Kingdom of Westphalia Kingdom1807–1813Europe: Central
Flagge Konigreich Wurttemberg.svg Württemberg Monarchy11th century–1918Europe: Central
Flag of the Grandduchy of Wurzburg.svg Grand Duchy of Würzburg Grand Duchy1805–1814Europe: Central
Flag of Liechtenstein (1852-1921).svg  Liechtenstein Principality1806–presentEurope: Central
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom1772–1918Europe: Central
Free City of Kraków City-state republic1815–1846Europe: Central
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Duchy of Warsaw Occupation1807–1815Europe: Central
Republiquehelv.svg  Helvetic Republic Republic1798–1803Europe: Central
XIX Cantone coa.svg Swiss Confederation (Napoleonic) Confederation1803–1815Europe: Central
Swiss flag Bachmann 1815.png Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland 1815–1848Europe: Central
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1848–presentEurope: Central
Eestimaa varvid.svg Governorate of Estonia Province (Russia)1721–1917Europe: East, Baltic
Flag of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Principality1346–1859Europe: East, Romania
Flag of the United Principalities of Romania (1862 - 1866).svg United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia Principalities1859–1881Europe: East, Romania
Flag of Romania.svg  Kingdom of Romania Kingdom1881–1947Europe: East, Romania
Flag of Wallachia.svg Principality of Wallachia Principality1330–1859Europe: East, Romania
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire Empire1721–1917Europe: East; Asia: Central; Americas: North, Russia
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark VariousKingdom1814–presentEurope: Nordic
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark–Norway Kingdom1524–1814Europe: Nordic
Coat of arms of Schleswig.svg Duchy of Schleswig Duchy1058–1866Europe: Nordic
Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg Grand Duchy of Finland Grand Duchy1809–1917Europe: Nordic
Flag of Norway (1814-1821).svg Kingdom of Norway Kingdom1814Europe: Nordic
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1523–1814; 1905–presentEurope: Nordic
Union Jack of Sweden and Norway (1844-1905).svg United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway VariousKingdom1814–1905Europe: Nordic
Flag of the Repubblica Cisalpina.svg Cisalpine Republic Republic1797–1802Europe: South-Central
Flag of Cospaia.svg Republic of Cospaia Republic1440–1826Europe: South-Central
Sovereign Principality of Elba Principality1814–1815Europe: South-Central
Etrurian Kingdom and War Flag with Great Royal Coat of Arms.svg Kingdom of Etruria Kingdom1801–1807Europe: South-Central
Flag of Genoa.svg Republic of Genoa Republic1005–1797; 1814–1815Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Italian Republic (1802).svg Italian Republic (Napoleonic) Republic/client1802–1805Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) Kingdom1805–1814Europe: South-Central
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Kingdom of Italy Kingdom1861–1946Europe: South-Central
Flag of Genoa.svg Ligurian Republic Republic1797–1805Europe: South-Central
Flag of Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.svg Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia Kingdom1815–1866Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Duchy of Lucca.svg  Lucca Duchy1815–1847Europe: South-Central
Flag of Massa and Carrara.png Republic of Lucca LuccaRepublic1160–1805Europe: South-Central
Flag of Massa and Carrara.png Duchy of Massa and Carrara Duchy15th–19th centuryEurope: South-Central
Flag of the Duchy of Modena.svg Duchy of Modena and Reggio Duchy1452–1796; 1814–1859Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1738).svg  Kingdom of Naples Kingdom1285–1816Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1738).svg Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily Kingdom1043–1410; 1442–1500; 1735–1816Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Duchy of Parma.svg  Duchy of Parma Duchy1545–1859Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia.svg  Kingdom of Sardinia Cagliari, TurinKingdom1324–1861Europe: South-Central
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg  Kingdom of Sicily VariousKingdom1130–1816Europe: South-Central
Duchy of Tridentum BeneventoDuchy/Principality574–1802Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.svg Grand Duchy of Tuscany Grand Duchy1569–1801; 1815–1859Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816).svg  Two Sicilies Kingdom1816–1861Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816).svg Gozo 1798–1801Europe: South-Central
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Malta Protectorate Protectorate, British1800–1813Europe: South-Central
Flag of Malta (1875-1898).svg  Malta Crown Colony of Malta Colony, British1813–1964Europe: South-Central
Old Flag of San Marino.svgFlag of San Marino (before 2011).svg  San Marino San MarinoRepublicAD 301–presentEurope: South-Central
Flag of the Papal States (1825-1870).svg  Papal States RomePontificate754–1870Europe: South-Central
Flag of the Roman Republic (19th century).svg Roman Republic (19th century) Republic1849Europe: South-Central
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra Principality1278–presentEurope: Southwest
Flag Portugal (1830).svg  Portugal VariousKingdom1139–1910Europe: Southwest
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Bourbon Spain Kingdom1700–1812Europe: Southwest
Flag of the First Spanish Republic.svg First Spanish Republic Republic1873–1874Europe: Southwest
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Kingdom of Spain Kingdom1813–1873Europe: Southwest
Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg Bourbon Restoration (Spain) Toledo, MadridKingdom1874–1931Europe: Southwest
Bandeirareinogaliza.svg  Kingdom of Galicia Santiago de CompostelaKingdom409–1833Europe: Southwest,
Dienstflagge Elsass-Lothringen Kaiserreich.svg Alsace-Lorraine German Colony1871–1918Europe: West, France
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Bourbon Restoration 1814–1815; 1815–1830Europe: West, France
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  First French Empire Empire1804–1814; 1815Europe: West, France
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  French First Republic Republic1792–1804Europe: West, France
Flag of France (1794-1958).svg  French Second Republic Republic1848–1852Europe: West, France
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg July Monarchy Monarchy1830–1848Europe: West,
Flag of France (1794-1958).svg  French Third Republic Republic1870–1940Europe: West, France
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  Second French Empire Empire1852–1870Europe: West, France
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin 1848–1860Europe: West, France
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1830–presentEurope: West, Low Countries
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 1815–presentEurope: West, Low Countries
Flag of the navy of the Batavian Republic.svg  Batavian Republic Republic1795–1806Europe: West, Low Countries
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of Holland Kingdom1806–1810Europe: West, Low Countries
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands Principality1813–1815Europe: West, Low Countries
Flag of the Netherlands.svg United Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom1815–1839Europe: West, Low Countries
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom1839–presentEurope: West, Low Countries
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco 1419–1793; 1814–presentEurope: West, Monaco
Australian Colonial Flag.svg  Australia Colony, British1788–1901Oceania
Easter Island flag 1876 to 1888.png Kings of Easter Island Kingdom900–1878Oceania
Flag of the Cook Islands Federation.svg Cook Islands Federation Federation1893–1901Oceania
Flag of Rarotonga 1888-1893.svg Kingdom of Rarotonga Kingdom1858–1893Oceania
Flag of Fiji (1924-1970).svg Colony of Fiji Colony, British1874–1970Oceania
Flag of Fiji.svg Kingdom of Fiji Kingdom1871–1874Oceania
Flag of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1937-1976).svg Gilbert and Ellice Islands British Colony1892–1976Oceania
Flag of New Zealand.svg Colony of New Zealand Colony, British1841–1907Oceania
Niuean monarchy Monarchyc. 1700–1900Oceania
British protectorate of Niue Protectorate, British1900–1974Oceania
German new guinea flag.svg  German New Guinea Colony, German1884–1919Oceania
Flag of the Territory of Papua.svg  Territory of Papua Territory, British1883–1949Oceania
Flag of Bora Bora.svg Kingdom of Bora Bora KingdomEarly 19th century–1895*Oceania
Kingdom of Huahine Kingdom1760–1895Oceania
Flag of the Kingdom of Mangareva 1832-1843.svg Kingdom of Mangareva Kingdom18th century–1881Oceania
Raiatea Monarchy18th century–1888Oceania
Flag of Tahiti.svg  Kingdom of Tahiti Kingdom1788–1880Oceania
Flag of Hawaii (1816).svgFlag of Hawaii (1896).svg Kingdom of Hawaii Kingdom1795–1893Oceania
Flag of Hawaii (1896).svg Provisional Government of Hawaii Provisional Government1893–1894Oceania
Flag of Hawaii (1896).svg Republic of Hawaii Republic1894–1898Oceania
Flag of Deutsch-Samoa.svg German Samoa Colony, German1900–1920Oceania
Flag of Samoa (1879).svg Malietoa dynasty (Samoa) Monarchypre-1858–1900Oceania
Tui Manua dynasty (Samoa) Monarchyup to 1900Oceania
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Solomon Islands Colony, British1893–1978Oceania
Flag Portugal sea (1830).svg Portuguese Timor Colony, Portuguese1702–1975Oceania
Flag of Tonga.svg Kingdom of Tonga Protectorate1900–1970Oceania
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga Kingdom1845–1900; 1970–presentOceania
Royal Standard of Tonga.svg Tuʻi Tonga Empire Empire450s–1865Oceania
Flag of Franceville.svg Anglo-French Joint Naval Commission Colony, British/French1887–1906Oceania
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Oppositional state1851–1864Asia, China
Flag of Arkansas.svg  ArkansasRepublic of Arkansas Unitary state1861North America
Flag of Florida (1861).svg Republic of Florida Unitary state1861North America
Flag of Louisiana.svg Republic of Louisiana Unitary state1861North America
Flag of Mississippi (1861-1865).gif  MississippiRepublic of Mississippi Unitary state1861North America
Flag of North Carolina (1861-1865).svg North Carolina Unitary state1861North America
Flag of South Carolina (January 1861).svg Republic of South Carolina Unitary state1861North America
Flag of Argentina.svg Buenos Aires 1852–1861South America
Tennessee 1861 proposed.svg Republic of Tennessee Unitary state1861North America
Flag of Texas.svg Republic of Texas Unitary state1861North America
Flag of Virginia (1861).svg Republic of Virginia Unitary state1861North America

See also

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    List of political entities in the 19th century
    Preceded by
    18th century
    Political entities
    of the 19th century
    Succeeded by
    20th century