List of retired Pacific typhoon names

Last updated
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity Haiyan Nov 7 2013 1345Z.png
Typhoon Haiyan at peak intensity

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 48  typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $108 billion in damage (2020  USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

Contents

Background

Tacloban devastated by Typhoon Haiyan Aerial view of Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan.jpg
Tacloban devastated by Typhoon Haiyan

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with systems named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in the Western Pacific. [1] These included the Kamikaze, 1906 Hong Kong typhoon, 1922 Swatow typhoon and the 1934 Muroto typhoon. [2]

The practice of retiring significant names was started during 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau in the Northern Atlantic basin, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the East Coast of the United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year. [3] Initially the names were only designed to be retired for ten years after which they might be reintroduced; however, it was decided at the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference, that any significant hurricane in the future would have its name permanently retired. [3] [4] The first tropical cyclone name to be removed in the South Pacific was Rosie after it had impacted Vanuatu and New Caledonia during 1971. Several names have been removed from the Pacific naming lists for various other reasons than causing a significant amount of death/destruction, which include being pronounced in a very similar way to other names and political reasons. [5] [6]

In 2000, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) began naming tropical cyclones from a list of 140 names, submitted by 14 countries. Previously, the JMA labeled storms with numbers, but not names. The JMA has been the official warning agency of the western Pacific Ocean since 1981, though other organizations have also tracked typhoons. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) unofficially named tropical cyclones from 1947 to 1999. [7] During this time period, there were several pre-determined tropical cyclone lists, in which many names were removed and replaced with others. [8] The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) names tropical cyclones using a separate list, which is adjusted periodically. [9]

Several names were removed from the list. In 2002, the name Hanuman was replaced prior to being used, due to objection by the India Meteorological Department for reason of religion. [10] Additionally, the name Kodo was replaced in 2002 without being used. [11] The following year, Koni was replaced by Goni, after an apparent misspelling was made. In 2004, the names Yanyan and Tingting were removed at the request of the Hong Kong Observatory. [11] [12] A total of nine names on the list had their spellings changed. [11] In February 2014, the name Sonamu was removed at the request from Malaysia due to causing unprecedented panic by the similar pronunciation to tsunami. [13] In February 2015 the name Jongdari was chosen as replacement for Sonamu. In the 46th session of the Typhoon Committee, it was noted the name Vicente appears on both the tropical cyclone name lists for the Western North Pacific and Eastern North Pacific. In response to this duplication the name Lan was chosen as replacement for Vicente on the Western North Pacific name list to avoid potential confusion.

Names retired in the 20th century

Typhoon Mireille near peak intensity on September 22, 1991 Typhoon Mireille 22 sept 1991 2236Z.jpg
Typhoon Mireille near peak intensity on September 22, 1991

Between 1947 and 2000, eleven names of significant tropical cyclones were retired from the list of names used by the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [14] During this time other names were removed from the naming lists, including in 1979 when the lists of names used were revised to include both male and female names. [14] [15] Tropical Storm Lucille was the first name to be retired for its impacts, while Ophelia was retired because of its long 8,045 km (5,000 mi) track. [14]

NameDates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
PressureAreas affectedDamage
(USD)
DeathsRefs
Lucille May 25 – June 4, 1960Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Philippines$2 million300–500 [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
Ophelia November 21 
December 6, 1960
Category 4 super typhoon250 km/h (155 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Caroline IslandsUnknown2 [14] [21]
Karen November 7 – 17, 1962Category 5 super typhoon295 km/h (185 mph)894 hPa (26.40 inHg)Guam$250 million11 [22]
Bess October 8 – 14, 1974Category 1 typhoon120 km/h (75 mph)977 hPa (28.85 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam$9.2 million32 [14] [23] [24]
Bess July 21 – August 3, 1982Category 5 super typhoon260 km/h (160 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Japan$2.32 billion95 [25]
Ike August 26 
September 6, 1984
Category 4 typhoon230 km/h (145 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Guam, Philippines, China$1 billion1,142
Roy January 7 – 19, 1988Category 4 typhoon215 km/h (135 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Micronesia, Philippines$28.5 million2
Mike November 5 – 18, 1990Category 5 super typhoon280 km/h (175 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Micronesia, Philippines, China$389 million748
Mireille September 13 – 27, 1991Category 4 super typhoon240 km/h (150 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea$10 billion66
Thelma November 1 – 8, 1991Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam$27.7 million5,081–8,145 [26] [27] [28] [29]
Omar August 20 
September 6, 1992
Category 4 super typhoon240 km/h (150 mph)920 hPa (27.17 inHg)Mariana Islands, Guam, Taiwan, China$561 million15
11 NamesReference for retired names. [nb 1] $14.6 billion7494

Names retired in the 2000s

Typhoon Morakot approaching Taiwan on August 7, 2009 Typhoon Morakot Aug 7 2009.jpg
Typhoon Morakot approaching Taiwan on August 7, 2009
NameReplacement
name
Dates activePeak
classification
Sustained wind
speeds
PressureAreas
affected
Damage (USD)DeathsRefs
Vamei PeipahDecember 26, 2001 
January 1, 2002
Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia5 [nb 2] [30]
Chataan MatmoJune 27 – July 13, 2002Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Chuuk, Guam, Japan54 [31] [32] [33]
Rusa NuriAugust 22 – September 4, 2002Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Japan, Korean Peninsula238 [34]
Pongsona NoulDecember 2 – 12, 2002Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Mariana Islands1 [35] [36]
Yanyan DolphinJanuary 11 – 21, 2003Tropical storm65 km/h (40 mph)1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)Mariana IslandsNoneNone
Imbudo MolaveJuly 15 – 25, 2003Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, China64 [37] [38] [39]
Maemi MujigaeSeptember 4 – 16, 2003Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)910 hPa (26.87 inHg)Korean Peninsula117 [34]
Sudal MirinaeApril 2 – 18, 2004Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)940 hPa (27.76 inHg)Yap, GuamNone [40]
Tingting LionrockJune 24 – July 4, 2004Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)955 hPa (28.20 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan12
Rananim FanapiAugust 6 – 15, 2004Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)China, Japan169 [41] [42]
Matsa PakharJuly 30 – August 9, 2005Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)China, Taiwan29 [43] [44]
Nabi DoksuriAugust 29 – September 9, 2005Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea32
Longwang HaikuiSeptember 25 – October 3, 2005Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Taiwan, China149 [45] [46] [47]
[48] [49] [50]
Chanchu SanbaMay 8 – 19, 2006Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam268 [51] [52]
Bilis MaliksiJuly 8 – 16, 2006Severe tropical storm110 km/h (70 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China859 [53] [54] [55]
Saomai Son-TinhAugust 4 – 11, 2006Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Mariana Islands, Taiwan, China458 [55] [56]
Xangsane LeepiSeptember 25 – October 2, 2006Typhoon155 km/h (100 mph)925 hPa (27.76 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand312 [57] [58] [59] [60]
Durian MangkhutNovember 25 – December 7, 2006Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand>>1,500 [61] [62] [63] [64]
Morakot AtsaniAugust 2 – 12, 2009Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)945 hPa (27.90 inHg)Taiwan, China, Korean Peninsula789
Ketsana ChampiSeptember 23 – 30, 2009Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Laos
Cambodia, Thailand
710 [65]
Parma In-faSeptember 27 – October 14, 2009Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam500
21 NamesReferences: [nb 1] [nb 3] [nb 4] [nb 5] [nb 6] >>6,266

Names retired in the 2010s

Typhoon Hagibis near peak intensity on October 7, 2019 Hagibis 2019-10-07 0701Z.jpg
Typhoon Hagibis near peak intensity on October 7, 2019

During the past decade, 27 names have had their names retired by the Typhoon Committee. Collectively, these systems killed at least 14080 people and caused at least $93 billion worth of damage. Typhoon Haiyan is currently the strongest and deadliest storm of the decade to have its name retired, while Typhoon Hagibis is currently the costliest storm of the decade to have its name retired.

NameReplacement
name
Dates activePeak
classification
Sustained wind
speeds
PressureAreas
affected
Damage (USD)DeathsRefs
Fanapi RaiSeptember 14 – 21, 2010Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Taiwan, China105 [69] [70]
Washi HatoDecember 13 – 19, 2011Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)992 hPa (29.29 inHg)Micronesia, Palau, Philippines2,546 [71] [72]
Vicente LanJuly 18 – 25, 2012Typhoon150 km/h (90 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, China
Vietnam, Laos, Burma
13 [73]
Bopha AmpilNovember 25 – December 9, 2012Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)930 hPa (27.46 inHg)Micronesia, Philippines1,901 [74]
Sonamu JongdariJanuary 1 – 10, 2013Severe tropical storm95 km/h (60 mph)990 hPa (29.23 inHg)Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia2 [75] [76]
Utor BarijatAugust 8 – 18, 2013Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Philippines, China97 [77] [78] [79]
Fitow MunSeptember 29 – October 7, 2013Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)960 hPa (28.35 inHg)China, Taiwan, Japan12 [77]
Haiyan BailuNovember 3 – 11, 2013Typhoon230 km/h (145 mph)895 hPa (26.43 inHg)Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, China8,052 [77] [80]
Rammasun BualoiJuly 9 – 20, 2014Typhoon165 km/h (105 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam222 [81] [82] [83]
Soudelor SaudelJuly 29 – August 11, 2015Typhoon215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Mariana Islands, Japan, Taiwan, China40 [84]
Mujigae SurigaeSeptember 30 – October 5, 2015Typhoon155 km/h (100 mph)950 hPa (28.05 inHg)Philippines, China29 [84]
Koppu KogumaOctober 12 – 21, 2015Typhoon185 km/h (115 mph)925 hPa (27.32 inHg)Philippines62 [84]
Melor CempakaDecember 9 – 17, 2015Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines51 [84]
Meranti NyatohSeptember 9 – 16, 2016Typhoon220 km/h (140 mph)890 hPa (26.28 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China47
Sarika TrasesOctober 13 – 19, 2016Typhoon175 km/h (110 mph)935 hPa (27.61 inHg)Philippines, China, Vietnam37
Haima MulanOctober 14 – 22, 2016Typhoon215 km/h (130 mph)900 hPa (26.58 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China19
Nock-ten HinnamnorDecember 20 – 28, 2016Typhoon195 km/h (120 mph)915 hPa (27.02 inHg)Philippines13
Hato YamanekoAugust 19 – 24, 2017Typhoon140 km/h (85 mph)965 hPa (28.50 inHg)Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam24 [85]
Kai-tak Yun-yeungDecember 13 – 23, 2017Tropical storm75 km/h (45 mph)994 hPa (29.35 inHg)Philippines, Malaysia83 [86]
Tembin KoinuDecember 20 – 26, 2017Typhoon130 km/h (80 mph)970 hPa (28.64 inHg)Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam266 [87]
Rumbia TBAAugust 15 – 18, 2018Tropical storm85 km/h (50 mph)985 hPa (29.09 inHg)Japan, China53 [88]
Mangkhut TBASeptember 7 – 17, 2018Typhoon205 km/h (125 mph)905 hPa (26.72 inHg)Guam, Philippines, Taiwan, China134 [89]
27 NamesReferences: [nb 3] [nb 4] [nb 5] [nb 6] 14,080

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 1947 and 2010. [14]
  2. The name Vamei was retired because it was the first tropical cyclone recorded near the equator. [14]
  3. 1 2 Reference for dates, season, wind speeds and pressure between 2000 and 2019 [66]
  4. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 2000 and 2016. [67]
  5. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 2000 and 2018. [68]
  6. 1 2 Reference for the retired names between 1947 and 2013. [6]

Related Research Articles

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

Typhoon tropical cyclone that forms in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year.

Typhoons in the Philippines

Approximately twenty tropical cyclones enter the Philippine area of responsibility yearly, an area which incorporates parts of the Pacific Ocean, South China Sea and the Philippine Archipelago. Among these cyclones, ten will be typhoons, with five having the potential to be destructive ones. The Philippines is "the most exposed country in the world to tropical storms" according to a Time Magazine article in 2013. In the Philippine languages, tropical cyclones are generally called bagyo.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

2008 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2008 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 2008, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Typhoon Rammasun (2008) Pacific typhoon in 2008

Typhoon Rammasun, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Butchoy, was recognized as the second typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). Rammasun was also recognised as the third tropical storm, the second typhoon and the first super typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).

2010 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2010 Pacific typhoon season was the least active Pacific typhoon season on record, featuring only 14 named storms; seven of them strengthened into typhoons while one reached super typhoon intensity. The Pacific typhoon season during 2010 was in fact less active than the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season, the only such occurrence other than 2005. In the same year, the Pacific hurricane season broke the same record being the least active season on record. During the season no storms have made landfall in mainland Japan, the only second such occurrence since 1988. Also, all of the 14 named storms developed west of 150°E.

1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season cyclone season in the South Pacific ocean

The 1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the most active and longest South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with 12 tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season officially ran from November 1, 1996 - April 30, 1997, however, the season ended later than normal with three systems monitored after the official end of the season. The strongest tropical cyclone of the season was Cyclone Gavin which had a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg). After the season had ended 4 tropical cyclone names were retired from the naming lists, after the cyclones had caused significant impacts to South Pacific islands.

The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.

Cyclone Martin

Severe Tropical Cyclone Martin was the deadliest tropical cyclone of the 1997–98 South Pacific cyclone season. The system was first noted as a weak tropical disturbance on October 27, to the north of the Northern Cook Islands. Over the next few days atmospheric convection surrounding the system remained disorganized, as it moved towards the southwest and was affected by strong upper-level north-easterly winds and moderate to strong vertical wind shear. The system was subsequently named Martin during October 31, after it had rapidly developed further and shown a marked improvement organization.

Cyclone Prema

Severe Tropical Cyclone Prema was among the worst tropical cyclones to hit Vanuatu since 1987's Cyclone Uma. The twenty-third storm of the season, Prema formed early on 26 March 1993 as a weak tropical depression.

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