List of retired Pacific typhoon names

Last updated
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity Haiyan Nov 7 2013 1345Z.png
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 43  typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $108 billion in damage (2019  USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

Japan Meteorological Agency meteorological service of Japan

The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Pacific Ocean Ocean between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east and Antarctica or the Southern Ocean in the south.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

Contents

Background

Tacloban devastated by Typhoon Haiyan Aerial view of Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan.jpg
Tacloban devastated by Typhoon Haiyan

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with systems named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in the Western Pacific. [1] These included the Kamikaze, 1906 Hong Kong typhoon, 1922 Swatow typhoon and the 1934 Muroto typhoon. [2]

The kamikaze literally "divine wind" were two winds or storms that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281.. Due to the growth of Zen Buddhism among Samurai at the time, these were the first events where the typhoons were described as "divine wind" as much by their timing as by their force. Since Man'yōshū, the word kamikaze has been used as a Makurakotoba of waka introducing Ise Grand Shrine.

1906 Hong Kong typhoon

The 1906 Hong Kong typhoon was a tropical cyclone that hit Hong Kong on 18 September 1906. The natural disaster caused property damage exceeding a million pounds sterling, affected international trade, and took the lives of around 5% of the contemporary Hong Kong population.

The 1922 Swatow Typhoon was a devastating tropical cyclone that caused thousands of deaths in the Chinese city of Swatow in August 1922. These totals make it one of the deadliest known typhoons in history.

The practice of retiring significant names was started during 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau in the Northern Atlantic basin, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the East Coast of the United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year. [3] Initially the names were only designed to be retired for ten years after which they might be reintroduced; however, it was decided at the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference, that any significant hurricane in the future would have its name permanently retired. [3] [4] The first tropical cyclone name to be removed in the South Pacific was Rosie after it had impacted Vanuatu and New Caledonia during 1971. Several names have been removed from the Pacific naming lists for various other reasons than causing a significant amount of death/destruction, which include being pronounced in a very similar way to other names and political reasons. [5] [6]

Hurricane Carol Category 3 North Atlantic Ocean hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island in the United States. It developed from a tropical wave near the Bahamas on August 25, 1954, and slowly strengthened as it moved northwestward. On August 27, Carol intensified to reach winds of 105 mph (165 km/h), but weakened as its motion turned to a northwest drift. A strong trough of low pressure turned the hurricane northeastward, and Carol later intensified into a major hurricane. While paralleling the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, the storm produced strong winds and rough seas that caused minor coastal flooding and slight damage to houses in North Carolina, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Delaware, and New Jersey. The well-organized hurricane accelerated north-northeastward and made landfall on eastern Long Island, New York, and then over eastern Connecticut on August 31 with sustained winds estimated at 110-mph and a barometric pressure near 956 mb. Carol later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over New Hampshire, on August 31, 1954.

Hurricane Edna Category 3 Atlantic hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Edna was a deadly and destructive major hurricane that impacted the United States East Coast in September of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. It was one of two hurricanes to strike Massachusetts in that year, the other being Hurricane Carol. The fifth tropical cyclone and storm of the season, as well as the fourth hurricane and second major hurricane, Edna developed from a tropical wave on September 2. Moving towards the north-northwest, Edna skirted the northern Leeward Islands as a tropical depression before turning more towards the west. The depression attained tropical storm status to the east of Puerto Rico and strengthened further to reach hurricane status by September 7. The storm rapidly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 125 mph (205 km/h) north of the Bahamas before weakening to Category 2 status near landfall in Massachusetts on September 11. Edna transitioned into an extratropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada before its remnants dissipated in the northern Atlantic.

Hurricane Hazel Category 4 Atlantic hurricane in 1954

Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed at least 469 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina as a Category 4 hurricane. After causing 95 fatalities in the US, Hazel struck Canada as an extratropical storm, raising the death toll by 81 people, mostly in Toronto. As a result of the high death toll and the damage caused by Hazel, its name was retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes.

In 2000, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) began naming tropical cyclones from a list of 140 names, submitted by 14 countries. Previously, the JMA labeled storms with numbers, but not names. The JMA has been the official warning agency of the western Pacific Ocean since 1981, though other organizations have also tracked typhoons. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) unofficially named tropical cyclones from 1947 to 1999. [7] During this time period, there were several pre-determined tropical cyclone lists, in which many names were removed and replaced with others. [8] The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) names tropical cyclones using a separate list, which is adjusted periodically. [9]

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

1999 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Several names were removed from the list. In 2002, the name Hanuman was replaced prior to being used, due to objection by the India Meteorological Department for reason of religion. [10] Additionally, the name Kodo was replaced in 2002 without being used. [11] The following year, Koni was replaced by Goni, after an apparent misspelling was made. In 2004, the names Yanyan and Tingting were removed at the request of the Hong Kong Observatory. [11] [12] A total of nine names on the list had their spellings changed. [11] In February 2014, the name Sonamu was removed at the request from Malaysia due to causing unprecedented panic by the similar pronunciation to tsunami. [13] In February 2015 the name Jongdari was chosen as replacement for Sonamu. In the 46th session of the Typhoon Committee, it was noted the name Vicente appears on both the tropical cyclone name lists for the Western North Pacific and Eastern North Pacific. In response to this duplication the name Lan was chosen as replacement for Vicente on the Western North Pacific name list to avoid potential confusion.

The India Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica.Regional offices are at Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur and Pune.

Typhoon Tingting Pacific typhoon in 2004

Typhoon Tingting was a destructive tropical cyclone that produced record-breaking rains in Guam. The eighth named storm of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season, Tingting originated from a tropical depression over the open waters of the western Pacific Ocean. The storm gradually intensified as it traveled northwest, becoming a typhoon on June 28 and reaching its peak the following day while passing through the Mariana Islands. After maintaining typhoon intensity for three days, a combination of dry air and cooler sea surface temperatures caused the storm to weaken as it traveled northward. On July 1, the storm passed by the Bonin Islands, off the coast of Japan, before moving out to sea. By July 4, Tinting had transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants were last reported by the Japan Meteorological Agency, the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific basin, near the international date line on July 13.

Hong Kong Observatory meteorological department of the Hong Kong Government

The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong. The Observatory forecasts the weather and issues warnings on weather-related hazards. It also monitors and makes assessments on radiation levels in Hong Kong and provides other meteorological and geophysical services to meet the needs of the public and the shipping, aviation, industrial and engineering sectors.

20th century

Typhoon Mireille near peak intensity on September 22, 1991 Typhoon Mireille 22 sept 1991 2236Z.jpg
Typhoon Mireille near peak intensity on September 22, 1991

Between 1947 and 2000, eleven names of significant tropical cyclones were retired from the list of names used by the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [14] During this time other names were removed from the naming lists, including in 1979 when the lists of names used were revised to include both male and female names. [14] [15] Tropical Storm Lucille was the first name to be retired for its impacts, while Ophelia was retired because of its long 8,045 km (5,000 mi) track. [14]

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Lucille May 25 – June 4, 1960Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Philippines$2 million300–500 [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
Ophelia November 21 
December 6, 1960
Category 4 super typhoon250 km/h (155 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Caroline IslandsUnknown2 [14] [21]
Karen November 7 – 17, 1962Category 5 super typhoon295 km/h (185 mph)894 hPa (26.40 inHg)Guam$250 million11 [22]
Bess October 8 – 14, 1974Category 1 typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)977 hPa (28.85 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam$9.2 million32 [14] [23] [24]
Bess July 21 – August 3, 1982Category 5 super typhoon260 km/h (160 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Japan$2.32 billion95 [25]
Ike August 26 
September 6, 1984
Category 4 typhoon230 km/h (145 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Guam, Philippines, China$1 billion1,142
Roy January 7 – 19, 1988Category 4 typhoon215 km/h (135 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Micronesia, Philippines$28.5 million2
Mike November 5 – 18, 1990Category 5 super typhoon280 km/h (175 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Micronesia, Philippines, China$389 million748
Mireille September 13 – 27, 1991Category 4 super typhoon240 km/h (150 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea$10 billion66
Thelma November 1 – 8, 1991Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam$27.7 million5,081–8,145 [26] [27] [28] [29]
Omar August 20 
September 6, 1992
Category 4 super typhoon240 km/h (150 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Mariana Islands, Guam, Taiwan, China$561 million15
11 NamesReference for retired names. [nb 1] $14.6 billion7494

2000s

Typhoon Morakot approaching Taiwan on August 7, 2009 Typhoon Morakot Aug 7 2009.jpg
Typhoon Morakot approaching Taiwan on August 7, 2009
NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Vamei PeipahDecember 26, 2001 
January 1, 2002
Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia$3.6 million5 [nb 2] [30]
Chataan MatmoJune 27 – July 13, 2002Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Chuuk, Guam, Japan$660 million54 [31] [32] [33]
Rusa NuriAugust 22 – September 4, 2002Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Japan, Korean Peninsula$4.2 billion238 [34]
Pongsona NoulDecember 2 – 12, 2002Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Mariana Islands$730 million1 [35] [36]
Yanyan DolphinJanuary 11 – 21, 2003Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Mariana IslandsNoneNone
Imbudo MolaveJuly 15 – 25, 2003Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, China$340 million64 [37] [38] [39]
Maemi MujigaeSeptember 4 – 16, 2003Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)Korean Peninsula$4.8 billion117 [34]
Sudal MirinaeApril 2 – 18, 2004Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Yap, Guam$14 millionNone [40]
Tingting LionrockJune 24 – July 4, 2004Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan$23.7 million12
Rananim FanapiAugust 6 – 15, 2004Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)China, Japan$2.44 billion169 [41] [42]
Matsa PakharJuly 30 – August 9, 2005Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)China, Taiwan$2.23 billion29 [43] [44]
Nabi DoksuriAugust 29 – September 9, 2005Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea$535 million32
Longwang HaikuiSeptember 25 – October 3, 2005Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Taiwan, China$971 million149 [45] [46] [47]
[48] [49] [50]
Chanchu SanbaMay 8 – 19, 2006Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam$478 million268 [51] [52]
Bilis MaliksiJuly 8 – 16, 2006Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China$4.4 billion859 [53] [54] [55]
Saomai Son-TinhAugust 4 – 11, 2006Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Mariana Islands, Taiwan, China$2.5 billion458 [55] [56]
Xangsane LeepiSeptember 25 – October 2, 2006Typhoon155 km/h (100 mph)925 hPa (27.76 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand$750 million312 [57] [58] [59] [60]
Durian MangkhutNovember 25 – December 7, 2006Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand>$400 million>1,500 [61] [62] [63] [64]
Morakot AtsaniAugust 2 – 12, 2009Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)945 hPa (27.90 inHg)Taiwan, China, Korean Peninsula$6.2 billion789
Ketsana ChampiSeptember 23 – 30, 2009Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Laos
Cambodia, Thailand
$1.09 billion710 [65]
Parma In-faSeptember 27 – October 14, 2009Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam$617 million500
21 NamesReferences: [nb 1] [nb 3] [nb 4] [nb 5] [nb 6] >$33.5 billion>6,266

2010s

Typhoon Fitow at peak intensity on October 5, 2013 Fitow Oct 5 2013 0210Z.jpg
Typhoon Fitow at peak intensity on October 5, 2013

So far during the current decade, 22 names have had their names retired by the Typhoon Committee. Collectively, these systems killed at least 13827 people and caused at least

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Fanapi September 14 – 21, 2010Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Taiwan, China$1 billion105 [69]
Washi December 13 – 19, 2011Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Micronesia, Palau, Philippines$97.8 million2,546 [70] [71]
Vicente July 18 – 25, 2012Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, China
Vietnam, Laos, Burma
$324 million13
Bopha November 25 – December 9, 2012Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Micronesia, Philippines$1.04 billion1,901
Sonamu January 1 – 10, 2013Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia Minimal2 [72] [73]
Utor August 8 – 18, 2013Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Philippines, China$3.56 billion97 [74] [75] [76]
Fitow September 29 – October 7, 2013Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)China, Taiwan, Japan$10.4 billion12 [74]
Haiyan November 3 – 11, 2013Typhoon230 km/h (145 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, China$4.55 billion8,052 [74] [77]
Rammasun July 9 – 20, 2014Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam$8.08 billion222 [78] [79] [80]
Soudelor July 29 – August 11, 2015Typhoon215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan, Taiwan, China$3.84 billion40 [81]
Mujigae September 30 – October 5, 2015Typhoon155 km/h (100 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, China$4.25 billion29 [81]
Koppu October 12 – 21, 2015Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Philippines$309 million62 [81]
Melor December 9 – 17, 2015Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines$149 million51 [81]
Meranti September 9 – 16, 2016Typhoon220 km/h (140 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China$4.8 billion47
Sarika October 13 – 19, 2016Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam$876 million37
Haima October 14 – 22, 2016Typhoon215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China$976 million19
Nock-ten December 20 – 28, 2016Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Philippines$128 million13
Hato August 19 – 24, 2017Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam$6.82 billion24
Kai-tak December 13 – 23, 2017Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)994 hPa (29.35 inHg)Philippines, Malaysia$75 million83
Tembin December 20 – 26, 2017Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam$42.4 million266
Rumbia August 15 – 18, 2018Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Japan, China$5.36 billion53
Mangkhut September 7 – 17, 2018Typhoon205 km/h (125 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)Guam, Philippines, Taiwan, China$3.74 billion134
20 NamesReferences: [nb 3] [nb 4] [nb 5] [nb 6] $60.4 billion13,827

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 1947 and 2010. [14]
  2. The name Vamei was retired because it was the first tropical cyclone recorded near the equator. [14]
  3. 1 2 Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure between 2000 and 2018 [66]
  4. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 2000 and 2016. [67]
  5. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 2000 and 2018. [68]
  6. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 1947 and 2013. [6]

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Typhoons in the Philippines

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2011 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

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The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

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Timeline of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all of the events of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. Most of the tropical cyclones formed between May and November. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator between 100°E and the International Date Line. Tropical storms that form in the entire Western Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that form in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.

References

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