List of ships of the line of Spain

Last updated

This is a list of Spanish ships of the line (comprising the battlefleet) built or acquired during the period 1640-1854:
Those with 94 or more guns were three-deckers, while all the others listed were two-deckers. Those ships with secular names (e.g. royal, geographical or adjectival names) were additionally given an official religious name (or advocación) which appears below in parenthesis following the secular name.

Contents

Until 1716 there was not one single Spanish Navy but several naval forces, of which the Armada del Mar Océano was the primary one but several other distinct forces existed. The Real Armada ("Royal Navy") was created by the newly-established Bourbon government in 1716, but the other armadas (in Spanish, the word "armada" is used for both "navy" and "fleet") endured for several years thereafter. During the early 1750s, the term Real Armada was replaced by Armada Española.

The later Habsburg fleet - 1640 to 1700

The Early Bourbon fleet - 1701 to 1728

The First French phase - 1729 to 1750

The English phase - 1750 to 1769

Note that surviving 68-gun ships were re-rated as 70 guns at end 1766 and as 74-gun ships in 1793.

The Second French phase - 1770 to 1782

[Note that the Guipuzcoano 64 - captured by the United Kingdom in 1780 and renamed Prince William - was a private ship of the Real Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas, and was not part of the Spanish Navy.]

The Period of Spanish Consolidation - 1782 to 1807

The Final phase - 1808 to 1854

Spain built no further ships of the line after 1808 for nearly half a century, although five 74-gun ships were acquired from Russia in February 1818. Finally, two 86-gun ships were ordered in 1850 and laid down on 19 November and 2 December 1850 respectively.

Related Research Articles

Eleven ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Cumberland, after the traditional English county of Cumberland, England:

Seven ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Mars, after Mars, the Roman god of war:

French ship <i>Neptune</i> (1803) ship

Neptune was a Bucentaure-class 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. Built during the last years of the French Revolutionary Wars she was launched at the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars. Her brief career with the French included several major battles, though she spent the last 12 years of her life under the Spanish flag.

Spanish ship <i>Nuestra Señora de la Santísima Trinidad</i> 1769 first-rate ship of the line of the Spanish Navy, largest warship of the 18th century

Santísima Trinidad was a Spanish first-rate ship of the line with 112 guns. This was increased in 1795–96 to 130 guns by closing in the spar deck between the quarterdeck and forecastle, and around 1802 to 140 guns, thus creating what was in effect a continuous fourth gundeck although the extra guns added were actually relatively small. She was the heaviest-armed ship in the world when rebuilt, and bore the most guns of any ship of the line outfitted in the Age of Sail.

Ten ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Berwick, after Berwick-upon-Tweed, a town on the border between England and Scotland:

Spanish ship <i>San Agustín</i> (1768)

The San Agustín was a 74-gun ship of the line built at the royal shipyard in Guarnizo (Santander) and launched in 1768.

A number of ships of the Spanish Navy have borne the name San José in honour of Saint Joseph

Neptuno was an 80-gun Montañes-class ship of the line of the Spanish Navy. She was built in 1795 and took part in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. She fought with the Franco-Spanish fleet in the battle of Trafalgar, and was wrecked in its aftermath.

At least six ships of the Spanish Navy have been named Neptuno:

San Ildefonso was a ship of the Spanish Navy launched in 1785. She was designed to be lighter than traditional Spanish vessels which had had difficulty matching the speed of ships of the Royal Navy. Though nominally a 74-gun ship San Ildefonso actually carried 80 cannons and howitzers. She saw service against French and British vessels in the late 18th century, sailed twice to the Americas and was trapped in Cadiz by the British blockade. San Ildefonso was captured by the British third-rate HMS Defence at the Battle of Trafalgar and successfully weathered the storm afterwards to be taken into Royal Navy service as HMS Ildefonso.

Spanish ship <i>Rayo</i> (1749)

Rayo was an 80-gun ship of the line (navío) of the Spanish Navy. As was traditional for Spanish ships not named after a saint, its second, dedicatory name (avocacion) was San Pedro Apóstol. She underwent rebuilding at Cartagena from 1803 to 1805, emerging as a three-decked ship with 100 guns. She then fought at the Battle of Trafalgar during the Napoleonic Wars and was dismasted as a result of damage sustained in the battle. When she sortied after Trafalgar in order to recover prizes, the warship was captured by HMS Donegal. Subsequently, she ran aground and was wrecked in a storm. Her broken hull was set ablaze and destroyed by British sailors on 31 October.

Spanish ship <i>San Francisco de Asis</i> (1767) Spanish ship, 1767

San Francisco de Asis was a Spanish 74-gun ship of the line launched in 1767 from the royal shipyard in Guarnizo (Cantabria). She was wrecked after the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 near Puerto de Santa Maria.

The Montañés was a 74 gun third-rate Spanish ship of the line. The name ship of her class, she was built in the Ferrol shipyards and paid for by the people of Cantabria. She was built following José Romero y Fernández de Landa's system as part of the San Ildefonso class, though her were amended by Retamosa to refine her buoyancy. She was launched in May 1794 and entered service the following year. With 2400 copper plates on her hull, she was much faster than other ships of the same era, reaching 14 knots downwind and 10 knots upwind.

The Spanish ship Argonauta was a third-rate 80 gun ship of the line of the Spanish Navy. She had 24, 18 and 8 pounder guns spread over two decks. Her usual crew was 642, though it was 956 at the Battle of Cape Finisterre and 800 at Trafalgar.

Twelve Spanish ships of the Spanish Navy have borne the name Castilla, after the region of Castilla:

References

  1. p208-9, 217-8, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  2. p208-9, 230-2, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  3. p208-9, 227, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  4. p208-9, 226-7, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  5. p208-212, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  6. p208-9, 232-3, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  7. p208-9, 214-7, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  8. p208-9, 212-4, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  9. p208-9, 23-5, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  10. p208-9, 228-30, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  11. p208-9, 225-6, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  12. p208-9, 233-4, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  13. p208-9, 220-1, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  14. p208-9, 222-3, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805
  15. p208-9, 219-20, Goodwin The Ships of Trafalgar, the British, French and Spanish Fleets October 1805

See also

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Ships of the line of Spain at Wikimedia Commons