This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 43 typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $108 billion in damage (2019 USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.
The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.
The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with systems named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in the Western Pacific.These included the Kamikaze, 1906 Hong Kong typhoon, 1922 Swatow typhoon and the 1934 Muroto typhoon.
The kamikaze literally "divine wind" were two winds or storms that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281.. Due to the growth of Zen Buddhism among Samurai at the time, these were the first events where the typhoons were described as "divine wind" as much by their timing as by their force. Since Man'yōshū, the word kamikaze has been used as a Makurakotoba of waka introducing Ise Grand Shrine.
The 1906 Hong Kong typhoon was a tropical cyclone that hit Hong Kong on 18 September 1906. The natural disaster caused property damage exceeding a million pounds sterling, affected international trade, and took the lives of around 5% of the contemporary Hong Kong population.
The 1922 Swatow Typhoon was a devastating tropical cyclone that caused thousands of deaths in the Chinese city of Swatow in August 1922. These totals make it one of the deadliest known typhoons in history.
The practice of retiring significant names was started during 1955 by the United States Weather Bureau in the Northern Atlantic basin, after hurricanes Carol, Edna, and Hazel struck the East Coast of the United States and caused a significant amount of damage in the previous year.Initially the names were only designed to be retired for ten years after which they might be reintroduced; however, it was decided at the 1969 Interdepartmental hurricane conference, that any significant hurricane in the future would have its name permanently retired. The first tropical cyclone name to be removed in the South Pacific was Rosie after it had impacted Vanuatu and New Caledonia during 1971. Several names have been removed from the Pacific naming lists for various other reasons than causing a significant amount of death/destruction, which include being pronounced in a very similar way to other names and political reasons.
Hurricane Carol was among the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island in the United States. It developed from a tropical wave near the Bahamas on August 25, 1954, and slowly strengthened as it moved northwestward. On August 27, Carol intensified to reach winds of 105 mph (165 km/h), but weakened as its motion turned to a northwest drift. A strong trough of low pressure turned the hurricane northeastward, and Carol later intensified into a major hurricane. While paralleling the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, the storm produced strong winds and rough seas that caused minor coastal flooding and slight damage to houses in North Carolina, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Delaware, and New Jersey. The well-organized hurricane accelerated north-northeastward and made landfall on eastern Long Island, New York, and then over eastern Connecticut on August 31 with sustained winds estimated at 110-mph and a barometric pressure near 956 mb. Carol later transitioned into an extratropical cyclone over New Hampshire, on August 31, 1954.
Hurricane Edna was a deadly and destructive major hurricane that impacted the United States East Coast in September of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. It was one of two hurricanes to strike Massachusetts in that year, the other being Hurricane Carol. The fifth tropical cyclone and storm of the season, as well as the fourth hurricane and second major hurricane, Edna developed from a tropical wave on September 2. Moving towards the north-northwest, Edna skirted the northern Leeward Islands as a tropical depression before turning more towards the west. The depression attained tropical storm status to the east of Puerto Rico and strengthened further to reach hurricane status by September 7. The storm rapidly intensified and reached its peak intensity of 125 mph (205 km/h) north of the Bahamas before weakening to Category 2 status near landfall in Massachusetts on September 11. Edna transitioned into an extratropical cyclone in Atlantic Canada before its remnants dissipated in the northern Atlantic.
Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm killed at least 469 people in Haiti before striking the United States near the border between North and South Carolina as a Category 4 hurricane. After causing 95 fatalities in the US, Hazel struck Canada as an extratropical storm, raising the death toll by 81 people, mostly in Toronto. As a result of the high death toll and the damage caused by Hazel, its name was retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes.
In 2000, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) began naming tropical cyclones from a list of 140 names, submitted by 14 countries. Previously, the JMA labeled storms with numbers, but not names. The JMA has been the official warning agency of the western Pacific Ocean since 1981, though other organizations have also tracked typhoons. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) unofficially named tropical cyclones from 1947 to 1999. During this time period, there were several pre-determined tropical cyclone lists, in which many names were removed and replaced with others. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) names tropical cyclones using a separate list, which is adjusted periodically.
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.
The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Several names were removed from the list. In 2002, the name Hanuman was replaced prior to being used, due to objection by the India Meteorological Department for reason of religion.Additionally, the name Kodo was replaced in 2002 without being used. The following year, Koni was replaced by Goni, after an apparent misspelling was made. In 2004, the names Yanyan and Tingting were removed at the request of the Hong Kong Observatory. A total of nine names on the list had their spellings changed. In February 2014, the name Sonamu was removed at the request from Malaysia due to causing unprecedented panic by the similar pronunciation to tsunami. In February 2015 the name Jongdari was chosen as replacement for Sonamu. In the 46th session of the Typhoon Committee, it was noted the name Vicente appears on both the tropical cyclone name lists for the Western North Pacific and Eastern North Pacific. In response to this duplication the name Lan was chosen as replacement for Vicente on the Western North Pacific name list to avoid potential confusion.
The India Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica.Regional offices are at Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur and Pune.
Typhoon Tingting was a destructive tropical cyclone that produced record-breaking rains in Guam. The eighth named storm of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season, Tingting originated from a tropical depression over the open waters of the western Pacific Ocean. The storm gradually intensified as it traveled northwest, becoming a typhoon on June 28 and reaching its peak the following day while passing through the Mariana Islands. After maintaining typhoon intensity for three days, a combination of dry air and cooler sea surface temperatures caused the storm to weaken as it traveled northward. On July 1, the storm passed by the Bonin Islands, off the coast of Japan, before moving out to sea. By July 4, Tinting had transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants were last reported by the Japan Meteorological Agency, the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific basin, near the international date line on July 13.
The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong. The Observatory forecasts the weather and issues warnings on weather-related hazards. It also monitors and makes assessments on radiation levels in Hong Kong and provides other meteorological and geophysical services to meet the needs of the public and the shipping, aviation, industrial and engineering sectors.
Between 1947 and 2000, eleven names of significant tropical cyclones were retired from the list of names used by the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 8,045 km (5,000 mi) track.During this time other names were removed from the naming lists, including in 1979 when the lists of names used were revised to include both male and female names. Tropical Storm Lucille was the first name to be retired for its impacts, while Ophelia was retired because of its long
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Lucille||May 25 – June 4, 1960||Tropical storm||85 km/h (50 mph)||985 hPa (29.09 inHg)||Philippines||$2 million||300–500|
|Ophelia||November 21 – |
December 6, 1960
|Category 4 super typhoon||250 km/h (155 mph)||925 hPa (27.32 inHg)||Caroline Islands||Unknown||2|
|Karen||November 7 – 17, 1962||Category 5 super typhoon||295 km/h (185 mph)||894 hPa (26.40 inHg)||Guam||$250 million||11|
|Bess||October 8 – 14, 1974||Category 1 typhoon||120 km/h (75 mph)||977 hPa (28.85 inHg)||Philippines, China, Vietnam||$9.2 million||32|
|Bess||July 21 – August 3, 1982||Category 5 super typhoon||260 km/h (160 mph)||900 hPa (26.58 inHg)||Japan||$2.32 billion||95|
|Ike||August 26 –|
September 6, 1984
|Category 4 typhoon||230 km/h (145 mph)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||Guam, Philippines, China||$1 billion||1,142|
|Roy||January 7 – 19, 1988||Category 4 typhoon||215 km/h (135 mph)||940 hPa (27.76 inHg)||Micronesia, Philippines||$28.5 million||2|
|Mike||November 5 – 18, 1990||Category 5 super typhoon||280 km/h (175 mph)||915 hPa (27.02 inHg)||Micronesia, Philippines, China||$389 million||748|
|Mireille||September 13 – 27, 1991||Category 4 super typhoon||240 km/h (150 mph)||925 hPa (27.32 inHg)||Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea||$10 billion||66|
|Thelma||November 1 – 8, 1991||Tropical storm||85 km/h (50 mph)||992 hPa (29.29 inHg)||Philippines, Vietnam||$27.7 million||5,081–8,145|
|Omar||August 20 – |
September 6, 1992
|Category 4 super typhoon||240 km/h (150 mph)||920 hPa (27.17 inHg)||Mariana Islands, Guam, Taiwan, China||$561 million||15|
|11 Names||Reference for retired names.||$14.6 billion||7494|
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Vamei||Peipah||December 26, 2001 – |
January 1, 2002
|Tropical storm||85 km/h (50 mph)||1006 hPa (29.71 inHg)||Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia||$3.6 million||5|
|Chataan||Matmo||June 27 – July 13, 2002||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Chuuk, Guam, Japan||$660 million||54|
|Rusa||Nuri||August 22 – September 4, 2002||Typhoon||150 km/h (90 mph)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||Japan, Korean Peninsula||$4.2 billion||238|
|Pongsona||Noul||December 2 – 12, 2002||Typhoon||165 km/h (105 mph)||940 hPa (27.76 inHg)||Mariana Islands||$730 million||1|
|Yanyan||Dolphin||January 11 – 21, 2003||Tropical storm||65 km/h (40 mph)||1000 hPa (29.53 inHg)||Mariana Islands||None||None|
|Imbudo||Molave||July 15 – 25, 2003||Typhoon||165 km/h (105 mph)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||Philippines, China||$340 million||64|
|Maemi||Mujigae||September 4 – 16, 2003||Typhoon||195 km/h (120 mph)||910 hPa (26.87 inHg)||Korean Peninsula||$4.8 billion||117|
|Sudal||Mirinae||April 2 – 18, 2004||Typhoon||165 km/h (105 mph)||940 hPa (27.76 inHg)||Yap, Guam||$14 million||None|
|Tingting||Lionrock||June 24 – July 4, 2004||Typhoon||150 km/h (90 mph)||955 hPa (28.20 inHg)||Mariana Islands, Japan||$23.7 million||12|
|Rananim||Fanapi||August 6 – 15, 2004||Typhoon||150 km/h (90 mph)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||China, Japan||$2.44 billion||169|
|Matsa||Pakhar||July 30 – August 9, 2005||Typhoon||150 km/h (90 mph)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||China, Taiwan||$2.23 billion||29|
|Nabi||Doksuri||August 29 – September 9, 2005||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||925 hPa (27.32 inHg)||Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea||$535 million||32|
|Longwang||Haikui||September 25 – October 3, 2005||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Taiwan, China||$971 million||149|| |
|Chanchu||Sanba||May 8 – 19, 2006||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam||$478 million||268|
|Bilis||Maliksi||July 8 – 16, 2006||Severe tropical storm||110 km/h (70 mph)||970 hPa (28.64 inHg)||Philippines, Taiwan, China||$4.4 billion||859|
|Saomai||Son-Tinh||August 4 – 11, 2006||Typhoon||195 km/h (120 mph)||925 hPa (27.32 inHg)||Mariana Islands, Taiwan, China||$2.5 billion||458|
|Xangsane||Leepi||September 25 – October 2, 2006||Typhoon||155 km/h (100 mph)||925 hPa (27.76 inHg)||Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand||$750 million||312|
|Durian||Mangkhut||November 25 – December 7, 2006||Typhoon||195 km/h (120 mph)||915 hPa (27.02 inHg)||Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand||>$400 million||>1,500|
|Morakot||Atsani||August 2 – 12, 2009||Typhoon||140 km/h (85 mph)||945 hPa (27.90 inHg)||Taiwan, China, Korean Peninsula||$6.2 billion||789|
|Ketsana||Champi||September 23 – 30, 2009||Typhoon||130 km/h (80 mph)||960 hPa (28.35 inHg)||Philippines, Vietnam, Laos|
|Parma||In-fa||September 27 – October 14, 2009||Typhoon||185 km/h (115 mph)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Philippines, China, Vietnam||$617 million||500|
|21 Names||References:||>$33.5 billion||>6,266|
So far during the current decade, 22 names have had their names retired by the Typhoon Committee. Collectively, these systems killed at least 13827 people and caused at least $69.7 billion worth of damage. Typhoon Haiyan is currently the strongest and deadliest storm of the decade to have its name retired, while Typhoon Fitow is currently the costliest storm of the decade to have its name retired.
|Name||Dates active||Peak classification||Sustained|
|Fanapi||September 14 – 21, 2010||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Taiwan, China||$1 billion||105|
|Washi||December 13 – 19, 2011||Severe tropical storm||95 km/h (60 mph)||992 hPa (29.29 inHg)||Micronesia, Palau, Philippines||$97.8 million||2,546|
|Vicente||July 18 – 25, 2012||Typhoon||150 km/h (90 mph)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||Philippines, China|
Vietnam, Laos, Burma
|Bopha||November 25 – December 9, 2012||Typhoon||185 km/h (115 mph)||930 hPa (27.46 inHg)||Micronesia, Philippines||$1.04 billion||1,901|
|Sonamu||January 1 – 10, 2013||Severe tropical storm||95 km/h (60 mph)||990 hPa (29.23 inHg)||Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia||Minimal||2|
|Utor||August 8 – 18, 2013||Typhoon||195 km/h (120 mph)||925 hPa (27.32 inHg)||Philippines, China||$3.56 billion||97|
|Fitow||September 29 – October 7, 2013||Typhoon||140 km/h (85 mph)||960 hPa (28.35 inHg)||China, Taiwan, Japan||$10.4 billion||12|
|Haiyan||November 3 – 11, 2013||Typhoon||230 km/h (145 mph)||895 hPa (26.43 inHg)||Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, China||$4.55 billion||8,052|
|Rammasun||July 9 – 20, 2014||Typhoon||165 km/h (105 mph)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||Philippines, China, Vietnam||$8.08 billion||222|
|Soudelor||July 29 – August 11, 2015||Typhoon||215 km/h (130 mph)||900 hPa (26.58 inHg)||Mariana Islands, Japan, Taiwan, China||$3.84 billion||40|
|Mujigae||September 30 – October 5, 2015||Typhoon||155 km/h (100 mph)||950 hPa (28.05 inHg)||Philippines, China||$4.25 billion||29|
|Koppu||October 12 – 21, 2015||Typhoon||185 km/h (115 mph)||925 hPa (27.32 inHg)||Philippines||$309 million||62|
|Melor||December 9 – 17, 2015||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||Philippines||$149 million||51|
|Meranti||September 9 – 16, 2016||Typhoon||220 km/h (140 mph)||890 hPa (26.28 inHg)||Philippines, Taiwan, China||$4.8 billion||47|
|Sarika||October 13 – 19, 2016||Typhoon||175 km/h (110 mph)||935 hPa (27.61 inHg)||Philippines, China, Vietnam||$876 million||37|
|Haima||October 14 – 22, 2016||Typhoon||215 km/h (130 mph)||900 hPa (26.58 inHg)||Philippines, Taiwan, China||$976 million||19|
|Nock-ten||December 20 – 28, 2016||Typhoon||195 km/h (120 mph)||915 hPa (27.02 inHg)||Philippines||$128 million||13|
|Hato||August 19 – 24, 2017||Typhoon||140 km/h (85 mph)||965 hPa (28.50 inHg)||Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam||$6.82 billion||24|
|Kai-tak||December 13 – 23, 2017||Tropical storm||75 km/h (45 mph)||994 hPa (29.35 inHg)||Philippines, Malaysia||$75 million||83|
|Tembin||December 20 – 26, 2017||Typhoon||130 km/h (80 mph)||970 hPa (28.64 inHg)||Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam||$42.4 million||266|
|Rumbia||August 15 – 18, 2018||Tropical storm||85 km/h (50 mph)||985 hPa (29.09 inHg)||Japan, China||$5.36 billion||53|
|Mangkhut||September 7 – 17, 2018||Typhoon||205 km/h (125 mph)||905 hPa (26.72 inHg)||Guam, Philippines, Taiwan, China||$3.74 billion||134|
|20 Names||References:||$60.4 billion||13,827|
Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots, names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.
A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.
Tropical cyclones are unofficially ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.
Approximately twenty tropical cycloness enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility yearly, an area which incorporates parts of the Pacific Ocean, South China Sea and the Philippine Archipelago. Among these cyclones, ten will be typhoons, with five having the potential to be destructive ones. The Philippines is "the most exposed country in the world to tropical storms" according to a Time Magazine article in 2013. In the Philippine languages, typhoons are called bagyo.
Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.
The 2008 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 2008, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.
Typhoon Rammasun, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Butchoy, was recognized as the second typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). Rammasun was also recognised as the third tropical storm, the second typhoon and the first super typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).
Typhoon Angela, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosing, was a catastrophic Category 5 typhoon with 180 mph (290 km/h) sustained winds.
The 2011 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season that produced a total of 21 named storms, 8 typhoons, and four super typhoons. This season was much more active than the previous season, although both seasons were below the Pacific typhoon average of 26. The season ran throughout 2011, though most tropical cyclone tend to develop between May and October. The season’s first named storm, Aere, developed on May 7 while the season’s last named storm, Washi dissipated on December 19.
The 2013 Pacific typhoon season was the most active Pacific typhoon season since 2004, as well as the deadliest since 1975. It was an above-average season with 31 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. The season's first named storm, Sonamu, developed on January 4 while the season's last named storm, Podul, dissipated on November 15. Most of the first seventeen named storms before mid-September were relatively weak, as only two of them reached the typhoon strength.
The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.
Severe Tropical Cyclone Martin was the deadliest tropical cyclone of the 1997–98 South Pacific cyclone season. The system was first noted as a weak tropical disturbance on October 27, to the north of the Northern Cook Islands. Over the next few days atmospheric convection surrounding the system remained disorganized, as it moved towards the southwest and was affected by strong upper-level north-easterly winds and moderate to strong vertical wind shear. The system was subsequently named Martin during October 31, after it had rapidly developed further and shown a marked improvement organization.
This timeline documents all of the events of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. Most of the tropical cyclones formed between May and November. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator between 100°E and the International Date Line. Tropical storms that form in the entire Western Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that form in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.