List of ski descents of Eight-Thousanders

Last updated

The mountaineering community groups Earth's 14 mountains with summits exceeding 8,000 meters (26,000 feet), referred to as eight-thousanders, as a special category of peaks defining the "top of the world." [1] Only an elite group of mountaineers can claim to have summited all 14 peaks and many have perished trying. [2] (See eight-thousanders for current list.) Particularly since 1986 when Italian expeditionist Reinhold Messner became the first to have climbed all fourteen 8000m peaks, summiting the eight-thousanders has become the ultimate goal for many high altitude mountaineers. [3] Similarly, the ski-mountaineering community has set its sights on skiing from the summits of the "eight-thousanders." In a 2007 interview for the film Skiing Everest , the Italian mountaineer and skier, Hans Kammerlander articulated the challenge for the ski-mountaineering community: "Almost all peaks have been reached, almost all walls have been climbed. But seldom have the walls been skied down... It would be a lovely project if I could see someone who could ski all 8,000m peaks." [4]

Contents

"Skiers" include those using either alpine or telemark equipment or, in two instances, a "mono ski." The category here excludes snowboarders on the premise that the orientation of the skier's body to a slope differs significantly from that of a "boarder" affecting the capacities to negotiate a pitch. A separate entry tracks snowboard descents on 8000 meter peaks (Snowboard Descents From Above 8000m: Database). Even within the category of "skiers" equipment has evolved significantly from the time of Yuichiro Miura's first foray on skis above 8000m in 1970. Big mountain skiers have benefited greatly from incorporation of lighter and stronger composite materials into the manufacture of skis, boots and bindings, reducing the carry weight of their ski gear in addition to similar advances in designs for their other climbing gear and attire. Today's ski-mountaineer has likely shaved 20–25 lb (9.1–11.3 kg).) off their gear packs compared to when, for example, Sylvain Saudan hop turned down the face of Gasherbrum I in 1982, perhaps the first full descent of an 8000-meter peak. [5] The length, width and shape of skis has evolved to facilitate turning and flotation in deeper snow conditions. (Reports for most high altitude descents actually are far more likely to complain of hard, rutted ice than deep snow. [4] Back country skiing whether at altitude or on the lower ranges has also seen the development of "alpine touring" bindings with detached and fixed heel configurations for use in both upslope (in the "walk" configuration) and downslope (in the "fixed-heel" configuration).

Mountaineers apply rigorous standards to define an "ascent" and its "purity." The use of oxygen, for example, is vigorously debated, and it has become practice for trip reports to distinguish ascents supported by oxygen (O2) from those foregoing O2 use. [3] But for mountaineers at least the basic standard of attaining a summit with safe return is fairly absolute, the issue of documentation aside. Debate over use of 02, amount of assistance from Sherpas, line of ascent and other nits are qualifiers to the purity of the ascent. In ski mountaineering, the added dimension of the purity of the descent further muddies the standards at this time. Is the top the highest elevation of the snow line or is it the geological summit? Does a descent need to be continuous and what is the consideration for terrain in the middle of the mountain that is "un-skiable?" Does it matter if the skis come off during some portion of the descent to abseil a portion? While the standards of a mountaineering ascent still apply (including notation of O2 use), skiing, and the vagaries of "skiable" terrain add numerous variables to evaluating the purity of a descent. [6] Any database of ski descents is therefore likely to include heterogenous data.

Of the fourteen 8000 m peaks, clearly some peaks are more skiable than others as reflected in the number of descents to date (see below). Everest, Cho Oyu, Manaslu, GasherBrum II and Shisha Pangma have all seen more than 5 expeditions ski from above 8000 m. On the other hand, there are no reported ski descents from above 8000 m on Kangchenjunga, Makalu and Broad. Dhaulagiri and Nanga Parbat have been conquered by only one expedition each. Jamie Laidlaw made the lone descent on Lhotse but not from the summit; Hans Kammerlander skied the top 400 meters of K2 but no further.

Firsts:

Descents

Notes on compiling this database of high altitude skiers: The 8000 meter ski database includes ski descents using alpine, telemark or mono ski equipment from above 8000m. It does not include snowboard descents. In addition to the entrant's name and peak identification, each entry details the estimated highest and lowest skied elevations, the route, use of oxygen, ski method and other very brief notes on the descent. A single reference for each entry is noted although often multiple sources are available. Notation: "c"=camp; "bc"=base camp; "abc"=advanced base camp; "m"=meter.

Mount Everest

NEPAL/TIBET - 8850 meters [13]

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Hans Kammerlander Italy 19968848N. faceFirst 300m from summit, then 1,000m by foot, then skid entire remaining route to Advanced Base Camp (ABC). [12] NO39
Davo Karničar Slovenia 20008848S. col1st Summit (8,848 meters) to Base Camp (5,380 meters) ski descent by the South Col route, with oxygen, without removing skis (a total vertical drop of 3,488 meters/11,443 Feet) in 4h:40min. Completion of this route required skiing the Hillary Step, the Lhotse Face, and the Khumbu Ice Fall. [8] YES37
Kit DesLauriers United States 20068848S. col1st woman to ski off summit (making her also the first woman to ski from the Seven Summits). Switched to crampons in Hillary Step due to low oxygen. Spent night at South Col (Camp IV, ~7,900 meters), skid Lhotse Face to Camp II (6,400 meters), then during same day to Base Camp using a combination of skis and crampons. [8] YES36
Jimmy Chin United States 20068848S. PillarSkied from Summit; abseiled (rappelled) Hillary Step with skis on; skied from bottom of Hillary Step to South Summit; skied the South Pillar route which is the fall line from Camp 4; spent night at Camp IV (7,900 meters; skid Lhotse Face to Advanced Base Camp (ABC) [8] YES33
Rob Deslauriers United States 20068848S. colabseiled Hillary Step with skis on; hiked to South Col; spent night at 7,800 meters; skid Lhotse Face to Advanced Base Camp (ABC) [8] YES41
Olof Sundstrom Sweden 20068848N. ridgeto Advanced Base Camp (ABC, 6,400 meters), removed skis for several sections [8] YES25
Martin Letzer Sweden 20068848N. ridgeto ABC (6400), removed skis for several sections [8] YES25
Tormod Granheim Norway 20068848Nortonto 8,800; 87,50 to 8,500; 8,480 to 7,100, camped overnight; to 6,500m [8] YES31
Tomas Olsson Sweden 20068848Nortondied from fall at 8500 [8] YES30
Pierre Tardivel France 19928760S. colto c2. world altitude record at time [14] YES28
Dominique Perret Switzerland 1996?8300N. faceHornblein couloir, n. face [15] NO34
Jean Afanassieff France 19788200S. colto 6200 "not in one smooth run" [8] [16] YES25
Nicolas Jaeger France 19788200S. colto 6200 "not in one smooth run" [8] [16] YES31
Reinhard Patschneider Italy 19878200lhotse face from S. colfell dislocated shoulder [8] YES30
Brice Lequertier France 20038200S. colto 6100 [8] ?26
Yuichiro Miura Japan 19708082S. col5-6 turns to S. Col, then wore parachute in schuss to ~6200, ended with fall [7] YES37

K2

PAKISTAN - 8611 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Andrzej Bargiel Poland20188611The combination of the normal route (Abruzzi), then Basque route to camp 3, then traverse via Messner's variant to the Polish route and ski down to BCsummiteer; 1st summit to bc ski descent without removing skisNO30
Hans Kammerlander Italy 20018611Abruzzisummiteer; skied top 400m, climbed rest of route due to conditions and pitch [8] NO44
David Watson United States 20098351Abruzzidid not summit; skied to c3 (7351), downclimbed pyramid and chimney, skied 6400 to 5100 [17] YES34
Fredrik Ericsson Sweden 20107800Cesen/Basque Routedid not summit; skied to BC (5100 m); died in the attempt to reach the summit [18] NO35
Luis Stitzinger Germany 20118050Cesen/Basque Route to C3, traverse to Kukuczka Route, down to BCdid not summit; skied Kukuczka Route to BC (5100 m); longest ski descent up to date [19] NO39

Kangchenjunga

NEPAL - 8586 meters

No ski descents from above 8000 meters

Lhotse

NEPAL - 8516 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Jamie Laidlaw United States 20078300Faceto 6400 at night [8] YES27
Hilaree Nelson United States 20188516Dream Linesummiteer; 1st summit to bc ski descentYES
Jim Morrison United States 20188516Dream Linesummiteer; 1st summit to bc ski descentYES

Makalu

NEPAL - 8485

No ski descents from above 8000 meters

Cho Oyu

NEPAL - 8188 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Veronique Perillat France 19888188NW sidemonoski, first woman from 8000m [20] NO26
Adrian Ballinger United States 20138188NW sidecontinuous to C1, no snow below C1; 10m roped skiing at icecliff [21] YES37
Sergey Baranov Russia 20138188NW sidecontinuous to C1, no snow below C1; 10m roped skiing at icecliff [21] YES44
Halvard Stave Norway 20018188NW sideto rock band at 7800; c3 to c2; fell 300m but ok [8] YES25
Thierry Renard France 19878188NW sideto 6200 - descent disputed [8] NO41
Russell Reginald Brice New Zealand 19968188W. ridge -W. faceto 7500 [8] YES44
Hajime Terayama Japan 20008188NW sideto 7400 [8] YES33
Laura Bakos United States 20008188NW sideto 6600 w/ overnight at camp 3 [8] NO32
Vladimir Smrz Switzerland 20008188NW sideto c2, removed skis at yellow band [8] NO35
Vladislav Terzyul Ukraine 20008188NW sideto c2; side stepped certain rock bands [8] NO47
Viki Groselj Slovenia 20018188NW sidetop to c1, overnight at c2; no snow below c1 [8] NO49
Kristoffer Erickson United States 20018188NW sideto c3(7500) [22] YES28
Kazuka Hiraide Japan 20018188NW sideto c3(7500) [8] NO22
Thomas Laemmle Germany 20038188NW sideto rock band 7800; 7600 to serac (6800); 6750 to snow end (6000) [8] NO37
Wilhemus Pasquier Switzerland 20038188NW sideto C1 (6400) [8] NO54
Greg Nieuwenhuys Netherlands 20048188NW sideto 8000, overnight at c3 (7500), ski c3/c2 and 6750/6400 [8] NO24
Takashi Nizayama Japan 20048188NW sideskinned up from 8000; skied from summit to 8000 [8] YES43
Tomas Olsson Sweden 20048188NW sidecontinuous to c1 (6400) [8] NO28
Tormod Granheim Norway 20048188NW sidecontinuous to c1 (6400) [8] NO30
Martin Walter Schmidt New Zealand 20048188NW sidecontinuous to c1 (6400) [8] NO44
Todd Cavell Windle New Zealand 20048188NW sideto 7800 [8] YES30
Jean Noel Urban France 20058188NW sidecontinuous to c2(6750) [8] NO45
Kasha Rigby United States 20058188NW sideto abc (5700) with overnight at c2; 1st telemark descent [8] YES35
Hilaree O'Neill United States 20058188NW sideto abc with overnight at c2 [8] YES32
Kenton Edward Cool Great Britain 20068188NW Sideto abc (abseiled icefall c2-c1) [8] YES33
Dusan Debelak Slovenia 20068188NW sideto c2 (6750) [8] NO40
Octavio DeFazio Argentina 20068188NW sideto c1 (6400) (except 10m ice cliff) [8] YES36
Martina Palm Switzerland 20068188NW sideto c1 (6400) (except 10m ice cliff) [8] YES32
Steve Marolt United States 20078188NW sideto c1 (6600) [8] [23] NO42
Medhi Didault France 20078188NW sideto c1 (6600) [8] NO22
Tyler Johnson United States 20078188NW sideto abc (5700) with overnight at c2 [8] NO31
Rory Stark United States 20078188NWsideto abc (5700) with overnight at c2 [8] NO36
James Gile United States 20078150NW sideto c1(6600) [8] NO43
Michael Aasheim United States 20058100NW Sideskied to abc (5700) (thru icefall) [8] NO43
Daniel McCann United States 20058100NW sideskied to abc (5700) (thru icefall) [8] NO43
Mike Marolt United States 20078100NW sideto c1 (6600) [23] NO42
Suzy Madge Great Britain 20088188NWsideto above c2 where rescued a lone mountaineer [24] YES35
Fabio Beozzi Italy 20118100NW sideto 6000 (thru Messner Route, 1st ski descent) [8] NO37
Jose Diogo Giraldes Tavares Portugal 20118050NW sideto ABC (5700) with overnight at c2 (7100) [8] NO44
Brooks Entwistle United States 20168188NW sideTo C1; No snow below C1; rappelled ice cliff and yellow bandYES49
Zebulon Blais United States 20168188NW sideContinuous to C1; no snow below C1; roped skiing through yellow band and ice cliffYES33
Emily Harrington United States 20168188NW sideContinuous to C1; no snow below C1; roped skiing through ice cliff [25] YES30
Adrian Ballinger Great Britain 20168188NW sideContinuous to C1; no snow below C1; roped skiing through ice cliff [25] YES40
Aleksander Ostrowski Poland 20148188NW sideTo C2, removed skis, packed a tent and then to C1 on skis [26] NO26
Caroline Gleich United States20188188NW sideTo C1: rappelled yellow band and ice cliffYES32

Dhaulagiri

NEPAL - 8167 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
David Fojtik Czech Republic 20098147NE Ridge20m below summit couloir to 30m above C3 (7200);C2 (6700) to BC (4700) [8] NO36

Manaslu

NEPAL - 8163 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Anthony B Marra United States 20198163NE Faceskis off 6100 to 5800, no sherpa support above BC [27] NO28
Benedikt Bohm Germany 20128163NE Faceto bc (5000); skis off 7400-7300 [28] NO35
Vitaly Lazo Russia 20178163NE Faceto c1 (5300); skis off 7400-7300 and 6400-6200 [28] "Vitaly".</ref>NO44
Anton Pugovkin Russia 20178000NE Faceto c1 (5300); skis off 7400-7300 and 6400-6200 [28] "Anton".</ref>NO39
Adrian Ballinger United States 20118163NE Faceskied summit cornice from top, skis off 6100 to 5800 on descent from summit due to avalanche, 6100-5800 (hourglass) skied on previous day [29] YES34
Sergey Baranove Russia 20118148NE Faceskis off 6100 to 5800 "hourglass" [30] YES
Guy Willet Great Britain 20098148NE Facedownclimbed 1st 15m, skied to 5050 w/ 5m downclimb @6250 [31] YES38
Robert Kay United States/Australia 20118148NE Facedownclimbed 1st 15m, skied to 7400 and 5800 to 5000 (crampon point) [32] YES49
Emma Jack Great Britain 20098148NE FaceSkied to 5000m where snow ran out w/ short downclimb @ 6250m [33] YES36
Kenton Cool Great Britain 20108148NE Faceto C2 (6400)/ 2 days [34] YES37
Andrew Eggleston Great Britain 20108148NE Faceto C2 (6400)/ 2 days [34] YES30
Josef Millinger Austria 19818133NE Faceskied from about 30m below summit to c5; then to c1 next day [35] NO39
Peter Woergoetter Austria 19818133NE Faceskied from about 30m below summit to c5; then to c1 next day [35] NO39
Nobukazu Kuriki 栗城史多  [ ja ]? Japan 20088133NE Faceto c3 (6900) then to bc next day (4800) [8] NO26
Sebastian Haag Germany 20128003NE Faceto basecamp (5000) with skis off 7400-7300 [28] NO34
Constantin Pade 20128003NE Faceto basecamp (5000) with skis off 7400-7300 [28] NO
Andres Jorquera Taipa Chile 20098000NE Faceto 5000 (crampon pt) over 3 days [8] NO33

Benjamin Darcé -USA from 8100 (just below summit ridge) no oxygen or Sherpa support.

Nanga Parbat

PAKISTAN - 8126 meters

SkierNameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Hans Kammerlander Italy 19908025Diamir face (Kinshofer)downclimb top 100m, ski to bc [36] NO34
Diego Wellig Switzerland 19908025Diamir face (Kinshofer)downclimb 1st 100m, ski to bc [36] NO29
Luis Stitzinger Germany 20087850Central Diamir Face (Independent Line parallel to Messner Solo Route 1978)complete ski descent, ski to side moraine, 4600 m [37] PNO39
Boris LangensteinFrance20198070Ski descent33

Annapurna

NEPAL - 8093 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Yves Morin France 19798091N Faceskied all sections but died at 6600 on descent from summit [8] NO34
Davo Karničar Slovenia 19958091normal route1st descent from top to bc in one day - hawley notes suggest started 1200m below top? [8] NO32
Andrej Karnicar Slovenia 19958091normal route1st descent from top to bc in one day [8] NO25

Gasherbrum I

- PAKISTAN - 8080 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Sylvain Saudan Switzerland 19828080N. Facelongest 50 degree slope ever skied? Age 42 [10] NO42
Iztok Tomazin Slovenia 19958080N. FaceOvernight at c3, Abseiled 8m section in Japanese couloir, to 5300 [38] NO45
Luis Stitzinger Germany 20188080N. FaceSkied from the summit, descended a passage 7800-7600 by foot (icy), overnight at c3, descended Japanese Couloir by foot (avalanche hazard), to 5400 (edge of icefall) [39] NO50

Broad Peak

PAKISTAN - 8051 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Hans Kammerlander Italy 19947850West Ridgedescent from col (7850 m) to bc [40] NO38
Luis Stitzinger Germany 20117850West Ridgedescent from col (7850 m) to bc [19] NO39
Andrzej Bargiel Poland 20158051West Ridgeonly descent from top to bc in 3 hrs [41] NO27

Gasherbrum II

PAKISTAN - 8034 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Jacques Demarolle France 19848034SW Ridgeskied summit to c4 (7500) [42]
Frederic Maurel France 19848034SW Ridgeskied summit to c4 (7500) [42]
P. Glaizes France 19848034SW Ridgeskied summit to c4 (7500) [42]
P. Guedu France 19848034SW Ridgeskied summit to c4 (7500) [42]
Wilhemus Pasquier Switzerland 19848034SW Ridgesummit to bc (5200) over 3 days all on ski including 10m serac repel [42] 35
Patrice Bournat France 19848034SW Ridgesummit to bc (5200) over 3 days all on ski including 10m serac repel [42]
Thierry Renard France 19858034South Facebivouacked at 7500, skied to c1 (5400) next day. [43] 42
Fredrik Ericsson Sweden 20058034East Faceto c3 (7000m) [44] NO30
Jorgen Aamot Norway 20058034East Faceto c3 (7000m) [45] NO31
Jean Noel Urban France 20068034SW RidgeNO46
Luis Stitzinger Germany 20068034SW Ridge17hr ABC to ABC (5900m); skied entire descent [46] NO37
Benedikt Bohm Germany 20068034SW Ridgesummit to c3 [46] NO29
Sebastian Haag Germany 20068034SW Ridgesummit to c3 [46] NO28
Benedikt Bohm Germany 20068034SW Ridge17hr ABC to ABC (5900m); skied entire descent [46] NO29
Sebastian Haag Germany 20068034SW Ridge17hr ABC to ABC (5900m); skied entire descent [46] NO28

Shisha Pangma

CHINA - 8027 meters

Skier NameNationalityDateStart Altitude (meters)Descent RouteNotesO2Age
Peter Woergoetter Austria 19858027NE Faceuncertain if descended from main or central summit [47] 44
Oswald Gassler Austria 19858027NE Faceuncertain if descended from main or central summit [47] 38
Mark Whetu New Zealand 19878027Northern routeAAJ'88/279 suggests whetu from summit [48] 28
Jerzy Kukuczka Poland 1987~8000Northern Routefrom bivac at around 8000m, partial descent [48] NO39
Jean Noel Urban France 20058027SW Face - scott rtemain summit partial descent [49] NO45
Giorgio Daidola Italy 19888027Northern Route [50] NO
Pino Negri Italy 19888027Northern Route [50]
Mike Marolt United States 20008008Northern Routecentral summit; 1st N. Am. to ski from 8000m [51] NO36
Steve Marolt United States 20008008Northern routecentral summit; 1st N. Am. to ski from 8000m [51] NO36
Fredrik Ericsson Sweden 20048008central summit [52] NO29
Jean Noel Urban France 20048008SW Face - Loretan rtecentral summit partial descent [49] NO44
Mark Newcomb United States 20058008Untschcentral summit [53] NO38
Kent McBride United States 20058008Untschcentral summit [53] NO
Luis Stitzinger Germany 20138027Inaki Route NE Facemain summit to end moraine(5900m); skied entire descent [54] NO44

See also

Notes

For the eight Nepalese peaks, the Himalayan Database from Hawley and Salisbury is the best single reference, particularly because Elizabeth Hawley et al. often interviewed the teams and solicited trip reports enabling some verification of the claims. [8] Nevertheless, searching the Himalayan Database on "skiing/snowboarding" still occasionally omits expeditions who reported ski descents in their expedition notes but for some reason are not categorized under skiing/snowboarding or in several instances simply omit discussing skiing altogether in the database report. It is probably the case that information from many years ago, while admirably back filled by Hawley, focused on ascents without reference to descent by skis. For the Pakistani peaks sources include web references, the American Alpine Journal and other expedition accounts. Similar sources are referenced for Shisha Pangma in China. Little or no attempt has been made to verify claims. Disputed claims are noted in the notes. It is hoped that by publishing this preliminary database, alpinists and others will correct, update and fill out what can only be considered a preliminary attempt to accurately catalogue skiing above 8000m.

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Simone Moro


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Alberto Iñurrategi

Alberto Iñurrategi Iriarte is a Basque Spanish mountaineer born in Aretxabaleta, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country (Spain), 3 November 1968. In the year 2002, he became the second Spaniard and Basque and 10th person to climb the 14 eight-thousanders.

Silvio Mondinelli

Silvio Mondinelli, is an Italian mountaineer. In the year 2007, he became the 13th person to climb the 14 eight-thousanders. He is the 6th person to accomplish that feat without the use of supplementary oxygen. He was 49 years old when he summited the last of the 14 summits, a task he started in 1993 and finished in 2007.

Carlos Soria Fontán

Carlos Soria Fontán is a Spanish mountain climber who, at 80 years of age, has taken up the challenge of becoming the oldest person in the world to reach the summits of the 14 highest mountains in the world. He is the only mountaineer to have ascended ten mountains of more than 8,000 meters after turning 60, and he is the oldest person in history to have successfully climbed the K2, Broad Peak (68), Makalu (69), Gasherbrum I (70), Manaslu, Kanchenjunga and Annapurna.

Hans Kammerlander Italian mountaineer

Hans Kammerlander is an Italian mountaineer. He has climbed 13 of the 14 8000m peaks. In 1984, together with Reinhold Messner he was the first climber to traverse two 8000 m peaks before descending to base camp.

References

  1. Club, Richard Sale & John Cleare; colour origination by Saxon Photolitho (2000). Climbing the world's 14 highest mountains: the history of the 8,000-meter peaks. Seattle (WA): The Mountaineers. ISBN   0898867274.
  2. "Climbers who have reached the summit of all 14 eight-thousanders".
  3. 1 2 Molenaar, Maurice Isserman and Stewart Weaver; with maps and peak sketches by Dee (2008). Fallen giants: a history of Himalayan mountaineering from the age of empire to the age of extremes . New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN   9780300115017.
  4. 1 2 [Skiing Everest] Directors: Les Guthman and Mike Marolt, 2009
  5. Mehlman, Ham (2009). "Mike and Steve Marolt - Getting High on Skiis". Unpublished.
  6. Dawson, Louis. "Wild Snow". Excellent discussion of "purity" in back country skiing ascent/descents.
  7. 1 2 Perlman, Yuichiro Miura, with Eric (1978). The man who skied down Everest (1st ed.). San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN   0062505750.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Salisbury, Richard (2004). The Himalayan database the expedition archives of Elizabeth Hawley. Golden, Colo.: American Alphine Club Press. ISBN   0930410998.
  9. "Manaslu, Northeast Face" (PDF). American Alpine Journal: 226. 1982.
  10. 1 2 Macaigne, Pierre (1983). Le Skier de L'Impossible - Sylvain Saudan - Victoire A ski sur l'Himalaya:8068m. Paris: Publi SA - Éditions Pierre-Marcel Favre. ISBN   2828901297.
  11. Hawley, Elizabeth (1989). American Alpine Journal: 283.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. 1 2 "Kammerlander".
  13. "Geographical facts of the Main 8000ers". "Altitude of the Nepalese mountains are taken from the Finnmaps and for the Karakoram mountains they are from the Chinese snow map. The altitude of Shisha Pangma was taken from the Austrian Alpine Club map.
  14. Tardivel, Pierre (1997). Memoires de Pleine Pente. Paris: Publialp. ISBN   2950630774.
  15. "Everest 1996".
  16. 1 2 American Alpine Journal. 1979.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. Watson, David. "K2 2009".
  18. http://www.fredrikericsson.com/
  19. 1 2 http://www.skitour-magazin.de/alle-ausgaben/ausgabe-411/
  20. American Alpine Journal: 283. 1989.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. 1 2 Campbell, Jordan (13 October 2013). "Marmot Athlete Adrian Ballinger Guides Complete Ski Descent of 8000-meter Peak: Cho Oyu". SNews. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  22. American Alpine Journal: 417. 2003.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. 1 2 Paumgarten, Nick (2010-09-08). "Twin Freaks". Outside.
  24. 1 2 Miller, Marissa. "Meet the Couple Who Met on Everest and Just Speed-Climbed the World's Sixth-Tallest Peak". Vogue. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  25. "Olek Ostrowski, "szalony chłopak z Bieszczad", o wejściu i zjeździe z Cho Oyu" (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  26. "Baranove".
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 Spring, Joe (2012-10-10). "Benedikt Böhm Climbs and Skis Manaslu in Less Than 24 Hours". Outside Online.
  28. "Ballinger".
  29. "Baranove".
  30. "Willet".
  31. "Altitude Junkies".
  32. "Jack".
  33. 1 2 "British Mountain Club".
  34. 1 2 American Alpine Journal: 226. 1982.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. 1 2 American Alpine Journal: 277. 1991.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  36. http://www.explorersweb.com/everest_k2/news.php?id=17446
  37. Golub, Janez (1996). American Alpine Journal: 290.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. https://blogs.dw.com/abenteuersport/achttausender-nummer-acht-fuer-luis-stitzinger/
  39. http://www.kammerlander.com/vita/biographie/
  40. "Andrzej Bargiel Claims Broad Peak Summit and Ski Descent".
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Croisot, Daniel (1985). "Gasherbrum II, Ski Descent" (PDF). American Alpine Journal: 311.
  42. American Alpine Journal: 273–274. 1986.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. Adventures Gasherbrum II. "Gasherbrum II".
  44. "Adventures Gasherbrum II".
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 "Gasherbrum II" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-07.
  46. 1 2 American Alpine Journal: 299. 1986.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  47. 1 2 http://www.sport.pl/sport/1,65025,14706836,Andrzej_Bargiel_zjechal_na_nartach_z_Sziszapangmy.html
  48. 1 2 "Urban".
  49. 1 2 American Alpine Journal: 287. 1989.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. 1 2 (personal communication from Mike Marolt)
  51. "Shisha Pangma".
  52. 1 2 The Line: A journey to the Far Fringe of Skiing produced by Marmot
  53. http://www.merkur.de/lokales/muenchen-lk-sued/ottobrunn/flottem-tempo-8027-meter-hoehe-2900676.html