List of rulers of Moldavia

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This is a List of rulers of Moldavia , from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.

Contents

Notes

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons – being defined as os de domn – "of domn marrow", or as having hereghie – "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. Between 1821 and 1862, various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Moldavian rulers, like Wallachian and other Eastern European rulers, bore the titles of Voivode or/and Hospodar (when writing in Romanian, the term Domn (from the Latin dominus ) was used).

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

The list is brought up to date for the first rulers, following the documented studies of Ștefan S. Gorovei [1] and Constantin Rezachevici. [2]

List

Princes of Moldavia

House of Dragoș

PortraitRulerBeganEndedRemarks
DragosIofMoldavia.jpg Dragoș c. 1347c. 1354Described as an early ruler of Moldavia, he was sent there as a representative of king Louis I of Hungary to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde, where he ruled.
Sas c. 1354c. 1363son of Dragoș
Balc of Moldavia c.c.son of Sas

House of Bogdan-Mușat

PortraitRulerBeganEndedConsortNotes
Bogdan I of Moldavia.jpg Bogdan I the Founder c. 13591367Maria
three children
Deposed Sas
Petru I 1367July 1368UnmarriedGrandson of Bogdan I, [3] rule not universally accepted by modern historians
Stamp of Moldova 196.gif Lațcu July 13681375Anna
before 1372
one child
Son of Bogdan I, deposed Petru I [3]
Petru I Musat.jpg Petru II Mușat 1375December 1391 Sophia of Lithuania
1387
no children

Olga of Warsaw
1388
no children
Son of Costea; often referred as Petru I Mușat
Roman I Musat.jpg Roman I December 1391March 1394Anastasia
three children
Son of Costea
Stamp of Moldova 345.gif Ștefan I March 139428 November 1399UnmarriedSon of Roman I
Iuga (George I)28 November 139929 June 1400UnmarriedSon of Roman I, deposed by intervention of Mircea I of Wallachia
AlexandruCelBun-Neamt.JPG Alexandru I the Good 29 June 14001 January 1432 Margareta of Losoncz
1394
two children

Anna Neacsa of Podolsk
1405
three children

Ringala of Lithuania
1419
(divorced 13 December 1421)
no children

Marina Bratul
1421
three children
Son of Roman I, installed by Mircea I of Wallachia
Iliaș I 1 January 1432October 1433 Maria Olshanki of Lithuania
23 October 1425
three children
Son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Ștefan II October 14334 August 1435UnmarriedIllegitimate son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule (only de facto ruler till September 1434)
Iliaș I 4 August 1435May 1443 Maria Olshanki of Lithuania
23 October 1425
three children
2nd rule, jointly with Ștefan II
Ștefan II 4 August 143513 July 1447Unmarried2nd rule, 4 August 1435 – May 1443 jointly with Iliaș; May 1444–1445 jointly with Petru III
Petru III May 14441445An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
1st rule, jointly with Ștefan II.
Roman II 13 July 144722 August 1447Unmarriedson of Iliaș; 1st rule
Petru III 22 August 144723 December 1447An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
2nd rule
Roman II 23 December 1447between 23 February and 5 April 1448Unmarried2nd rule
Petru III 5 April 144810 October 1448An unknown sister of John Hunyadi
before 1445
no children
3rd rule
Csupor de Monoszló
(Usurper)
10 October 1448December 1448UnknownNon-dynastic. Born in Croatia, he was a Hungarian nobleman, commander of troops of John Hunyadi. He was sent in support of Petru III to depose his brother Roman, but Petru died suddenly two months later. Csupor ascended at the throne. His name, literally Tub Voivode was mentioned by Grigore Ureche.
Alexandru II December 144812 January 1449Unmarriedson of Iliaș I; 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 357.gif Bogdan II 12 January 144915 October 1451Oltea
before 1433
six children
nephew of Alexandru the Good.
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 15 October 145124 February 1452Unknown
before 1455
one child
illegitimate son of Alexandru the Good; 1st rule
Alexandru II 24 February 145222 August 1454Unmarried2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 22 August 1454between 8 December 1454 and 8 February 1455Unknown
before 1455
one child
2nd rule
Alexandru II 8 February 145525 March 1455Unmarried3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova 278.gif Petru IV Aron 25 March 145512 April 1457Unknown
before 1455
one child
3rd rule
Stefan cel Mare.jpg Ștefan III the Great 12 April 14572 July 1504 Eudokia Olelkovna of Lithuania
5 July 1463
Suceava
three children

Maria Asanina Palaiologina of Gothia
14 September 1472
Suceava
four children

Maria Voichița of Wallachia
1478
three children
Son of Bogdan II. In his reign Moldavia reaches its zenith.
Stamp of Moldova 403.gif Bogdan III The One-Eyed 2 July 150422 April 1517Anastasia
1510
no children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
21 July 1513
no children
son of Ștefan III the Great;
Luca Arbore
(Regent)
22 April 15171523UnknownGatekeeper of Suceava. Regent in the name of Stefan IV.
Stefan al IV-lea.jpg Ștefan IV the Younger 152314 January 1527 Stana of Wallachia
1524
no children
Son of Bogdan III; also called Ștefăniță until 1523 under the regency of Luca Arbore, Gatekeeper of Suceava
Rares.jpg Petru V Rareș 14 January 152714 September 1538Maria
before 1529
four children

Elena of Serbia
1530
four children
Illegitimate son of Stephen the Great, 1st rule
Ștefan V Lăcustă 21 September 153820 December 1540Chiajna
before 1540
two children
grandson of Stephen the Great
Alexandru III the Evil 21 December 15409 or 16 February 1541Unmarriedson of Bogdan III
Rares.jpg Petru V Rareș 9 or 16 February 15412 or 3 September 1546Maria
before 1529
four children

Elena of Serbia
1530
four children
2nd rule
IliasRares.jpg Ilie II Rareș 2 or 3 September 154630 May 1551Unmarried1st son of Petru Rareș
StefanRares.jpg Ștefan VI Rareș 30 May 15511 September 1552Unmarried2nd son of Petru Rareș
Ioan I Joldea between 4 and 12 September 1552between 4 and 12 September 1552UnmarriedNon-dynastic. Ruled 2 or 3 days in 1552.
Stamp of Moldova 143.gif Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 4 and 12 September 155230 November 1561 Ruxandra of Moldavia
January 1556
fourteen children
Son of Bogdan III, brother of Ștefan IV; 1st rule
Iacob Eraclid Despot.jpg Ioan II Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides)
18 November 15619 November 1563A illegitimate daughter of Mircea IV of Wallachia
no children
The Despot Vodă, non-dynastic.
Ștefan VII Tomșa 9 August 1563between 20 February and 10 March 1564Unknown
at least two children
Non-dynastic.
Stamp of Moldova 143.gif Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu between 20 February and 10 March 15649 March 1568 Ruxandra of Moldavia
January 1556
fourteen children
Restored to the throne.
RoxanaLapusneanu-wife-atMtAthos.jpg Ruxandra of Moldavia
(regent)
9 March 1568November 1570 Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
January 1556
fourteen children
Widow of Alexander IV. Regent on behalf of her son.
Stamp of Moldova 360.gif Bogdan IV November 157015 February 1572A princess from the Paniczewsk family
1571
one child
Son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu
Ioan Voda.jpg Ioan III the Terrible 15 February 157211 June 1574 Maria Semionovna of Rostov
1552
Moscow
two children
Son of Ștefan IV; also called cel Viteaz) (the Brave)

Houses of Basarab (Drăculeşti line) and Bogdan-Muşat

PortraitRulerBeganEndedFamilyRemarks
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 15741577 Drăculești 1st rule
Ivan Pidkova only portrait.jpg Ioan IV Potcoavă November 1577December 1577 Hetman, also called Ivan Pidkova, Nicoară Potcoavă or Ivan Sarpega. Non-dynastic.
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 15781579 Drăculești 2nd rule
Ioan V the Saxon 15791582 Bogdan-Mușat illegitimate son of Petru Rareș
Stamp of Moldova 186.gif Petru VI the Lame 15821591 Drăculești 3rd rule
Aaron I the Tyrant 15911592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru Lăpușneanu; 1st rule
Alexandru V the Wrongdoer 15921592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Bogdan IV; also ruled Wallachia (1592–1593)
Petru VII the Cossack 15921592 Bogdan-Mușat son of Alexandru IV Lăpușneanu
Aaron I the Tyrant 15921595 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
063 - Stefan Razvan.jpg Ștefan VIII Răzvan 15951595

Houses of Basarab (Drăculești line) and Movilești

PortraitRulerBeganEndedFamilyRemarks
Stamp of Moldova 192.gif Ieremia Movilă 15951600 Movilești grandson of Petru Rareș; 1st rule
MViteazul at Alba Iulia.jpg Mihail I Viteazul
(Michael I the Brave)
16001600 Drăculești also ruled Wallachia (1593–1600) and Transylvania (1599–1600)
Stamp of Moldova 192.gif Ieremia Movilă 16001606 Movilești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 255.gif Simion Movilă 16061607 Movilești brother of Iremia Movilă
Mihail II Movilă 16071607 Movileşti son of Ieremia Movilă; 1st rule
Constantin I Movilă 16071607 Movilești son of Ieremia Movilă; under the regency of his mother Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz; 1st rule
Mihail II Movilă 16071607 Movilești 2nd rule
Constantin I Movilă 16071611 Movilești under the regency of his mother; 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 229.gif Ștefan IX Tomșa 161116151st rule
Alexandru VI Movilă 16151616 Movilești
Stamp of Moldova 444.gif Radu Mihnea 16161619 Drăculești 1st rule
GasparGratiani.jpg Gaspar Graziani 16191620

Various dynasties

PortraitRulerBeganEndedFamilyRemarks
Alexandru VII Iliaş 16201621 Bogdan-Mușat nephew of Petru VI, Aron Tiranul and Bogdan IV; 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova 229.gif Ștefan IX Tomșa 162116232nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 444.gif Radu Mihnea 16231626 Drăculești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 362.gif Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 16261629 Movilești 1st rule
AlexandruCoconul.jpg Alexandru VIII Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
16261629 Drăculești 1st rule
Moise Movilă 16301631 Movilești 1st rule
Alexandru VII Iliaș 16311633 Bogdan-Mușat 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova 362.gif Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 16331633 Movilești 2nd rule
Moise Movilă 16331634 Movilești 2nd rule
Vasile Lupu.png Vasile Lupu 163416531st rule
106 - Gheorghe Stefan.jpg Gheorghe II Ștefan 165316531st rule
Vasile Lupu.png Vasile Lupu 165316532nd rule
106 - Gheorghe Stefan.jpg Gheorghe II Ștefan 165316582nd rule
114 - Gheorghe Ghica.jpg Gheorghe III Ghica 16581659 Ghica
Constantin Șerban 165916591st rule
Stefanica lupu.jpg Ștefan X Lupu 16591661also called Papură-Vodă (Bullrush Voivode); 1st rule
Constantin Serban Basarab.jpg Constantin Șerban 166116612nd rule
Stefanica lupu.jpg Ștefan X Lupu 165916612nd rule
Eustratie Dabija 16611665
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 166516661st rule
Stamp of Moldova 423.gif Iliaș III Alexandru 16661668 Bogdan-Mușat The last member of the House of Bogdan-Mușat reigning in Moldavia; son of Alexandru VII
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 166816722nd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 167216731st rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 16731673 Cantacuzene 1st rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 167316742nd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 16741675 Cantacuzene 2nd rule
123 - Antonie Ruset.jpg Antonie Ruset 16751678 Rosetti
Stamp of Moldova 114.gif Gheorghe IV Duca 167816833rd rule
Ștefan XI Petriceicu 168316843rd rule
Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino 16841685 Cantacuzene 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova 273.gif Constantin Cantemir 16851693 Cantemirești
Dimitrie Cantemir color.jpg Dimitrie Cantemir 16931693 Cantemirești 1st rule; deposed by Ottomans
Constantin Duca 169316951st rule
Stamp of Moldova md414.jpg Antioh Cantemir 16951700 Cantemirești 1st rule
Constantin Duca 170017032nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuș
170317031st term
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihail III Racoviță 17031705 Racoviță 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md414.jpg Antioh Cantemir 17051707 Cantemirești 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihail III Racoviță 17071709 Racoviță 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuș
170917102nd term
NicolaeMavrocordat.gif Nicolae Mavrocordat 17091710 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Dimitrie Cantemir color.jpg Dimitrie Cantemir 17101711 Cantemirești 2nd rule

Phanariotes (1711–1821)

PortraitRulerBeganEndedFamilyRemarks
Caimacam
Lupu Costachi
17111711
Ioan Mavrocordat.jpg Ioan Ι Mavrocordat 17111711 Mavrocordato
NicolaeMavrocordat.gif Nicolae Mavrocordat 17111715 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md412.jpg Mihai III Racoviță 17151726 Racoviță 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17261733 Ghica 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17331735 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17351739 Ghica 2nd rule
Russian occupation17391739 Russo-Austrian-Turkish War (1735–1739)
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17391741 Ghica 3rd rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17411743 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Ioan II Mavrocordat 17431747 Mavrocordato son of Nicolae Mavrocordat and brother to Constantin Mavrocordat
Stamp of Moldova md413.jpg Grigore II Ghica 17471748 Ghica 4th rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17481749 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Iordache Stavrachi 17491749
Constantin Racoviță 17491753 Racoviță 1st rule
Matei Ghica.jpg Matei Ghica 17531756 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 17561757 Racoviță 2nd rule
Scarlat Ghica portrait.jpg Scarlat Ghica 17571758 Ghica
Ioan Callimachi.jpg Ioan Teodor Callimachi 17581761 Callimachi
Stamp of Moldova RM443..jpg Grigore Callimachi 17611764 Callimachi 1st rule
Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg Grigore III Ghica 17641767 Ghica 1st rule
Stamp of Moldova RM443..jpg Grigore Callimachi 17671769 Callimachi 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova RM442.jpg Constantin Mavrocordat 17691769 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Russian occupation17691774 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Grigore III Ghica, Prince of Moldavia and Wallachia.jpg Grigore III Ghica 17741777 Ghica 2nd rule
Constantin Moruzi.jpg Constantin Moruzi 17771782 Mourousi
Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey 17821785 Mavrocordato
Maurokordatos o phirares.jpg Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris 17851786 Mavrocordato
Stamp of Moldova md631.jpg Alexandru Ipsilanti 17861788 Ypsilanti
Austrian occupation17871791military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Kherson-28102009(059).jpg Emanuel Giani Ruset 17881789 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Russian occupation17881791 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 17921792 Mourousi 1st rule
Mihai Suțu 17931795 Soutzos also called Draco
Alexandru Callimachi.jpg Alexandru Callimachi 17951799 Callimachi
Constantin Ipsilanti.jpg Constantin Ipsilanti 17991801 Ypsilanti
Alexandru Sutu.jpg Alexandru Suțu 18011802 Soutzos
Chancellor
Iordache Conta
18021802
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 18021802 Mourousi 2nd rule
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 18061806 Callimachi 1st rule
Alexandru Moruzi.jpg Alexandru Moruzi 18061807 Mourousi 3rd rule
Russian occupation18061812 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in 1812.
(See also President of Moldova, for the rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in the 20th century.)
Alexandru Hangerli 18071807
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 18071810 Callimachi 2nd rule
deposed by Russians
Caimacam
Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu
18071807 Rosetti
MitropVeniaminCostachi.jpg Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
180718121st term
Stamp of Moldova md633.jpg Scarlat Callimachi 18121819 Callimachi 3rd rule
Mihail Sutu.jpg Mihail Suțu 18191821 Soutzos
Stolnici
Manu and Rizos-Nerulos
18191819
MitropVeniaminCostachi.jpg Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
182118212nd term
Alexander2.jpg Filiki Eteria occupation18211821military commander: Alexander Ypsilantis
Stefanbogoridi.png Caimacam
Stefan Bogoridi
(Ștefan Vogoride)
18211822
Stamp of Moldova md632.jpg Ioan Sturdza 18221828
Russian occupation18281834military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Mihail Sturdza watch.jpg Mihail Sturdza 18341849
Stamp of Moldova md629.jpg Grigore Alexandru Ghica 18491853 Ghica 1st rule
Russian occupation18531854 Crimean War
Stamp of Moldova md629.jpg Grigore Alexandru Ghica 18541856 Ghica 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Extraordinary Administrative Council18561856
Constantin Lecca - Theodor Bals.jpg Caimacam
Teodor Balș
18561857
Nikola-Bogoridi.jpg Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride
18571858
Caimacams18581859 Ștefan Catargiu, Vasile Sturdza and Anastasie Panu
(Catargiu resigns in 1858 and is replaced by Ioan A. Cantacuzino)
Al I Cuza.jpg Alexander John Cuza 18591862also ruled Wallachia in personal union
Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1862.

For later rulers, see Domnitor and King of Romania .

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Ioniță Cuza

Ion Cuza or Cuzea, commonly known as Ioniță Cuza, was a Moldavian statesman and political conspirator, remembered as one of the first Romanian nationalists and Freemasons. His paternal family, the Cuzas (Cuzeas), were landowners of uncertain origin who, by the time of Ioniță's birth, had been established into the boyardom, being under the patronage of Doukas and Sturdza aristocrats. Ioniță's mother was a direct descendant of the statesman-chronicler Miron Costin; his father, Miron Cuza, had been involved in the pro-Habsburg conspiracy headed by François Ernaut, while his grandfather, Dumitrașco Cuzea, had been hanged during the clampdown. As boyars, both the Cuzas and the Costins opposed the Phanariote regime and devised other schemes to emancipate Moldavia from the Ottoman Empire.

Banul Mărăcine

Banul Mărăcine or Mărăcină, common rendition of Barbu III Craiovescu, Barbu Mărăcine or Barbu Basarab, was a historical figure in Wallachia, who claimed the title of Prince. He was one of several Craiovești pretenders to the throne, a category which also included his father, Preda Craiovescu. Mărăcine himself entered historical record in 1532, when, as an opponent of Prince Vlad VI, he had his estate confiscated. He returned to favor later that year, with the crowning of Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina. Like Preda before him, Mărăcine served as Ban of Oltenia, becoming the last of his family to hold that title. According to various accounts, he turned against his new lord, from organizing armed resistance in Oltenia to involving himself in Vlad Vintilă's assassination. He was able to maintain his position following the crowning of Radu Paisie, but was eventually toppled by the latter in mid 1535.

Paharnic

The Paharnic was a historical Romanian rank, one of the non-hereditary positions ascribed to the boyar aristocracy in Moldavia and Wallachia. It was the local equivalent of a Cup-bearer or Cześnik, originally centered on pouring and obtaining wine for the court of Moldavian and Wallachian Princes. With time, it became a major administrative office and, in Wallachia, also had a lesser military function. The retinue of such boyars, usually called Păhărnicei, was in both countries also a private army.

References

  1. Gorovei, Ștefan S., Întemeierea Moldovei. Probleme controversate, Editura Universităţii „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iași, 1997, ISBN   973-9149-74-X
  2. Rezachevici, Constantin, Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova, a. 1324 - 1881, vol. I, Editura Enciclopedică, București, 2001, ISBN   973-45-0387-1
  3. 1 2 Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001